List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Paleobiology Database lists no known fossiliferous stratigraphic units in Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. The database also records no fossiliferous stratigraphic units within several regions of the Caribbean like the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Nueva Esparta.

Antigua and Barbuda[edit]

List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean is located in Antigua and Barbuda
List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean
List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean
List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean
Fossiliferous stratigraphic units in Antigua and Barbuda
Yellow ffff80 pog.svg Highlands Formation
Yellow pog.svg Antigua Formation
Orange pog.svg Central Plain Group
Group Formation Period Notes
Highlands Formation Pliocene [1]
Antigua Formation Late Oligocene [2]
Central Plain Group Oligocene [3]

The Bahamas[edit]

List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean is located in Bahamas
List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean
List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean
Fossiliferous stratigraphic units in The Bahamas
White pog.svg Grotto Beach Formation
Yellow ffff80 pog.svg Lucayan Formation
Group Formation Period Notes
Grotto Beach Formation Mid-Late Pleistocene [4]
Lucayan Formation Early Pleistocene [5]


List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean is located in Barbados
List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean
List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean
Fossiliferous stratigraphic units in Barbados
White pog.svg Coral Rock Formation
Orange pog.svg Scotland Beds
Group Formation Period Notes
Coral Rock Formation Mid-Late Pleistocene [6]
Scotland Beds Early Eocene [7]


Group Formation Period Notes
La Cruz Formation Late Pliocene [8]
Matanzas Formation Late Pliocene [9]
Canímar Formation Late Miocene-Pliocene [10]
Güines Formation Early-Mid Miocene [11]
Cojímar Formation Burdigalian-Langhian [12]
Bitiri Formation Early Miocene [13]
Lagunitas Formation Burdigalian [14]
Paso Real Formation Early Miocene [15]
Yumurí Formation Early Miocene [16]
Imías Formation Miocene [17]
Consuelo Formation Priabonian [18]
Jabaco Formation Priabonian [19]
Saramaguacán Formation Middle Eocene [20]
Loma Candela Formation Lutetian-Bartonian [21]
Taguasco Formation Eocene [22]
Habana Formation Early Maastrichtian [23]
Late Campanian
Arimao Formation Santonian [24]
Jarao Formation Santonian [25]
Piragua Formation Santonian [26]
Provincial Formation Cenomanian [27]
Guasasa Formation Early Valanginian [28]
Late Tithonian
Artemisa Formation Late Oxfordian-Tithonian [29]
Jagua Formation Mid-Late Oxfordian [30]
San Cayetano Formation Middle Jurassic-Oxfordian [31]

Dominican Republic[edit]

Group Formation Period Notes
La Isabella Formation Pleistocene [32]
Mao Formation Pliocene [33]
Mao Adentro Formation Middle Miocene-Zanclean [34]
Yaque Group Late Miocene-Early Pliocene [35]
Río Gurabo Formation Messinian-Zanclean [36][37]
Cercado Formation Early Miocene-Early Pliocene [38]
Cerros de Sal Formation Late Miocene [39]
Baitoa Formation Burdigalian-Langhian [40]
El Mamey Formation Burdigalian-Langhian [41]
La Toca Formation Burdigalian-Langhian [42]
Nivaje Shale Miocene [43]
Yanigua Formation Miocene [44]
Tabera Group Tabera Formation Late Oligocene [45]
Cervicos Limestone Late Oligocene [46][47]
Río Hatillo Formation Early Albian [48]


List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean is located in Grenada
List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean
List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean
Fossiliferous stratigraphic units in Grenada
Yellow ffff00 pog.svg Belmont, Grand Bay and Kendance Formations
Yellow pog.svg Carriacou Formation
Group Formation Period Notes
Grand Bay Formation Middle Miocene [49]
Kendance Formation Early-Mid Miocene [50]
Carriacou Formation Early Miocene [51]
Belmont Formation Early Miocene [52]


Group Formation Period Notes
Rivière Gauche Formation Pliocene [53]
Artibonite Group Las Cahobas Formation Mid-Late Miocene [54]
Thomonde Formation Early-Mid Miocene [55]
Maissade Formation Early Oligocene [56]
Plaisance Formation Middle Eocene [57]


