List of energy storage power plants

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store captured solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity when the sun isn't shining.[1]

This is a list of energy storage power plants worldwide, other than pumped hydro storage. Many individual energy storage plants augment electrical grids by capturing excess electrical energy during periods of low demand and storing it in other forms until needed on an electrical grid. The energy is later converted back to its electrical form and returned to the grid as needed. Most of the world's grid energy storage by capacity is in the form of pumped-storage hydroelectricity, which is covered in List of pumped-storage hydroelectric power stations. This article list plants using all other forms of energy storage.

Another energy storage method is the consumption of surplus or low-cost energy (typically during night time) for conversion into resources such as hot water, cool water or ice, which is then used for heating or cooling at other times when electricity is in higher demand and at greater cost per kilowatt hour (kWh). Such thermal energy storage is often employed at end-user sites such as large buildings, and also as part of district heating, thus shifting energy consumption to other times for better balancing of supply and demand.

For a list of systems and forms of energy storage see energy storage and grid energy storage.

Largest energy storage plants[edit]

Table is by default sorted by operational storage capacity in MWh. Minimum capacity for inclusion is either 30 MWh or 30 MW, with a minimum of 1 hour of storage.

Energy storage power plants of at least 30 MW / 30 MWh
Name Type Capacity Country Location Year Description
MWh MW hrs
Ouarzazate Solar Power Station Thermal storage, molten salt 3,005 510 3 / 7 / 7.5 Morocco Ouarzazate 2018 World's largest concentrated solar power plant with molten salt storage built in 3 phases - 160 MW phase 1 with 3 hours heat storage, 200 MW phase 2 with 7 hours heat storage and 150 MW phase 3 with 7.5 hours heat storage.[2][3][4]
McIntosh CAES Plant [de] Compressed air storage, in-ground natural gas combustion 2,860 110 26 United States Alabama, McIntosh 1991 2nd commercial CAES plant. Stores compressed air in a salt cavern of 220 feet (67 m) diameter, with ten million cubic foot total volume. The cavern is pressurized to 1,100 psi, and it is discharged down to 650 psi. During discharge, 340 pounds per second of air flow out of the cavern. The plant also utilizes nuclear-sourced night-time power for compression and then produces peak power during the day by releasing the compressed air into a 110-MW gas-fired combustion turbine. The turbine unit also makes use of an air-to-air heat exchanger to preheat air from the cavern with waste heat from the turbine. The waste heat recovery system reduces fuel usage by roughly 25%. The system is fully operational within 15 minutes, uses a third of the fuel required for a fuel-only generating system, and can operate efficiently at low loads. The project is used for peak shaving.[5][6][7][8]
Cerro Dominador Solar Thermal Plant Thermal storage, molten salt 1,925 110 17.5 Chile Antofagasta 2021 A concentrated solar power plant with 17.5 hours molten salt storage[9]
Solana Generating Station Thermal storage, molten salt 1,680 280 6 United States Arizona, Gila Bend 2013 Completed in 2013, the parabolic trough solar plant, with 6 hours storage by molten salt, is located near Gila Bend, Arizona. At the time it was the world's largest parabolic trough plant, and the first United States solar plant with thermal storage.[10][11][12][13]
Moss Landing Vistra Battery Battery, lithium-ion 1,600 400 4 United States Moss Landing, California 2020 300 MW / 1,200 MWh Phase 1 commissioned in 2020, 100 MW / 400 MWh Phase 2 in 2021[14]
Silver City ESP Compressed air storage 1,600 Australia Broken Hill 2030 [15]
Extresol Solar Power Station Thermal storage, molten salt 1,125 150 7.5 Spain Torre de Miguel Sesmero, Badajoz 2009 A concentrated solar power plant with 7.5 hours molten salt storage[16]
Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project Thermal storage, molten salt 1,100 110 10 United States Tonopah, Nevada 2016 A concentrated solar power plant with 10 hours molten salt storage[17]
Andasol Solar Power Station Thermal storage, molten salt 1,031 134.7 7.5 Spain Granada, Guadix 2009 A thermal storage system absorbs part of the daytime heat absorbed by the solar field, heating a molten salt mixture of 60% sodium nitrate and 40% potassium nitrate. The heat is used to drive a turbine-generator when direct sunlight is not available, nearly doubling the available hours of operation. A full thermal reservoir holds 1,010 MWh of heat capability, enough to run the turbine for over seven hours at full load.[1][18][19]
McCoy Solar Energy Project Battery, lithium-ion 920 230 4 United States Blythe, California 2021 Battery storage paired with 250 MW solar project[20]
