This is a list of current heads of state and heads of government. In some cases, mainly in presidential systems, there is only one leader being both head of state and head of government. In other cases, mainly in semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of state and the head of government are different people. In semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of government role (i.e. executive branch) is fulfilled by both the listed head of government and the head of state. In single-party systems, ruling party's leader (i.e. General Secretary) is usually the de facto top leader of the state, though sometimes this leader also holds the presidency or premiership.
The list includes the names of recently elected or appointed heads of state and government who will take office on an appointed date, as presidents-elect and prime ministers-designate, and those leading a government in exile if internationally recognised.
Member and observer states of the United Nations
Green cells indicate leaders whose offices constitutionally administer the executive of their respective state/government.
Blue cells indicate de facto executive branch leaders whose offices lack de jure constitutional power.
- Note: Names in small font generally denote acting, interim, transitional, temporary leaders, or representatives. Other notes and exceptions are provided at § Notes.
The following states are in free association with another UN member state.
|State||Associated with||Head of state||Head of government|
|Cook Islands||New Zealand||King – Charles III[ν]
King's Representative – Sir Tom Marsters
|Prime Minister – Mark Brown|
|Niue||New Zealand||King – Charles III[ν]
King's Representative – Dame Cindy Kiro[ι]
|Premier – Dalton Tagelagi|
The following states control at least part of their territory and are recognised by at least one UN member state.
|State||Also claimed by||Head of state||Head of government|
|Abkhazia||Georgia||President – Aslan Bzhania||Prime Minister – Aleksander Ankvab|
|Republic of China (Taiwan)||People's Republic of China||President – Tsai Ing-wen||Premier – Chen Chien-jen|
|Kosovo||Serbia||President – Vjosa Osmani||Prime Minister – Albin Kurti|
|Northern Cyprus||Cyprus||President – Ersin Tatar||Prime Minister – Ünal Üstel|
|Sahrawi Republic||Morocco||General Secretary of the Polisario Front – Brahim Ghali|
|President – Brahim Ghali||Prime Minister – Bouchraya Hammoudi Bayoun|
|South Ossetia||Georgia||President – Alan Gagloyev||Prime Minister – Konstantin Dzhussoyev|
The following states control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member states.
|State||Also claimed by||Head of state||Head of government|
|Somaliland||Somalia||President – Muse Bihi Abdi|
|Transnistria||Moldova||President – Vadim Krasnoselsky||Prime Minister – Aleksander Rozenberg|
These alternative governments control part of their territory and are recognised as legitimate by at least one UN member state.
These alternative governments control part of their territory, but are not recognized as legitimate by any UN member states.
|Government||State||Head of state||Head of government|
|Government of National Stability||Libya||Chairman of the Presidential Council – Mohamed al-Menfi[ξ]||Acting Prime Minister – Osama Hamada|
|Hamas government in Gaza||Palestine||Hamas Chief in the Gaza Strip – Yahya Sinwar|
|President – Mahmoud Abbas[ο]||Head of the Government Administrative Committee – Essam al-Da'alis|
|National Unity Government||Myanmar||Acting President – Duwa Lashi La||Prime Minister – Mahn Win Khaing Than|
|Syrian Salvation Government||Syria||Commander-in-Chief of Tahrir al-Sham – Abu Mohammad al-Julani|
|President of the General Shura Council – Mustafa al-Mousa||Prime Minister – Ali Keda|
These alternative governments do not control their territory but are recognized as legitimate by at least one UN member state.
|Government||State||Head of state||Head of government|
|Coordination Council||Belarus||President and Head of the Cabinet – Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya|
|National Assembly (2015)||Venezuela||President of the National Assembly – Dinorah Figuera|
Sui generis entities
- President of the Republic
- List of countries by system of government
- List of current state leaders by date of assumption of office
- List of current monarchs of sovereign states
- List of current vice presidents and designated acting presidents
- List of current interior ministers
- List of current foreign ministers
- List of current finance ministers
- List of current defence ministers
- List of current legislatures
- List of current presidents of legislatures
- List of elected and appointed female heads of state and government
- List of leaders of dependent territories
- List of oldest living state leaders
- List of national governments
- Lists of state leaders
- Lists of state leaders by century
- List of state leaders in the 21st century
- List of state leaders in 2023
- The President of France and the French Co-Prince of Andorra are positions held by the same person.
- Charles III is separately and equally monarch of 15 sovereign states known collectively as the Commonwealth realms. In each of these states (with the exception of the United Kingdom, where he permanently resides), he is represented at the national level by a governor-general.
- In this state, the president is both head of state and head of government; the office of prime minister may exist in these states, but it does not direct executive power—nor does the Kyrgyzstani Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers, the Peruvian President of the Council of Ministers, or the Sierra Leonean Chief Minister.
- The high representative is an international civilian overseer of the Dayton Agreement with authority to dismiss elected and non-elected officials and enact legislation.
- The three-member Bosnian presidency is the head of state collectively.
- According to the Constitution of Haiti as amended in 2012, the Council of Ministers collectively carries out the duties of the presidency during a presidential vacancy. The presidency has been vacant since the assassination of Jovenel Moïse in 2021.
- According to articles 89 to 91 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Supreme Leader of Iran is the head of state, and the President is the head of government. The President is required to gain the Supreme Leader's official approval before being sworn in before Parliament, and the Supreme Leader also has the power to dismiss the elected President at any time.