Group Formation Period Notes
Coastal Group Port Morant Formation Late Pleistocene [58]
Falmouth Formation Late Pleistocene [59]
Manchioneal Formation Gelasian-Calabrian [60]
Bowden Formation Pliocene [61]
Hope Gate Formation Pliocene-Pleistocene [62]
Old Pera Formation Pliocene-Pleistocene [63]
August Town Formation Late Miocene-Late Pliocene [64]
White Limestone Group Sign Formation Early Miocene [65]
Moneague Formation Early Oligocene-Early Miocene [66]
Troy Limestone Late Eocene [67]
Swanswick Formation Bartonian-Late Eocene [68]
Gibraltar Limestone Bartonian [69]
Yellow Limestone Group Somerset Formation Late Eocene [70][71]
Cambridge Formation Lutetian [72]
Chapelton Formation Ypresian-Lutetian [73]
Los Hidalgos Formation Late Eocene [74]
Richmond Formation Early-Mid Eocene [75]
Maldon Limestone Late Maastrichtian [76]
Cross Pass Formation Maastrichtian [77]
Jerusalem Mountain Formation Maastrichtian [78]
Providence Shales Maastrichtian [79]
Titanosarcolites Limestone Maastrichtian [80]
Veniella Shale Maastrichtian [81]
Woodland Shale Early Maastrichtian [82]
Slippery Rock Formation Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian [83]
Stapleton Limestone Late Campanian-Maastrichtian [84][85]
Catadupa Beds Campanian-Maastrichtian [86]
Rio Grande Formation Campanian-Maastrichtian [87]
Guinea Corn Formation Late Campanian-Late Maastrichtian [88]
Barrettia Limestone Late Campanian [89]
Blue Mountain Series Group Campanian [90]
Harvey River Formation Late Santonian [91]
Inoceramus Shales Late Santonian [92]
Mount Peace Formation Late Santonian [93]
Peters Hill Limestone Santonian [94]
Devils Racecourse Formation Hauterivian [95]

Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

Group Formation Period Notes
Oropouche Formation Early-Late Pleistocene [96]
Matura Formation Pliocene [97]
Talparo Formation Early Pliocene [98]
Morne l'Enfer Formation Miocene-Early Pliocene [99]
Springvale Formation Late Miocene [100]
Manzanilla Formation Middle Miocene [101]
Moruga Formation Middle Miocene [102]
Tamana Formation Burdigalian-Serravallian [103]
Brasso Formation Early Eocene-Serravallian [104]
Cipero Marl Early Oligocene-Burdigalian [105]
Morne Diablo Limestone Oligocene [106]
Boca de Serpiente Formation Priabonian [107]
Soldado Formation Thanetian-Bartonian [108]
Lizard Springs Formation Paleocene-Early Eocene [109]
Nariva Formation Paleocene [110]
San Fernando Formation Oligocene [111]
Early Turonian
Tobago Volcanic Bacolet Formation Albian [112]
Older Parian Aptian [113]

Dependencies of France[edit]

The Paleobiology Database lists no known fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the French dependencies of St. Barthélemy or St. Martin.

Dependencies of the Netherlands[edit]

The Paleobiology Database lists no known fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Dutch dependencies of Aruba, Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius and Sint Maarten.


List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean is located in Curaçao
List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean
List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean
Fossiliferous stratigraphic units in Curaçao
White pog.svg Hato Formation
Orange pog.svg Ceru di Cueba and Ceru Mainsjie Formations
Group Formation Period Notes
Hato Formation Late Pleistocene [114]
Ceru di Cueba Formation Bartonian [115]
Ceru Mainsjie Formation Bartonian [116]

Dependencies of the United Kingdom[edit]

The Paleobiology Database lists no known fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the British dependencies of the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Montserrat, or the Turks and Caicos Islands.


List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean is located in Anguilla
List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the Caribbean
Fossiliferous stratigraphic units in Anguilla
Yellow pog.svg Anguilla Formation
Group Formation Period Notes
Anguilla Formation Burdigalian-Serravallian [117]


Group Formation Period Notes
Devonshire Formation Late Pleistocene [118]
Rocky Bay Formation Late Pleistocene [119]
Belmont Formation Middle Pleistocene [120]
Spencer's Point Formation Middle Pleistocene [121]

Dependencies of the United States[edit]

The Paleobiology Database lists no known fossiliferous stratigraphic units in the American dependencies of Navassa Island or the United States Virgin Islands.