Manatee Energy Storage Center Battery 900 409 2.2 United States Juno Beach, Florida 2021 Paired with existing solar plant[21][22]
Huntorf CAES Plant Compressed air storage, in-ground natural gas combustion 870 290 3 Germany Huntorf, Elsfleth 1978 First commercial CAES plant, operational since 1978, using nuclear-sourced night-time power to compress and inject the air into two caverns of 310,000 m³ total volume. The 600 m cavern depth ensures the air's stability through seasonal temperature changes, and guarantees the specified maximum pressure of 100 bar. One cavern is cycled daily; the other serves as backup when the nearby nuclear power plant goes offline.[5][6]
Moss Landing PG&E Elkhorn Battery Battery, lithium-ion 730 182.5 4 United States Moss Landing, California 2022 256 Tesla Megapack battery units[23]
Slate Project Battery 561 140.25 4 United States Kings County 2022 Paired with 300 MW solar plant[24]
Valley Center Battery Storage Project Battery, lithium-ion 560 140 4 United States Valley Center, California 2022 [25]
Bokpoort CSP Thermal storage, molten salt 450 50 9 South Africa Northern Cape Province, Globershoop 2015 The Bokpoort Concentrated Solar Plant (CSP) Project, being contracted in 2014, comprises a solar field, a power block, a thermal energy storage system and related infrastructure such as grid interconnection and water abstraction and treatment systems. The solar field comprises loops of parabolic trough solar collector assemblies which will collect the heat from the sun. The solar collectors will be capable of heating the heat transfer fluid up to 393 °C. The power block comprises a solar steam generator and a steam turbine delivering 50 MW (net).[26]
Victorian Big Battery Battery, lithium-ion 450 300 1.5 Australia Moorabool 2021 [27]
Alamitos Energy Center Battery, lithium-ion 400 100 4 United States Long Beach 2021 [28][29]
Saticoy BESS Battery, lithium-ion 400 100 4 United States Saticoy 2021 [30]
Dalian VFB Battery, vanadium redox flow 400 100 4 China Liaoning, Dalian 2022 First phase,[31] second 100MW/400MWh phase under construction. The battery is made up of ten 20MW/80MWh Vanadium Flow Battery (VFB) energy storage systems deployed in Dalian city and connected to the main grid of Liaoning Province which has experienced stress during extreme weather events. This project is approved by China National Energy Administration, and the owner is a JV with the major shareholder being a local utility company, and the minor being Rongke Power.[5][32][33]
KaXu Solar One Thermal storage, molten salt 300 100 3 South Africa Northern Cape Province, Pofadder 2015 KaXu Solar One is a 100 MW parabolic trough plant. The power station will have a storage capacity of three hours and use molten salt to store heat energy. In the parabolic trough system, the sun's energy is concentrated by parabolically curved, trough-shaped reflectors onto a receiver pipe running along the focal line of the curved surface. This energy heats oil flowing through the pipe, and the heat energy is then used to convert water to steam and generate electricity in a conventional steam generator.[26]
Buzen Substation Battery, sodium-sulfur 300 50 6 Japan Buzen 2016 [34][35]
Jiangsu Jintan Salt Cavern Compressed Air Energy Storage Project Compressed air storage 300 60 5 China Changzhou 2022 Using a salt cavern situated 1,000 meters underground[36][37]
Minety Battery Energy Storage Project Battery, lithium-ion 266 150 United Kingdom Minety 2021 [38][39]
DeCordova Battery 260 260 1 United States Granbury 2022 [14][40]
Rokkasho Aomari Battery, sodium-sulfur 245 34 7 Japan Rokkasho 2008 [34][41]
Gateway Energy Storage Battery, lithium-ion 250 250 1 United States Otay Mesa, California 2020 [42][43]
Vista Energy Storage Battery, lithium-ion 40 40 1 United States Vista, California 2018 [42][43]
Huanghe Hydropower Hainan Storage Battery 202.8 202.8 1 China Hainan, Qinghai 2020 Connected with adjacent 2.2 GW photovoltaic Huanghe Hydropower Hainan Solar Park[44][45]
Crossett Power Management Battery 200 200 1 United States Crane County, Texas 2022 [46]
Flower Valley II Battery 200 100 2 United States Reeves County, Texas 2022 [46]
Gambit battery storage project Battery, lithium-ion 200 100 2 United States Angleton, Texas 2021 [47]
Kunshan Energy Storage Power Station Battery, lithium-ion 198 111 ? China Kunshan 2020 [48]
Pillswood Battery, lithium-ion 196 98 2 United Kingdom Cottingham 2022 Uses Tesla Powerpack. Adjacent to Creyke Beck substation for Dogger Bank Wind Farm.[49][50]
Hornsdale Power Reserve Battery, lithium-ion 193.5 150 Australia South Australia, Jamestown 2017 Tesla Powerpack is charged using renewable energy and delivers electricity during peak hours to help maintain the reliable operation of South Australia's electrical infrastructure. It initially provided up to 100 MW peak with a capacity of 129 MWh, and was expanded in July 2020 to 150 MW/193.5MWh.[51][52]