- The constitution of Japan does not define a formal head of state, but the Emperor by unwritten constitutional convention fulfills the functions and duties of this role.
- The Governor-General of New Zealand and the King's Representative of Niue are positions held by the same person.
- The Captain Regent representing the party with a plurality of seats in the legislature of San Marino, the Grand and General Council, exercises more legislative power than the Captain Regent belonging to the opposition.
- The Transitional Sovereignty Council is the collective head of state of Sudan per the 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration. While the council was intended to be a unity government incorporating civilian and military elements that used consensus decision making, Chairman Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, who is also Commander-in-Chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces, has monopolized power.
- The seven-member Swiss Federal Council is collectively head of state and government. As a party to the Council, the President serves solely in a primus inter pares capacity for one year.
- Charles III is head of state of the Cook Islands and Niue in his capacity as King in Right of New Zealand. He is represented in each of these states by a King's Representative.
- Al-Menfi is also considered head of state by the internationally-recognized Government of National Unity. Hamada is disputing the premiership of Abdul Hamid Dbeibeh, with the backing of the House of Representatives and the Libyan National Army.
- Internationally-recognized president also recognized by Hamas since the Palestinian Unity Government of June 2014
- Cai, Derek; Head, Jonathan (7 August 2023). "Cambodia: PM's son Hun Manet appointed next ruler in royal formality". Singapore: BBC News. Retrieved 7 August 2023.
Hun Sen will however retain leadership of the ruling Cambodian People's Party - a position political analysts say still gives him ultimate control.• Murphy, Matt (6 August 2023). "Hun Sen: Cambodia election result confirms expected win for PM". BBC News. Retrieved 7 August 2023.
[Hun Sen] is expected to become president of the Senate early next year and will serve as acting head of state when King Norodom Sihamoni is abroad.
- "General Nguema appointed transitional president of Gabon following coup". Anadolu Agency. Kigali. 30 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
- Méheut, Constant; Crowley, Michael; Kitroeff, Natalie; Kurmanaev, Anatoly; Porter, Catherine (19 July 2021). "Political Crisis in Haiti Deepens Over Rival Claims to Power". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 May 2023.
- "Haiti's Constitution of 1987 with Amendments through 2012" (PDF). Constitute Project. Retrieved 20 May 2023.
- Fatton, Robert (23 July 2021). "Will Haitians get the chance to determine their future — without foreign interference?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 May 2023.
On Tuesday, Henry was sworn in, pledging to hold new elections in 120 days. For now, Haiti has no president[...].
- Sullivan, Becky (18 January 2023). "As its only remaining elected officials depart, Haiti reaches a breaking point". NPR. Retrieved 20 May 2023.
The constitutional mandate of Haiti's de facto ruler, Prime Minister Ariel Henry — which some viewed as questionable from the start, as he was never technically sworn in — ended more than a year ago. The country has had no president since its last one, Jovenel Moïse, was assassinated in 2021.
- "Niger military names 21-person cabinet ahead of key West African summit". Al Jazeera. 10 August 2023. Retrieved 14 August 2023.
- "Sudan's Constitution of 2019" (PDF). Retrieved 23 March 2023.
- "Sudan's reinstated PM Hamdok promises a path to democracy". Al Jazeera. 22 November 2021. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
The 14-point deal between Hamdok and the military, signed in the presidential palace in Khartoum on Sunday, also provides for the release of all political prisoners detained during the coup and stipulates that a 2019 constitutional declaration be the basis for a political transition, according to details read out on state television.
- Olewe, Dickens (20 February 2023). "Mohamed 'Hemeti' Dagalo: Top Sudan military figure says coup was a mistake". BBC News. Retrieved 23 March 2023.
- "Sudan coup leader restores restructured Sovereignty Council". Radio Dabanga. Khartoum. 11 November 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
- "Sudan's Burhan dismisses Hemedti of his position". Al Bawaba. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
- "Turkmenistan's president expands his father's power". Associated Press. Ashgabat. 22 January 2023. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
- Nasser, Afrah (18 December 2022). "'Republic of fear': A return to Yemen after 11 years". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
- "Libya parliament suspends rival eastern-based PM Bashagha". Al Jazeera. 16 May 2023. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
- "Syria's Idlib enclave: how does it work?". Agence France-Presse. Beirut, Lebanon. France 24. 28 June 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
The head of the Salvation Government is [the prime minister], who assumed his post late last year, but the region's strongman is HTS chief Abu Mohammed al-Jolani.
- Goodman, Joshua; Rodriguez Montilla, Camille (8 January 2023). "Exiled Venezuela lawmakers chosen to lead anti-Maduro fight". Associated Press. Caracas. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
- "Europese knoop ontward: Charles Michel wordt voorzitter van de Europese Raad". 2 July 2019. Archived from the original on 13 April 2021.
- "Von der Leyen elected EU Commission head after MEPs vote". BBC News. 16 July 2019. Archived from the original on 1 September 2022.
- CIDOB Foundation (in Spanish)—contextualised biographies of world political leaders
- EmilePhaneuf—an archived, partial list of official websites for heads of state
- Portale Storia (in Italian)—a list of current rulers by country
- Rulers—a list of rulers throughout time and places
- United Nations—a list of heads of state, heads of government, and foreign ministers