Puerto Rico[edit]

Group Formation Period Notes
Ponce Limestone Early Miocene-Early Pliocene [122]
Aymamón Limestone Mid-Late Miocene [123]
Aguada Limestone Early-Late Miocene [124]
Quebradillas Limestone Middle Miocene [125]
Cibao Formation Aquitanian-Burdigalian [126]
Lares Limestone Late Oligocene-Early Miocene [127]
Guayanilla Formation Late Oligocene [128]
Guatemala Group Cibao Marl Late Oligocene [129]
Oligocene [130]
Río Guatemala Group San Sebastián Limestone Early-Late Oligocene [131]
Collazo Shale Early Oligocene [132]
Pepino Formation Chattian [133]
Coamo Formation Danian [134]
Melones Formation Early Maastrichtian [135]
El Rayo Formation Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian [136]
Pozas Formation Early Campanian-Early Maastrichtian [137]
Cotui Limestone Late Campanian [138][139]
Sabana Grande Formation Late Campanian [140]
Maravillas Formation Campanian [141]
Barranquitas-Cayey Formation Coniacian [142]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Highlands Formation at
  2. ^ Antigua Formation at
  3. ^ Central Plain Group at
  4. ^ Grotto Beach Formation at
  5. ^ Lucayan Formation at
  6. ^ Coral Rock Formation at
  7. ^ Scotland Beds at
  8. ^ La Cruz Formation at
  9. ^ Matanzas Formation at
  10. ^ Canímar Formation at
  11. ^ Güines Formation at
  12. ^ Cojímar Formation at
  13. ^ Bitiri Formation at
  14. ^ Lagunitas Formation at
  15. ^ Paso Real Formation at
  16. ^ Yumurí Formation at
  17. ^ Imías Formation at
  18. ^ Consuelo Formation at
  19. ^ Jabaco Formation at
  20. ^ Saramaguacán Formation at
  21. ^ Loma Candela Formation at
  22. ^ Taguasco Formation at
  23. ^ Habana Formation at
  24. ^ Arimao Formation at
  25. ^ Jarao Formation at
  26. ^ Piragua Formation at
  27. ^ Provincial Formation at
  28. ^ Guasasa Formation at
  29. ^ Artemisa Formation at
  30. ^ Jagua Formation at
  31. ^ San Cayetano Formation at
  32. ^ La Isabella Formation at
  33. ^ Mao Formation at
  34. ^ Mao Adentro Formation at
  35. ^ Yaque Group at
  36. ^ Río Gurabo Formation at
  37. ^ Gurabo Formation at
  38. ^ Cercado Formation at
  39. ^ Cerros de Sal Formation at
  40. ^ Baitoa Formation at
  41. ^ El Mamey Formation at
  42. ^ La Toca Formation at
  43. ^ Nivaje Shale at
  44. ^ Yanigua Formation at
  45. ^ Tabera Formation at
  46. ^ Cervicos Limestone at
  47. ^ Cervicos Formation at
  48. ^ Rio Hatillo Formation at
  49. ^ Grand Bay Formation at
  50. ^ Kendance Formation at
  51. ^ Carriacou Formation at
  52. ^ Belmont Formation at
  53. ^ Rivière Gauche Formation at
  54. ^ Las Cahobas Formation at
  55. ^ Thomonde Formation at
  56. ^ Maissade Formation at
  57. ^ Plaisance Formation at