Korea Zinc Energy Storage System Battery, lithium-ion 150 32.5 South Korea Ulsan 2018 Ordered by Korea Zinc, a metal smelting company, at a cost of €37.87 million. It is located at its Ulsan refinery near the southeast coast.[53][54]
Seosan PV ESS Battery 140 52 South Korea Seosan December 2018 Adjacent to 65 MW Seosan PV Farm[55]
Escondido Substation Battery, lithium-ion 120 30 4 United States Escondido 2017 [34][41]
Khi Solar One Thermal Storage, Steam 100 50 2 South Africa Northern Cape Province, Upington 2016 Khi Solar One is a 50 MW concentrated solar power plant with a power tower that uses large, sun-tracking mirrors (heliostats) to focus sunlight on a receiver at the top of a tower. Water is pumped up to the tower mounted receiver and is converted to steam, which, in turn, is used in a conventional turbine generator to produce electricity. The power station will include a facility to store steam, enabling it to generate electricity for two hours when the sun is not shining.[26][56]
Bat Cave battery storage project Battery, lithium-ion 100 100 1 United States Texas 2021 [57][58]
North Fork battery storage project Battery, lithium-ion 100 100 1 United States Texas 2021 [59][58]
Pomona Substation Battery, lithium-ion 80 20 4 United States Pomona 2017 [34][60]
Limay Facility Battery, lithium-ion 90 Philippines Limay 2023 [61]
Mira Loma Substation Battery, lithium-ion 80 20 4 United States Mira Loma 2017 [34][62]
Primus Power Modesto Wind Firming Energy Farm Battery, zinc chlorine redox flow 75 25 3 United States California, Modesto The project was initiated in the Modesto Irrigation District in California's Central Valley, in place of a proposed $78M / 50 MW fossil fuel plant; it will provide flexible capacity for the region and compensate for the variable nature of wind and solar energy.[5]
Hokkaido Battery Storage Project (provisional name) Battery, vanadium redox flow 60 15 Japan Hokkaido 2015 Vanadium redox flow battery from Sumitomo near several solar energy projects on Hokkaido Island, operational in December 2015.[63][64]
Lake Bonney Battery Energy Storage System Battery 52 25 Australia Millicent, South Australia 2019 Adjacent to Lake Bonney Wind Farm to allow owner to provide firmer electricity commitments [65]
Hyundai Heavy Industries ESS Battery 50 24 South Korea Ulsan 2017 [55]
Stocking Pelham Battery, lithium-ion 50 50 1 United Kingdom Stocking Pelham 2018 [34][66]
Gannawarra Energy Storage System Battery 50 25 Australia Kerang, Victoria 2018 Colocated with Gannawarra Solar Farm[67]
Jardelund Battery, lithium-ion 50 48 1 Germany Jardelund 2018 [34][68]
Upton 2 Battery 42 10 4.2 United States 2018 [14]
Next Gen CAES using steel piping Compressed air storage, modular 40.5 9 4.5 United States New York, Queens 9 MW plant will use steel piping to hold pressurized air instead of caverns. Groundbreaking slated for 2013 to 2014 time frame.[5]
Minamisōma Substation Battery, lithium-ion 40 40 1 Japan Minamisōma 2016 [34][41]
National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project (I) Battery, lithium iron phosphate 36 6 6 China Hebei, Zhangbei Will eventually grow to include 500 MW of wind capacity, 100 MW of solar PV capacity and 110 MW of energy storage[clarification needed] with an overall investment of 12 billion RMB (US$1.89 billion). The project currently includes a total of 14 MW of lithium-ion batteries and a vanadium redox flow battery: (I) 6 MW–36 MWh Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries (BYD Auto) (II) 4 MW–16 MWh lithium-ion batteries (Amperex Technology Limited (ATL)) (III) 3 MW–9 MWh lithium-ion batteries. (IV) 1 MW, 2 MWh lithium-ion batteries (Wanxiang Group) (V) 2 MW–8 MWh Vanadium Redox Flow Battery. Original plans to include 4 MW of sodium-sulfur batteries have been delayed over safety concerns. Energy storage applications include wind solar and other renewable energy integration, frequency regulation and voltage support. The project is focused on using battery energy storage to enable interactive management of the electric power grid.[5]
Ruien Energy storage Battery, lithium-ion 32 25 1.2 Belgium Ruien Aims to deliver ancillary services to European grid operators (TSOs) as well as energy services to local businesses at the site of the former 800MW coal-fired power plant currently under post-decommissioning redevelopment.[69]
Tehachapi Energy Storage Project Battery, lithium-ion 32 8 4 United States California, Tehachapi 2014 When commissioned in 2014, it was the largest lithium-ion battery energy storage project in North America. The facility is located near one of the largest wind generation hubs in the U.S. — the Tehachapi Wind Resource Area. It is capable of supplying 32 megawatt-hours of electricity — eight megawatts of power for four continuous hours, which is enough to power 6,000 homes. With the demonstration concluded, the facility is online as a distribution-level resource supporting SCE's Monolith substation near Tehachapi, CA.[5][70][71][72]
Ballarat Energy Storage System Battery 30 30 Australia Ballarat, Victoria 2018 [73]

