Mahagathbandhan (Bihar)

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LeaderNitish Kumar
(Chief Minister of Bihar)
ChairpersonTejashwi Yadav
(Deputy CM of Bihar)
SecretaryMd Afaque Alam
(Minister for Animal Husbandry)
Founded2015; 8 years ago (2015)
IdeologyBig tent
Seats in Lok Sabha
17 / 40
(Total -543, Bihar-40)
Seats in Rajya Sabha
12 / 16
(Total-245, Bihar-16)
Seats in Bihar Legislative Assembly
164 / 243
Seats in Bihar Legislative Council
48 / 75
Number of states and union territories in government
1 / 31

Mahagathbandhan (MGB),[6] (Hindi: महागठबंधन) also known as Grand Alliance, is a coalition of political parties in the Eastern state of Bihar in India, formed ahead of the 2015 Vidhan Sabha elections in Bihar. The alliance consists of Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD), Janata Dal (United), Indian National Congress (INC) and Left parties including Communist Party of India (CPI), Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation-CPIML (Liberation) and Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPIM), with Nitish Kumar (Chief Minister) as the leader and Tejashwi Yadav (Deputy Chief Minister) as the chairperson.[7] It is the ruling coalition government in Bihar.[8]

In August 2022, the Mahagathbandhan, Janata Dal (United) and Hindustan Awam Morcha joined to form 2/3th Majority government in Bihar Legislative Assembly.[9][10]


On 7 June 2015, Lalu Prasad Yadav announced the RJD was joining in an alliance with the JD(U) for the election.[11][12] On 13 July 2015, he led a march demanding that the central government release its findings from the Socio Economic Caste Census 2011 (SECC) on caste.[13][14][15] Union Minister Ram Vilas Paswan supported a comprehensive classification of caste data of SECC 2011 before its release.[16][17][18] BJP Leader Sushil Kumar Modi called for a rectification of errors in the cases of 1.46 crore people in India, including 1.75 lakh in Bihar, before releasing the caste data.[19]

On 3 August, incumbent Chief Minister Nitish Kumar declared that he would not stand in the election.[20][21] On 11 August, he announced the seat-sharing formula, according to which JD(U) and RJD will contest 100 seats each, while Congress will contest 40 seats in Bihar.[22] NCP pulled out of this alliance later.[23] On 23 September, Nitish Kumar announced the list of 242 candidates for the JDU-RJD-INC alliance.[24][25][26] OBCs were most favoured in the alliance ticket distribution plan.[27][28][29] 10% of tickets were allotted to women candidate by the alliance.[30]

Nitish Kumar was the declared chief ministerial candidate for the Mahagathbandhan (Grand Alliance). Kumar started his Har Ghar Dastak (door-to-door) campaign on 2 July.[31][32][33] Initially there were definite political overtures when both Lalu Prasad Yadav and Nitish Kumar shared stage together in a public[34] event commemorating former chief minister Satyendra Narain Sinha's birth anniversary that witnessed veiled attacks on each other, the last time[35] they did it in public. Prashant Kishor was a key election strategist for the alliance.[36][37]

The Mahagathbandhan contested in Bihar legislative assembly elections of 2015 against Bharatiya Janata Party and its key allies Lok Janshakti Party and Rashtriya Lok Samata Party . The Bharatiya Janata Party and its allies lost badly making the way for JD (U)+RJD+Congress to triumph with 178 out of 243 seats. The BJP and its allies managed to get only 58 seats.[38]

Dissent and defection[edit]

After successfully winning the elections of 2015, the defection in Mahagathbandhan occurred with alleged attempt of Rashtriya Janata Dal leaders to break Janata Dal (United) elected legislators. Nitish Kumar, the then leader of JD (U) and the Chief Minister for fifth time[39] was thus forced to join the Bharatiya Janata Party and NDA once again to secure the interest of his parties.[40]

However, the entry of JD (U) made other allies of Bhartiya Janata Party embarrassed . Thus the rival party of JD (U), Rashtriya Lok Samata Party drifted away with its leader Upendra Kushwaha from the hold of NDA . The drifting away of Rashtriya Lok Samata Party created uncertainties in the camp of National Democratic Alliance over shifting of the support of Koeri caste on whom RLSP was thought to have strong hold.[41] But in 2019 General Elections the JD(U) balanced the loss incurred due to the defection of Upendra Kushwaha and Bharatiya Janata Party and Janata Dal (United) secured victory over the putatively put alliance of RJD+RLSP+INC+HAM+VIP parties. Subsequently, VIP and HAM switched to the NDA and the RLSP merged with JD(U).[42]

Return to Power[edit]

In August 2022, Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal (United), Indian National Congress, Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation, Communist Party of India (Marxist), Communist Party of India and Hindustan Awam Morcha joined again to form 2/3rd Majority government in Bihar Legislative Assembly.[9]

Current members[edit]

Party Ideology Legislator(s)
Rashtriya Janata Dal Socialism, Secularism Vidhan Sabha:
79 / 243
Vidhan Parishad:
14 / 75
Janata Dal (United) Socialism, Secularism Vidhan Sabha:
45 / 243
Vidhan Parishad:
24 / 75
Indian National Congress Social liberalism, Secularism Vidhan Sabha:
19 / 243
Vidhan Parishad:
04 / 75
Communist Party of India (Marxist) Communism, Marxism Vidhan Sabha:
2 / 243
Communist Party of India Communism, Marxism–Leninism Vidhan Sabha:
2 / 243
Vidhan Parishad:
1 / 75
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation Marxism–Leninism Vidhan Sabha:
12 / 243
Hindustani Awam Morcha Secularism Vidhan Sabha:
4 / 243