  58. ^ Port Morant Formation at
  59. ^ Falmouth Formation at
  60. ^ Manchioneal Formation at
  61. ^ Bowden Formation at
  62. ^ Hope Gate Formation at
  63. ^ Old Pera Formation at
  64. ^ August Town Formation at
  65. ^ Sign Formation at
  66. ^ Moneague Formation at
  67. ^ Troy Limestone at
  68. ^ Swanswick Formation at
  69. ^ Gibraltar Limestone at
  70. ^ Somerset Formation at
  71. ^ Somerset Formation at
  72. ^ Cambridge Formation at
  73. ^ Chapelton Formation at
  74. ^ Los Hidalgos Formation at
  75. ^ Richmond Formation at
  76. ^ Maldon Limestone at
  77. ^ Cross Pass Formation at
  78. ^ Jerusalem Mountain Formation at
  79. ^ Providence Shales at
  80. ^ Titanosarcolites Limestone at
  81. ^ Veniella Shale at
  82. ^ Woodland Shale at
  83. ^ Slippery Rock Formation at
  84. ^ Stapleton Limestone at
  85. ^ Stapleton Formation at
  86. ^ Catadupa Beds at
  87. ^ Rio Grande Formation at
  88. ^ Guinea Corn Formation at
  89. ^ Barrettia Limestone at
  90. ^ Blue Mountain Series Group at
  91. ^ Harvey River Formation at
  92. ^ Inoceramus Shales at
  93. ^ Mount Peace Formation at
  94. ^ Peters Hill Limestone at
  95. ^ Devils Racecourse Formation at
  96. ^ Oropouche Formation at
  97. ^ Matura Formation at
  98. ^ Talparo Formation at
  99. ^ Morne l'Enfer Formation at
  100. ^ Springvale Formation at
  101. ^ Manzanilla Formation at
  102. ^ Moruga Formation at
  103. ^ Tamana Formation at
  104. ^ Brasso Formation at
  105. ^ Cipero Marl at
  106. ^ Morne Diablo Limestone at
  107. ^ Boca de Serpiente Formation at
  108. ^ Soldado Formation at
  109. ^ Lizard Springs Formation at
  110. ^ Nariva Formation at
  111. ^ San Fernando Formation at
  112. ^ Tobago Volcanic Group at
  113. ^ Older Parian Group at
  114. ^ Hato Formation at
  115. ^ Ceru di Cueba Formation at
  116. ^ Ceru Mainsjie Formation at
  117. ^ Anguilla Formation at
  118. ^ Devonshire Formation at
  119. ^ Rocky Bay Formation at
  120. ^ Belmont Formation at
  121. ^ Spencer's Point Formation at
  122. ^ Ponce Limestone at
  123. ^ Aymamón Limestone at
  124. ^ Aguada Limestone at
  125. ^ Quebradillas Limestone at
  126. ^ Cibao Formation at
  127. ^ Lares Limestone at
  128. ^ Guayanilla Formation at
  129. ^ Cibao Marl at
  130. ^ Guatemala Group at
  131. ^ San Sebastián Limestone at
  132. ^ Collazo Shale at
  133. ^ Pepino Formation at
  134. ^ Coamo Formation at
  135. ^ Melones Formation at
  136. ^ El Rayo Formation at
  137. ^ Pozas Formation at
  138. ^ Cotui Limestone at
  139. ^ Cotui Formation at
  140. ^ Sabana Grande Formation at
  141. ^ Maravillas Formation at
  142. ^ Barranquitas-Cayey Formation at