Under construction[edit]

Energy storage power plants of at least 30 MW / 30 MWh
Name Type Capacity Country Location Year Description
MWh MW hrs
Edwards Sanborn Solar and Energy Storage Project Battery 2,165 United States Edwards, California 2023 Paired with 1,118 MW solar plant, 1,501MWh in Phase 1[74]
Tongliao Wind Solar Storage Hybrid Project Battery, lithium-ion 960 320 3 China Tongliao 2022 Paired with 1,700 MW wind capacity and 300 MW solar capacity[75][76]
Oakland Battery 145 36.25 4 United States 2022 [14]
Holtsville Energy Storage Project Battery, Li-Ion 440 110 4 United States Holtsville, New York 2025 Holtsville Energy Storage, LLC is a proposed 110 MW / four-hour battery energy storage facility in Brookhaven, New York, with enough storage energy capacity to power 18,366 homes, bringing numerous positive impacts to the local community and economy. The proposed facility, expected to be operational by 2025, will store energy that will be dispatched during peak demand hours and during emergency outages.[77]

Site Plans were unanimously approved by Brookhaven Town Planning Board on January 23, 2023.[78]

Largest thermal energy storage plants[edit]

Thermal energy storage plants of at least 1 MW / 1 MWh
Name Type Capacity Country Location Year Description
MWh MW hrs
Mustikkamaa heat storage Thermal storage, hot water in rock caverns 11,600 120 96 Finland Helsinki 2022 Helen Oy is commissioning an 11.6 GWh capacity and 120 MW thermal output for its 260,000 m3 water cistern under Mustikkamaa (fully charged or discharged in 4 days at capacity), operating from 2022 to offset days of peak production/demand;[79][80]
Reuter West Thermal storage, hot water tank 2,600 200 13 Germany Berlin 2022 Vattenfall's Reuter West[81][82] combined heat and power (CHP) station near Berlin had a 56 megalitres (56,000 m3) "thermos" tank added, for storing up to 200MW as hot water that can then be fed to Berlin’s hot water consumers. It will be heated by otherwise unused electricity from renewable sources.[83] The existing plant has a hot water capacity of 120MWth using by-product heat from the electrical generation.[81]
Drake Landing Solar Community Thermal Storage, Solar heat radiated to soil 1.5 Canada Okotoks, Alberta Drake Landing Solar Community began operation in 2006. Solar thermal energy is collected in flat plate glazed collectors, pumped to a bore field where the heat is radiated to soil. That process is reversed to utilize the heat in 52 single family (detached) homes. In 2012, DLSC set a world record by heating the 52 homes with 97% renewable energy. The borefield that stores the heat is approximately 100 feet wide in each direction and 120 feet deep.
Nissan Technical Center North America Inc. Thermal storage, ice 22.8 1.425 16 United States Michigan, Farmington Hills The Ice Thermal Storage System provides load shifting to the building. On most days, the building can be cooled solely by the ice system, but a chiller is included, which covers peak cooling demand.[5]
JC Penney Headquarters Thermal storage, ice 53.1 4.425 12 United States Texas, Plano The system offsets the peak demands of electrical use by making ice each night to cool the building the following day.[5]
Redding Electric Utilities - Peak Capacity, Demand Response, HVAC Replacement Program Thermal storage, ice 6 1 6 United States California, Redding Ice storage system assists building cooling during daylight hours.[5]
Glendale Water and Power - Peak Capacity Project Thermal storage, ice 9 1.5 6 United States California, Glendale This project installed a total of 180 Ice Thermal Energy storage units at 28 Glendale city buildings and 58 local small, medium-sized, and large commercial businesses during a one-year installation process.[5]
State Government of North Carolina Thermal storage, chilled water 20.8 2.6 8 United States North Carolina, Raleigh 2.68 million gallon, chilled water, Thermal energy storage tank. Built partially buried and serving the district cooling system for 25 state government buildings.[5]
University of Arizona Thermal storage, ice 18 3 6 United States Arizona, Tucson The university placed three separate orders for energy storage tanks and they were added to two of their three existing central plants in 2004, 2006 and 2007. There are 205 tanks in total at the two plants.[5]
University of Central Florida Thermal storage, chilled water 24 3 8 United States Florida, Orlando Chilled water thermal energy storage system that is integrated into the existing district cooling system for the university.[5]
Redding Electric Utilities - Peak Capacity, Demand Response, HVAC Replacement Program Phase 2 Thermal storage, ice 12 6 2 United States California, Redding Ice Energy and REU will collaborate on the second phase. The program to install Ice Bear units within the northern California territory aims to reduce peak electricity load demand by up to 6 MW over five years. REU expects to have the thermal energy storage program completed in 2017. Skyway Machine, a local Redding manufacturing company, will provide final assembly of the new Ice Bear units.[5]

Largest by technology[edit]