Vidhan Parishad:

1 / 75
Independents Vidhan Sabha:
1 / 243
Vidhan Parishad:
4 / 75

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Lok Sabha Elections 2014: Know your party symbols!". Daily News and Analysis. 10 April 2014.
  2. ^ Soper, J. Christopher; Fetzer, Joel S. (2018). Religion and Nationalism in Global Perspective. Cambridge University Press. pp. 200–210. ISBN 978-1-107-18943-0.
  3. ^ "General Programme of CPI(ML)". Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) website. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 2020-03-23.
  4. ^ "Brief History of CPI - CPI". Archived from the original on 9 December 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  5. ^ Chakrabarty, Bidyut (2014). Communism in India: Events, Processes and Ideologies. Oxford University Press. p. 314. ISBN 978-0-199-97489-4.
  6. ^ "Post Bihar....the MGB fever". Rajya Sabha TV. 2015-11-20. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
  7. ^ "Reasons behind JDU-RJD-Congress Mahagathbandhan's massive win in Bihar elections". News18. 2015-11-08. Retrieved 2016-09-30.
  8. ^ "Nitish Kumar takes oath as Bihar Chief Minister with Tejashwi Yadav as deputy".
  9. ^ a b "Nitish leaves ally BJP in the cold, claims support of 164 MLAs of seven Mahagathbandhan parties to form government".
  10. ^ Tewary, Amarnath (2022-08-24). "Nitish Kumar-led 'Mahagathbandhan' Government wins trust vote in Bihar". The Hindu. Retrieved 2022-08-24.
  11. ^ "Lalu, Nitish seal the deal: RJD, JD(U) form alliance for Bihar polls, seat sharing talks on cards". Firstpost.
  12. ^ "Nitish Kumar and Lalu Prasad Yadav alliance may be a 90-seat worry for BJP".
  13. ^ "Lalu leads march for caste census data".
  14. ^ "Lalu's Ultimatum to Modi Government on Caste Census Data".
  15. ^ "Caste census data demand is 'jehad': Lalu".
  16. ^ "'Ram Vilas Dalit face wherever you go, Jitan Ram Manjhi can be Mahadalit face'".
  17. ^ "Lalu Prasad, Nitish Kumar to be hit hardest if caste data released: Paswan".
  18. ^ "Lalu Prasad Yadav , Nitish Kumar to be hit hardest if caste data released: Ram Vilas Paswan".
  19. ^ "Caste census data to be release after error correction: Sushil Modi".
  20. ^ "Won't contest Bihar polls, will devote time for campaigning, says Nitish Kumar".
  21. ^ "Won't contest Bihar elections: Nitish Kumar".
  22. ^ "Nitish Kumar Announces Seat-Sharing Formula For Bihar Elections: JD(U)-RJD To Contest On 100 Seats Each, Congress 40".
  23. ^ "Bihar elections: NCP pulls out of anti-BJP alliance, may contest alone".
  24. ^ "Bihar polls: Nitish Kumar releases 'joint list' of 242 candidates, OBCs get lion's share".
  25. ^ "Nitish Kumar yields, Lalu Prasad gets both his sons an Assembly ticket each".
  26. ^ "Nitish-led alliance releases list of 242 candidates for Bihar polls".
  27. ^ "OBCs most favoured in alliance plan".
  28. ^ "In Bihar elections, it is my social combination versus yours".
  29. ^ "Bihar elections: OBCs and Dalits 70% in Nitish list, upper castes 42% in BJP". The Indian Express. 24 September 2015.
  30. ^ "Little room for women in Nitish's 'Grand' design". The Times of India.
  31. ^ "Har Ghar Dastak: Nitish's Bihar strategy is old fashioned door-to-door campaigning".
  32. ^ "Nitish sounds poll bugle with 'Har Ghar Dastak'".
  33. ^ Sajjad, Mohammad (8 November 2015). "How Nitish Kumar and Lalu Yadav won Bihar". Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  34. ^ "They may have 'amicably' come to a seat-sharing agreement, but 15 months of tumultuous relationship later, Nitish Kumar and Lalu Yadav still remain frenemies". Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  35. ^ "Giant slayer". Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  36. ^ "Team 178: Faces behind Grand Alliance's victory in Bihar polls".
  37. ^ "Amit Shah vs Prashant Kishor: Who will be the wizard of Bihar election?".
  38. ^ "Bihar verdict: How RJD, Congress, JDU turned vote share to seats". Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  39. ^ ANI (20 November 2015). "Nitish Kumar sworn in as Bihar Chief Minister for fifth time". Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  40. ^ "LIVE: Nitish Kumar Forms Government In Bihar With BJP; Rahul Gandhi, Tejashwi Yadav Lash Out". NDTV. Retrieved 2020-10-05.
  41. ^ "Upendra Kushwaha's exit could undo BJP's carefully planned Bihar caste coalition". Retrieved 2020-10-05.
  42. ^ "Bihar Election Results: BJP-JD(U) alliance sweeps Bihar, gets 39 of the 40 seats". economic times. Retrieved 2020-10-05.

External links[edit]