Further reading[edit]

  • A. F. Budd, K.G. Johnson, and J.C. Edwards. 1995. Caribbean reef coral diversity during the Early to Middle Miocene: an Example from the Anguilla Formation. Coral Reefs 14(2):109-117
Antigua and Barbuda
  • W. A. van den Bold. 1966. Ostracoda from the Antigua Formation (Oligocene, Lesser Antilles). Journal of Paleontology 40(5):1233-1236
  • M. Brasier and J. Donahue. 1985. Barbuda - an emerging reef and lagoon complex on the edge of the Lesser Antilles island arc. Journal of the Geological Society of London 142:1101-1117
  • A. P. Brown. 1913. Notes on the Geology of the Island of Antigua. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 584-616
  • J. S. H. Collins and S. K. Donovan. 1995. A New Species of Necronectes (Decapoda) from the Upper Oligocene of Anitgua [sic]. Caribbean of Journal of Earth Science 31(1-2):122-127
  • C. Flemming and D. A. McFarlane. 1998. New Caribbean Locality for the Extinct Great White Shark Carcharodon megalodon. Caribbean Journal of Science 34(3-4):317-318
  • S. H. Frost and M. P. Weiss. 1979. Patch-reef communities and succession in the Oligocene of Antigua, West Indies. Geological Society America Bulletin 90:612-616
The Bahamas
  • A. F. Budd and C. Manfrino. 2001. Coral assemblages and reef environments in the Bahamas Drilling Project cores. in R. N. Ginsburg, ed., Subsurface geology of a prograding carbonate platform margin, Great Bahama Bank: results of the Bahamas Drilling Project. SEPM Special Publication 70 41-59
  • L. Gardiner. 2001. Stability of Late Pleistocene Reef Mollusks from San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Palaios 16:372-386
  • B. J. Greenstein, L. A. Harris, and H. A. Curran. 1998. Comparison of recent coral life and death assemblages to Pleistocene reef communities: implications for rapid faunal replacement on recent reefs. Carbonates and Evaporites 13(1):23-31
  • J. S. H. Collins and S. F. Morris. 1976. Tertiary and Pleistocene crabs from Barbados and Trinidad. Palaeontology 19(1):107-131
  • D. A. T. Harper and S. K. Donovan. 2007. Fossil brachiopods from the Pleistocene of the Antilles. Scripta Geologica 135:213-239
  • Turvey, Samuel T.; Selina Brace, and Marcelo Weksler. 2012. A new species of recently extinct rice rat (Megalomys) from Barbados. Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 77(6). 404–413. Accessed 2019-02-15.
  • J. W. Wells. 1934. Some fossil corals from the West Indies. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 83(2975):71-110
  • D. R. Muhs, K. R. Simmons, and B. Steinke. 2002. Timing and warmth of the Last Interglacial period: new U-series evidence from Hawaii and Bermuda and a new fossil compilation for North America. Quaternary Science Reviews 21:1355-1383
  • H. G. Richards, R. T. Abbott, and T. Skymer. 1969. The marine Pleistocene mollusks of Bermuda. Notulae Naturae 425:1-10
  • E. H. Colbert. 1969. A Jurassic pterosaur from Cuba. American Museum Novitates 2370:1-26
  • G. A. Cooper. 1979. Tertiary and Cretaceous Brachiopods from Cuba and the Caribbean. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 37:1-45
  • B. M. Cutress. 1980. Cretaceous and Tertiary Cidaroida (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) of the Caribbean Area. Bulletins of American Paleontology 77(309):1-221
  • M. Fernandez and M. Iturralde-Vinent. 2000. An Oxfordian Ichthyosauria (Reptilia) from Vinales, western Cuba: paleobiogeographic significance. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):191-193
  • Z. Gasparini. 2009. A new Oxfordian pliosaurid (Plesiosauria, Pliosauridae) in the Caribbean Seaway. Palaeontology 52(3):661-669
  • Z. Gasparini, M. Fernandez, and M. Fuente. 2004. A new pterosaur from the Jurassic of Cuba. Palaeontology 47:919-927
  • Z. Gasparini and M. Iturralde Vinent. 2001. Metriorhynchid crocodiles (Crocodyliformes) from the Oxfordian of Western Cuba. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Monatshefte 9:534-542
  • A. Graham, D. Cozadd, A. Areces Mallea and N. O. Frederiksen. 2000. Studies in neotropical paleobotany. XIV. A palynoflora from the Middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation of Cuba. American Journal of Botany 87(10):1526-1539
  • R. Gutierrez Domech. 1981. Hallazgo de restos de reptil en rocas Jurasicas en Punta de la Sierra, Provincia de Pinar del Rio. Voluntad Hidraulica 18(56):4-11
  • M. Iturralde Vinent, G. Hubbell, and R. Rojas. 1996. Catalogue of Cuban fossil Elasmobranchii (Paleocene to Pliocene) and paleogeographic implications of their Lower to Middle Miocene occurrence. Boletín de la Sociedad Jamaicana de Geología 31:7-21
  • M. Iturralde Vinent and M. A. Norell. 1996. Synopsis of Late Jurassic marine reptiles from Cuba. American Museum Novitates 3164:1-17
  • R. D. E. MacPhee, M. A. Iturralde Vinent, and E. S. Gaffney. 2003. Domo de Zaza, an Early Miocene vertebrate locality in south-central Cuba, with notes on the tectonic evolution of Puerto Rico and the Mona Passage. American Museum Novitates 3394:1-42
  • A. K. Miller and W. M. Furnish. 1956. An Aturia from eastern Cuba. Journal of Paleontology 30(5):1154