Largest energy storage projects by technology
Technology Name Energy
Hours Description Country Location Refs
Battery, lithium-ion Moss Landing Energy Storage Facility 1600 400 4 United States Moss Landing, California [14][84]
Battery, lead acid
Battery, sodium-sulphur Sodium Sulfur Battery In Abu Dhabi 648 108 6 Virtual battery United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi [85]
Battery, vanadium redox flow Dalian VFB - UET / Rongke Power 800 200 The battery arrays approved by the China National Energy Administration will be made up of ten (10X) 20MW/80MWh Vanadium Flow Battery (VFB) energy storage systems connected to the main grid of Liaoning Province. After full commissioning, the VFB energy storage system will be able to peak-shave approximately 8% of Liaoning Province's expected peaking capacity in 2020. In addition, the large-scale battery will form an additional load center, which will enhance grid stabilization including securing the power supply and providing black-start capabilities in the event of emergency. This project will be deployed in two phases, each with 100MW/400MWh. The first phase will be finished around the end of 2017 and the second will be finished around the end of 2018. This project is approved by China National Energy Administration, and the owner is a JV with the major shareholder being a local utility company, and the minor being RONGKE POWER.[needs update] China Dalian
Compressed air storage Huntorf CAES Plant 870 290 First commercial CAES plant, operational since 1978, using nuclear-sourced night-time power to compress and inject the air into two caverns of 310,000 m³ total volume. The 600 m cavern depth ensures the air's stability through seasonal temperature changes, and guarantees the specified maximum pressure of 100 bar. One cavern is cycled daily; the other serves as backup when the nearby nuclear power plant goes offline. Germany Huntorf
Pumped Hydro Storage Fengning Pumped Storage Power Station 40,000 3,600 China Fengning Manchu Autonomous County, Hebei Province [86]
Flywheel Beacon New York Flywheel Energy Storage Plant 5 20 The flywheel plant is used for frequency regulation in the NYISO service area. It consists of 200 individual spinning masses. USA New York

See also[edit]


