The "Big Five"
This article needs to be updated.(April 2020)
Canada's "big five" banks, and a few statistics (2013):
|Bank name||Also known as||Institution No||Market capitalization CAD, B||Employees (FTE)||Revenue, B||Net income, B||Total assets, B|
|Royal Bank of Canada||RBC||003||104.5||80,000||30||7.6||825|
|Toronto-Dominion Bank||TD, TD Canada Trust||004||94.8||79,000||23||6.3||811|
|Bank of Nova Scotia||Scotiabank||002||77||83,000||21||6.7||744|
|Bank of Montreal||BMO||001||47||47,000||13.7||3.2||542|
|Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce||CIBC||010||38||42,000||12||2.5||352|
The term "Big Six" is frequently used as well and includes the National Bank of Canada (2013 market cap of $8.9B), though its operations are primarily focused in the provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick.
Banks by legal classification
Banks in Canada are classified by their ownership as domestic banks, subsidiaries of foreign banks, or branches of foreign banks. For a greater explanation of the classifications, see Banking in Canada and Canada Bank Act.
Schedule I banks (domestic banks)
Under the Canada Bank Act, Schedule I are banks that are not a subsidiary of a foreign bank, i.e., domestic banks, even if they have foreign shareholders. There are 34 domestic banks, included 2 federally regulated Credit Unions as of December 31st, 2022.
|B2B Bank||2012||Toronto||Owned by Laurentian Bank of Canada.||Prior to reorganization in 2012, was known as "B2B Trust".|
|Bank of Montreal||1817||Montreal||Public company, part of Big Five.|
|Bank of Nova Scotia||1832||Toronto||Public company, part of Big Five.||Operating as "Scotiabank".|
|Bridgewater Bank||1997||Calgary||Wholly-owned subsidiary of the Alberta Motor Association (AMA)|
|Caisse populaire acadienne ltée||1946||New Brunswick||Federal Credit Union, member owned.||On July 1, 2016, UNI Financial Cooperation became the first federally chartered credit union.|
|Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce||1961||Toronto||Public company, part of Big Five.||Formed by the merger of two banks founded in 1867 and 1873. Also includes Simplii Financial direct banking branch operation that was found in the late 1990s as a strategic partnership between PC Financial and CIBC until 2017 when it was rebranded as Simplii Financial.|
|Canadian Tire Bank||2003||Oakville, Ontario||Owned by company Canadian Tire.|
|Canadian Western Bank||1988||Edmonton||Public company, regional bank.||Formed through the 1988 merger of two banks: the Bank of Alberta (founded 1984), and the Western & Pacific Bank of Canada (founded 1982).|
|Coast Capital Savings||1940||Surrey, British Columbia||Federal Credit Union, member owned.||From October 17 to November 28, 2016, a vote was held for members on whether or not Coast Capital Savings should become a federal credit union|
|Concentra Bank||2017||Saskatoon||Provides wholesale banking and trusts to Canada's credit union system|
|CS Alterna Bank||2000||Ottawa||Owned by the credit union Alterna Savings.|
|Digital Commerce Bank||2007||Calgary||Previously known as DirectCash Bank. Arms-length relationship with DirectCash Payments Inc.|
|EQ Bank||2016||Toronto||Public company, regional bank.||Originally founded as a trust company named The Equitable Trust Company in Hamilton, Ontario in 1970. In 2013, the Equitable Trust Company is granted a Schedule I Canadian chartered bank license and becomes Equitable Bank. Equitable Bank launched a direct banking operation branded as EQ Bank on January 14, 2016, which was Canada's first digital bank born in the mobile age.|
|Exchange Bank of Canada||2016||Toronto||Subsidiary of Currency Exchange International Corp.||Provides foreign currency services to financial institutions and businesses.|
|Fairstone Bank of Canada||2009||Toronto||Incorporated as DuoBank under Schedule 2 (foreign-owned, deposit-taking) of Canada's Bank Act in 2009; reclassified under Schedule 1 (domestic-owned, deposit-taking) following completion of the sale by Walmart Canada to First National co-founder Stephen Smith and private equity firm Centerbridge Equity Partners, L.P. in April 2019. DuoBank acquired Fairstone Financial Inc in 2021 and rebranded as Fairstone Bank of Canada in 2022.|
