# List of letters used in mathematics and science

This list is about the meanings of the letters used in mathematics, science and engineering. SI units are indicated in parentheses. For the Unicode block
see Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols.

Latin and Greek letters are used in mathematics, science, engineering, and other areas where mathematical notation is used as symbols for constants, special functions, and also conventionally for variables representing certain quantities.

Some common conventions:

## Greek

Uppercase Lowercase α Alpha particleFine-structure constantAngular acceleration Beta function Beta particleInverse temperature Angular momentumGamma functionChristoffel symbols Euler–Mascheroni constantGamma-ray (Photon)PhotonRelativistic gamma factor A macroscopic change in the value of a variableLaplace operatorDelta particleDifference Dirac delta functionInfinitesimal quantityKronecker delta Infinitesimal quantityPermittivity Digamma function Damping ratioRiemann zeta function H-theorem Distance metric of flat spacetimeEfficiencyDynamic viscosityη-meson Heaviside step function AngleAngular polar coordinateTemperatureTheta role Kappa number Gravitational constant Iwasawa algebraLorentz transformationLambda hyperon Lagrangian multiplicatorLambda expressionThermal conductivityWavelength Absorption coefficientAmplification factorChemical potentialMagnetic dipole momentMeanSI prefix micro-MicronMuonPermeabilityReduced massCoefficient of friction FrequencyKinematic viscosityNeutrino Cascade hyperon Riemann Xi function Product Fundamental groupConjugate momentumHomotopy groupsNumber πPionPrime-counting functionProjection DensityElectrical resistivityRadial polar coordinateρ-meson SumSurfaceSigma hyperon Cross sectionDivisor functionElectrical conductivitySpectrum (matrix)SpinStandard deviationStefan–Boltzmann constant Tau leptonTorqueShear stressTime constantThe number τ Upsilon meson Alternative symbol for Quantum mechanical wavefunctionFlux Angular polar coordinateElectric potentialEuler's totient functionGolden meanPhasePotential energy Electric susceptibility Quantum mechanical wavefunction Quantum mechanical wavefunctionJ/ψ particle Chaitin's constantOhmSolid angleOmega hyperon Frequency (rad/s)angular velocity (rad/sec)

## Other scripts

### Hebrew

א Cardinality of infinite sets Cardinality of infinite sets Gimel function Tav (number)

### Cyrillic

Л Lobachevsky function Tate–Shafarevich group Shuffle product

### Japanese

よ Yoneda embedding Satake compactification[1][2]

### Modified Latin

Å Angstrom Universal quantification Dispersity Partial derivative Existential quantification Reduced Planck constant Empty set Integral