  • A. K. Miller and H. R. Downs. 1950. Tertiary nautiloids of the Americas: supplement. Journal of Paleontology 24:1-18
  • R. Myczynski. 1989. Ammonite biostratigraphy of the Tithonian of Western Cuba. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 59:43-125
  • H. Pugaczewska. 1978. Jurassic pelecypods from Cuba. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 23(2):163-186
  • R. Rojas, M. Iturralde Vinent, and P. W. Skelton. 1995. Stratigraphy, composition and age of Cuban rudist-bearing deposits. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas 12(2):272-291
  • W. E. Schevill. 1950. An Upper Jurassic sepioid from Cuba. Journal of Paleontology 24(1):99-101
  • C. E. Schweitzer, M. Iturralde-Vinent, J. L. Hetler and J. Velez-Juarbe. 2006. Oligocene and Miocene decapods (Thalassinidea and Brachyura) from the Caribbean. Annals of Carnegie Museum 75(2):111-136
  • N. F. Sohl and H. A. Kollmann. 1985. Cretaceous Actaeonellid Gastropods from the Western Hemisphere. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1304:1-104
  • D. Thies. 1989. Lepidotes gloriae, sp. nov. (Actinopterygii: Semionotiformes) from the Late Jurassic of Cuba. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 9(1):18-40
  • A. Torre. 1960. Notas sobre rudistas [Notes about rudists]. Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de Historia Natural 25(1):51-64
  • A. de la Torre. 1949. Hallazgo de un hueso de dinosaurio terrestre en el Jurásico de Viñales, Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Universidad de La Habana 1-19
  • L. S. Varona. 1972. Un Dugongido del Mioceno de Cuba (Mammalia: Sirenia). Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle: Caracas, Venezuela Memoria 91(32):5-19
  • T. W. Vaughan. 1919. Fossil corals from central America, Cuba, and Porto Rico, with an account of the American Tertiary, Pleistocene, and Recent coral reefs. Smithsonian Institution Bulletin 103:189-524
  • H. E. Vokes and E. H. Vokes. 1968. Variation in the genus Orthaulax (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Tulane Studies in Geology and Paleontology 6(2):71-84
  • P. Jung. 1974. Eocene Mollusks from Curacao, West Indies. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 84(1):483-500
  • J. M. Pandolfi. 2001. Community structure of Pleistocene coral reefs of Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. Ecological Monographs 71(1):49-67
  • J. M. Pandolfi, G. Llewellyn, and J. B. C. Jackson. 1999. Pleistocene reef environments, constituent grains, and coral community structure: Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. Coral Reefs 18:107-122
  • Zijlstra, Jelle S. 2012. A new oryzomyine (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) from the Quaternary of Curaçao (West Indies). Zootaxa 3534. 61–68. Accessed 2019-02-15.
Dominican Republic
  • A. G. Beu. 2010. Neogene Tonnoidean Gastropods of Tropical and South America; contributions to the Dominican Republic and Panama Paleontology Projects and Uplift of the Central American Isthmus. Bulletins of American Paleontology (377-378)1-550
  • A. F. Budd and K. G. Johnson. 1999. Neogene Paleontology in the northern Dominican Republic 19: The family Faviidae (Anthozoa, Scleractinia) part II: The genera Caulastraea, Favia, Diploria, Thysanus, Hadrophyllia, Manicina and Colpophyllia. Bulletins of American Paleontology 356:1-83
  • S. D. Cairns and J. W. Wells. 1987. Neogene paleontology in the northern Dominican Republic, 5. The suborders Caryophylliina and Dendrophylliina (Anthozoa, Scleractinia). Bulletins of American Paleontology 93(328):23-43
  • R. Myczynski and M. Iturralde Vinent. 2005. The Late Lower Albian Invertebrate Fauna of the Río Hatillo Formation of Pueblo Viejo, Dominican Republic. Caribbean Journal of Science 41(4):782-796
  • T. W. Vaughan, W. Cooke, D. D. Condit, C. P. Ross, W. P. Woodring and F. C. Calkins. 1921. A geological reconnaissance of the Dominican Republic. Geological Survey of the Dominican Republic Memoir 1:1-268
  • H. E. Vokes and E. H. Vokes. 1968. Variation in the genus Orthaulax (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Tulane Studies in Geology and Paleontology 6(2):71-84
  • P. Jung. 1971. Fossil mollusks from Carriacou, West Indies. Bulletins of American Paleontology 61(269):1-262
  • R. W. Portell, G. Hubbell, S. Donovan, D.A.T. Harper, and R. Pickerill. 2008. Miocene sharks in the Kendeace and Grand Bay formations of Carriacou, The Grenadines, Lesser Antilles. Caribbean Journal of Science 44(3):279-286
  • J. Butterlin. 1960. Géologie générale et régionale de la République D'Haiti. Travaux et Mémoires de L'Institute des Hautes Estudes de L'Amérique Latine 6
  • W. Jones. 1918. A Geological Reconnaissance in Haiti a Contribution to Antillean Geology. Journal of Geology 26(8):728-752
  • M. J. Rathbun. 1923. Fossil Crabs from the Republic of Haiti. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 63:1-6
  • H. E. Vokes and E. H. Vokes. 1968. Variation in the genus Orthaulax (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Tulane Studies in Geology and Paleontology 6(2):71-84