|First Nations Bank of Canada||1996||Saskatoon||First Canadian chartered bank to be independently controlled by Indigenous shareholders.|
|General Bank of Canada||2005||Edmonton||Schedule 1 bank that primarily offers indirect auto financing for consumers through its retail portfolio as well as large commercial loans and aviation financing.|
|Haventree Bank||2018||Toronto||Founded in 1990; private bank specializing in alternative mortgage programs and insured GIC deposits.|
|Home Bank||2015||Toronto||Owned by the trust company Home Trust Company.||Owns Oaken Financial, which are both owned by Home Capital Group. Home Bank began as CFF Bank, which was formed through acquisition of MonCana Bank by Canadian First Financial. CFF Bank became Home Bank in August 2016.|
|HomeEquity Bank||2009||Toronto||Privately held by equity firm Birch Hill Equity Partners||Founded in 1986 as the Canadian Home Income Plan Corporation. HomeEquity Bank is the first Canadian bank to offer reverse mortgages to Canadian homeowners aged 55 and over. On October 13, 2009, HomeEquity Bank was recognized as a Schedule 1 Canadian Bank.|
|Laurentian Bank of Canada||1846||Montreal||Public company, regional bank.||Operations are mainly in Quebec|
|Manulife Bank of Canada||1993||Toronto||Owned by the insurance company Manulife Financial Corporation.|
|Motus Bank||2019||Toronto||Owned by the credit union Meridian Credit Union.|
|National Bank of Canada||1859||Montreal||Public company, regional bank.||Operations are mainly in Quebec|
|Peoples Bank of Canada||2020||Vancouver||Owned by the trust company Peoples Group.|
|President's Choice Bank||1996||Toronto||Owned by company Loblaw Companies.||All PC Financial mortgages, loans, investments, and bank accounts were transferred to CIBC's new direct banking brand Simplii Financial effective November 1, 2017. PC Financial's credit card and insurance products were unaffected by the decision, and continued to be offered by subsidiaries of Loblaw Companies.|
|RFA Bank of Canada||2017||Toronto||Previously known as Street Capital Bank of Canada. Granted schedule 1 status in December 2016. Commenced operations on 1 February 2017.|
|Rogers Bank||2013||Toronto||Owned by company Rogers Communications.|
|Royal Bank of Canada||1864||Montreal||Public company, part of Big Five.|||
|Tangerine Bank||2013||Toronto||Owned by Scotiabank.||Formerly ING Direct Canada, purchased by Scotiabank in November 2012, and name was changed to Tangerine in spring 2014.|
|Toronto-Dominion Bank||1955||Toronto||Public company, part of Big Five.||Operating as "TD Canada Trust". Formed by the merger of two banks founded in 1855 and 1869.|
|Vancity Community Investment Bank||1997||Vancouver||Owned by the credit union Vancity.||Previously known as Citizens Bank of Canada. Now a non-deposit taking bank; it no longer offers savings and loans products.|
|VersaBank||1980||London, Ontario||Public company, regional bank.||Originally founded as a trust company named Pacific & Western Trust Corporation in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan in 1980. It later moved its head offices to London, Ontario. On August 1, 2002, it was granted a Schedule I Canadian chartered bank licence and becomes Pacific & Western Trust Bank of Canada before finally changing its name to VersaBank in 2016.|
|Wealth One Bank of Canada||2015||Toronto||Focus on providing services to Chinese-Canadians. It provides banking services online and through retail offices in Toronto, Ontario, and in Vancouver, British Columbia.|
Schedule II banks (subsidiaries of foreign banks)
|AMEX Bank of Canada||USA|
|Bank of China (Canada)||China||Previously a Schedule III representative office.|
|Cidel Bank Canada||Barbados|
|Citco Bank Canada||Netherlands|
|CTBC Bank Corp. (Canada)||Taiwan|
|Habib Canadian Bank||Switzerland|
|HSBC Bank Canada||UK|
|ICICI Bank Canada||India|
|Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (Canada)||China|
|J.P. Morgan Bank Canada||USA|
|KEB Hana Bank Canada||South Korea||Formerly Korea Exchange Bank of Canada.|
|SBI Canada Bank||India|
|Shinhan Bank Canada||South Korea|
|UBS Bank (Canada)||Switzerland|
Schedule III banks (branches of foreign banks)
The following banks are not authorized to accept deposits in Canada of less than $150,000. As of August 2016, there were 28 such banks in Canada.