This article contains text from the United States Department of Energy, DOE Energy Storage Database, a work in the public domain.
  1. ^ a b Edwin Cartlidge (18 November 2011). "Saving for a rainy day". Science. 334 (6058): 922–924. Bibcode:2011Sci...334..922C. doi:10.1126/science.334.6058.922. PMID 22096185.
  2. ^ "King Mohammed VI to Inaugurate 'Noor' Solar Plant in Ouarzazate". 26 December 2015. Archived from the original on 28 December 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  3. ^ "Morocco expands solar capacity". Zawya. 23 September 2013. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
  4. ^ "Noor Ouarzazate III central receiver concentrated solar power plant with storage completes its reliability test". Archived from the original on 12 November 2018. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o DOE Energy Storage Database, Sandia National Laboratories, United States Department of Energy. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  6. ^ a b Packing Some Power: Energy Technology: Better ways of storing energy are needed if electricity systems are to become cleaner and more efficient, The Economist, 3 March 2012
  7. ^ Gies, Erica. Global Clean Energy: A Storage Solution Is in the Air, International Herald Tribune, 1 October 2012. Retrieved from website on 19 March 2013
  8. ^ Wald, Matthew L. Using Compressed Air To Store Up Electricity, The New York Times, 29 September 1991
  9. ^ "Latin America's first CSP plant now online". pv magazine International. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  10. ^ Abengoa’s Solana, the US’s first large-scale solar plant with thermal energy storage system, begins commercial operation, Abengoa, 9 October 2013
  11. ^ Randazzo, Ryan (21 February 2008). "Plant to brighten state's solar future". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved 8 June 2009.[dead link]
  12. ^ Randazzo, Ryan (3 July 2010). "Arizona solar plant gets big boost from feds". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
  13. ^ "Abengoa closes $1.45 billion federal loan guarantee for Arizona solar farm". Reuters. 21 December 2010. Archived from the original on 24 December 2010.
  14. ^ a b c d e "Vistra Brings World's Largest Utility-Scale Battery Energy Storage System Online". Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  15. ^ [Daily Telegraph Compressed air plant to help generate power]
  16. ^ "Extresol 1 & 2 & 3 Solar Thermal Power Plants – GRUPO COBRA". Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  17. ^ "Crescent Dunes Solar Thermal Power Plant – GRUPO COBRA". Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  18. ^ "Andasol 1 Goes Into Operation". 6 November 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
  19. ^ "Andasol: The World's Largest Solar Thermal Power Plant Project Development in Andalucia (Spain)" (PDF). Solar Millennium. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  20. ^ "NextEra adds another 230 MW of batteries at massive Calif. solar/storage station". Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  21. ^ "FPL announces plan to build the world's largest solar-powered battery and drive accelerated retirement of fossil fuel generation - Mar 28, 2019". Florida Power & Light Company (FPL): FPL Newsroom. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  22. ^ "World's biggest solar-charged battery storage system unveiled in Florida". Energy Storage News. 15 December 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  23. ^ "PG&E's Tesla Megapack battery in California now operational". KCRA. 19 April 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  24. ^ "Goldman Sachs brings online California solar-plus-storage project with 561MWh of batteries". Energy Storage News. 16 March 2022. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  25. ^ "Terra-Gen brings 560MWh California battery project online". Energy Storage News. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  26. ^ a b c DOE Energy Storage Database, Sandia National Laboratories, United States Department of Energy. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  27. ^ Ilanbey, Sumeyya (8 December 2021). "In a field near Geelong, switch flicked on Australia's biggest battery". The Age. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  28. ^ "AES switches on 400MWh California battery project alongside 'modernised' natural gas plant". Energy Storage News. 27 January 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  29. ^ Maschke, Alena (19 February 2021). "Launch of new AES Alamitos energy storage system marks historic milestone for renewable energy". Long Beach Business Journal. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  30. ^ Colthorpe, Andy (30 June 2021). "Large-scale battery storage plant chosen by California community as alternative to gas goes online". Energy Storage News. Archived from the original on 30 June 2021.