The following banks are prohibited from accepting deposits or borrowing money except from financial institutions. There were four such banks in Canada as of August 2016.
Government-owned financial institutions
- Bank of Canada (Central Bank)
- Business Development Bank of Canada
- Farm Credit Canada – Government-owned Farm Credit is not a deposit-taking bank. It is, however, a major lender to the agriculture and agri-food industries.
- ATB Financial (Government of Alberta Crown Corporation)
Canada has a strong co-operative financial services sector, which consists of credit unions (caisses populaires in Quebec and other French speaking regions). At the end of 2001, Canada's credit union sector consisted of 681 credit unions and 914 caisses populaires, with more than 3,600 locations and 4,100 automated teller machines. By the end of 2019, consolidation reduced this number to 251 credits unions and caisses populaires outside Quebec, according to the Canadian Credit Union Association (CCUA). Canada has the world's highest per capita membership in the credit union movement, with over 10 million members, or about one-third of the Canadian population. While the sector is active in all parts of the country, it is strongest in the western provinces and in Quebec. In Quebec 70 per cent of the population belongs to a caisse populaire, while in Saskatchewan close to 60 per cent belongs to a credit union.
Credit unions outside Quebec
As of 31 December 2022, the 208 credit unions and caisses populaires outside Quebec reported combined assets of $308.9 billion:
|Meridian Credit Union||ON||26,155,667,000||382,355||92|
|Coast Capital Savings||BC||22,130,514,640||597,681||45|
|Servus Credit Union||AB||18,338,460,000||384,893||105|
|First West Credit Union||BC||13,304,223,000||249,543||47|
|Access Credit Union||MB||10,759,971,657||177,605||54|
|Desjardins Ontario Credit Union||ON||10,756,224,987||134,541||46|
|Steinbach Credit Union||MB||9,123,840,600||106,173||3|
|Affinity Credit Union||SK||7,226,192,926||129,541||56|
|ConnectFirst Credit Union||AB||7,216,582,000||132,410||44|
|DUCA Credit Union||ON||6,936,459,987||92,340||17|
|Prospera Credit Union||BC||6,935,325,000||116,353||26|
|Conexus Credit Union||SK||6,760,855,894||137,033||30|
|Assiniboine Credit Union||MB||6,108,445,485||141,475||19|
Most caisses populaires in Quebec (and some outside the province) are part of a network which operates as the Desjardins Group. Desjardins Group owns and operates a range of subsidiaries, including a securities brokerage, a venture capital firm, and a bank based in Florida.
Defunct and merged banks
|Ally Financial||2009||2013||Acquired by Royal Bank of Canada and shut down|
|Amicus Bank||1999||2003||Dissolved into the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce|
|Bank of Alberta||1984||1988||Merged with the Western & Pacific Bank of Canada to become Canadian Western Bank.|
|Bank of British Columbia (first)||1862||1901||Merged into the Canadian Bank of Commerce|
|Bank of British Columbia (second)||1966||1986||Assets acquired by HSBC Canada.|
|Bank of British North America||1835||1918||Merged into the Bank of Montreal.|
|Bank of Canada||1858||1866||Became the Canadian Bank of Commerce.|
|Bank of Hamilton||1872||1924||Merged into the Canadian Bank of Commerce.|
|Bank of New Brunswick||1820||1913||Merged into the Bank of Nova Scotia.|
|Bank of Ottawa||1874||1919||Merged into the Bank of Nova Scotia.|
|Bank of the People||1835||1840||Merged into the Bank of Montreal.|
|Bank of Toronto||1855||1955||Merged with The Dominion Bank to form the Toronto-Dominion Bank.|
|Bank of Upper Canada||1821||1866||Failed|
|Bank of Vancouver||1910||1914||Failed|
|Banque Canadienne Nationale||1924||1979||Merged in 1979 with Provincial Bank of Canada to become National Bank of Canada|
|Banque d'Hochelaga||1874||1924||Merged with the Banque national to form the Banque Canadienne Nationale.|
|Banque national||1959||1924||Merged with the Banque d'Hochelaga to form the Banque Canadienne Nationale.|
|Barclays Bank Canada||1929||1956||Merged into Imperial Bank of Canada in 1956 and Hongkong Bank of Canada, now known as HSBC Bank Canada, in 1996.|