  31. ^ "First phase of 800MWh world biggest flow battery commissioned in China". Energy Storage News. 21 July 2022. Retrieved 30 July 2022.
  32. ^ "UniEnergy Technologies Strategic Partner to Deliver World's Largest Battery - UniEnergy Technologies".
  33. ^ "Full Page Reload". 26 October 2017.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h Dunlap, Richard A. (5 February 2020). Renewable Energy: Combined Edition. Morgan & Claypool Publishers. ISBN 978-1-68173-798-0.
  35. ^ "The World's Largest NAS Battery Installation Commences Operation Short Installation Period Achieved through Containerized, Compact Format". NGK INSULATORS, LTD. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  36. ^ 刘明. "China's first salt cavern compressed air energy storage starts operation". Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  37. ^ "China's compressed air energy storage industry makes progress". Energy Storage News. 1 June 2022. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  38. ^ "About". Penso Power. 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  39. ^ "Minety Battery Storage Project". NS Energy. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  40. ^ "Texas' largest battery project to date brought online by Vistra". Energy Storage News. 24 May 2022. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  41. ^ a b c "10.3 Implementation of Utility Scale Storage - Battery Arrays | EME 812: Utility Solar Power and Concentration". Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  42. ^ a b "LS Power Energizes Largest Battery Storage Project in the World, the 250 MW Gateway Project in California".
  43. ^ a b Spector, Julian (19 August 2020). "LS Power Energizes World's Biggest Battery, Just in Time for California's Heat Wave". Archived from the original on 21 August 2020.
  44. ^ Haddad, Patrick (5 October 2020). "Qinghai solar plant goes online". Power Transformer News. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  45. ^ Ramirez, Vanessa Bates (9 October 2020). "A Ridiculously Huge New Solar Farm Just Came Online in China". Singularity Hub. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  46. ^ a b "Jupiter Power Live". Retrieved 29 June 2022.
  47. ^ "Gambit 100 MW / 200 MWh". Plus Power. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  48. ^ Yuki (31 August 2020). "China Clean Energy Syndicate - [2020 Aug 31]". Energy Iceberg. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
  49. ^ "Cottingham: Europe's biggest battery storage system switched on". BBC News. 21 November 2022. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  50. ^ Lee, Andrew (21 November 2022). "Tesla builds 'Europe's largest battery' near Dogger Bank offshore wind power landfall". Recharge. NHST Media. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  51. ^ "Tesla Powerpack to Enable Large Scale Sustainable Energy to South Australia". Tesla. 6 July 2017.
  52. ^ "Hornsdale Power Reserve". Neoen. 13 August 2020.
  53. ^ "Hyundai Electric to break the record for world's largest battery". 6 December 2017. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  54. ^ "Introduction of Hyundai Electric" (PDF).
  55. ^ a b "Introduction of Hyundai Electric" (PDF).
  56. ^ Baring the secrets of Khi Solar One, website.
  57. ^ "Bat Cave 100 MW / 100 MWh". Plus Power. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  58. ^ a b Engel, John (12 November 2021). "Texas adds battery storage to support grid ahead of winter". Power Engineering. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  59. ^ "North Fork 100 MW / 100 MWh". Plus Power. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  60. ^ "SoCal Edison's 20 MW storage project at Pomona gas plant site comes online". Utility Dive. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  61. ^ Mercurio, Richmond (1 April 2023). "SMC to power 1,000 MWh of battery energy". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 9 April 2023.
  62. ^ "Tesla's 80-MWh energy storage project completed with assist from Swinerton". Solar Power World. 8 February 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  63. ^ Japan to install world’s largest storage battery for renewable energy Archived 16 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine, website, 19 April 2013.
  64. ^
  65. ^ "Lake Bonney Battery Energy Storage System". Infigen Energy. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  66. ^ "UK's largest battery storage facility comes online in Hertfordshire". Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  67. ^ "Victoria's first of two large-scale, grid-connected batteries reaches completion in Ballarat". Australian Renewable Energy Agency. 23 October 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  68. ^ "50MWh battery completed in Germany, claims 'Europe's largest' crown". Energy Storage News. 25 June 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  69. ^ "Nippon Koei and Yuso join forces on Battery Energy Storage in Europe". Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  70. ^ International, Edison. "SCE Unveils Largest Battery Energy Storage Project in North America". Edison International. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  71. ^ Pinsky, Naum; O'Neill, Lori (31 March 2017). "Tehachapi Wind Energy Storage Project - Technology Performance Report #3". doi:10.2172/1349233. OSTI 1349233. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  72. ^ "Energy Storage | Edison International". Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  73. ^ "Ballarat Battery Energy Storage System". Spotless. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  74. ^ "Edwards Sanborn Solar and Energy Storage Project - NS Energy". Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  75. ^ November 17; Moves, 2020 | Big (17 November 2020). "MingYang starts construction of 2 GW hybrid renewable project in China - REGlobal - Big Moves". REGlobal. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  76. ^ Chen, Haisheng; Xu, Yujie; Liu, Chang; He, Fengjuan; Hu, Shan (2022), "Storing energy in China—an overview", Storing Energy, Elsevier, pp. 771–791, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-824510-1.00016-7, ISBN 978-0-12-824510-1, retrieved 10 June 2022
  77. ^ "Storing the Power of Clean, Reliable Energy on Long Island" (PDF).
  78. ^ "Town of Brookhaven Planning Board Meeting". 23 January 2023. Retrieved 23 January 2023.
  79. ^ "Gigantic cavern heat storage facility to be implemented in Mustikkamaa in Helsinki". 22 March 2018.
  80. ^ "Gigantic heat caverns in Mustikkamaa have now been filled with water)". 11 May 2021.
  81. ^ a b Reuter West, Vattenfall information, accessed 2022-07-04
  82. ^ "Vattenfall starts filling up 200MW thermal storage tower in Berlin". Energy Storage News. 4 July 2022. Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  83. ^ Berlin preps ‘huge thermos’ to help heat homes this winter, Frank Jordans, Associated Press, 2022-07-01
  84. ^ Colthorpe, Andy (20 August 2021). "Expansion complete at world's biggest battery storage system in California". Energy Storage News. Archived from the original on 21 August 2021.
  85. ^ Colthorpe, Andy (28 January 2019). "UAE integrates 648MWh of sodium sulfur batteries in one swoop". Energy Storage News. Archived from the original on 11 September 2020. 10 locations – 15 systems in total – adding up to 108MW / 648MWh in total, with each system able to store energy for six hours. The total undertaking includes 12 x 4MW systems and three 20MW systems. 'virtual' description is correct in the sense that the 15 systems in 10 locations "can be controlled as a single plant. While of course they can still be controlled individually when local support to the grid is needed".
  86. ^ "Clean power plant online to ensure sound Beijing Winter Olympics". China Daily. 31 December 2021. Retrieved 17 March 2022.

External links[edit]