|Canada Trust||1864||2000||Merged with Toronto-Dominion Bank.|
|Canadian Bank of Commerce||1867||1961||Merged with Imperial Bank of Canada to form the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce.|
|Canadian Commercial Bank||1976||1985||Failed|
|City Bank||1833||1876||Merged with the Royal Canadian Bank to form Consolidated Bank of Canada.|
|Colonial Bank of Canada||1856||1863||Closed|
|Commercial Bank of Manitoba||1884||1893||Failed|
|Consolidated Bank of Canada||1876||1880||Failed|
|Continental Bank of Canada||1980||1986||Acquired by Lloyds Bank and became Lloyds Bank Canada.|
|The Dominion Bank||1869||1955||Merged with the Bank of Toronto to form the Toronto-Dominion Bank.|
|Eastern Townships Bank||1859||1912||Merged into the Canadian Bank of Commerce.|
|Farmer's Joint Stock Bank||1835||1854||Closed|
|Farmers' Bank of Rustico||1863||1871||Was a community bank in Prince Edward Island that closed after the passage of the 1871 Bank Act.|
|Halifax Banking Company||1825||1903||Merged into the Canadian Bank of Commerce.|
|Home Bank of Canada||1903||1923||Failed|
|Home District Savings Bank, Toronto||1830||1837||Founded 1830 for trades persons with deposits with Bank of Upper Canada but was alternative to those not aligned with the Family Compact which controlled the Bank of Upper Canada. Ceased to exist sometime after the Rebellion of 1837.|
|Imperial Bank of Canada||1873||1961||Merged with Canadian Bank of Commerce to form the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC).|
|Lloyds Bank Canada||1986||1990||Became Hongkong Bank of Canada, now known as HSBC Bank Canada in 1990.|
|Mercantile Bank of Canada||1953||1985||Merged into the National Bank of Canada in 1985.|
|Merchants' Bank of Canada||1861||1921||Merged into the Bank of Montreal.|
|Molson Bank||1850||1925||Merged into the Bank of Montreal.|
|Montreal City and District Savings Bank||Converted from a savings bank to a regular bank and changed its name to Laurentian Bank of Canada.|
|National Westminster Bank of Canada||1982||1998||Became Hongkong Bank of Canada, now known as HSBC Bank Canada in 1998.|
|Newfoundland Commercial Bank||1857||1894||Failed|
|Newfoundland Savings Bank||1834||1962||Merged into the Bank of Montreal.|
|Ontario Bank||1860||1906||Merged into the Bank of Montreal.|
|Provincial Bank of Canada||1861||1979||Merged with Banque Canadienne Nationale to become National Bank of Canada|
|Quebec Bank||1822||1917||Merged into the Royal Bank of Canada.|
|Standard Bank of Canada||1873||1928||Merged into Canadian Bank of Commerce.|
|Standard Chartered Bank of Canada||1969||1990s|
|Sterling Bank of Canada||1905||1928||Merged into Canadian Bank of Commerce.|
|Toronto Municipal Employees Credit Union||1940||2020||Merged into Alterna Savings.|
|Traders Bank of Canada||1885||1912||Acquired by the Royal Bank of Canada|
|Union Bank of Canada||1865||1925||Founded in Quebec City as the Union Bank of Lower Canada. It changed its name in 1886 to the Union Bank of Canada. Merged into the Royal Bank of Canada.|
|Union Bank of Halifax||1856||1910||Merged into the Royal Bank of Canada.|
|Union Bank of Newfoundland||1854||1894||Failed|
|Unity Bank of Canada||1972||1978||Failed|
|Western and Pacific Bank of Canada||1982||1988||Merged with the Bank of Alberta to form the Canadian Western Bank.|
- Banking in Canada
- Credit unions in Canada
- Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation
- Routing number (Canada)
- Canada Bank Company
- ATB Financial
- List of financial regulatory authorities by country
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- "Who We Regulate". Osfi-bsif.gc.ca. 30 October 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
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- "Fairstone Bank of Canada".
- Hasselback, Drew (24 February 2012). "How to build a bank". Financial Post. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
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- "MonCana Bank of Canada renamed CFF Bank following acquisition by Canadian First Financial Group Inc". CNW. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
- "CFF Bank changes its name to Home Bank". newswire.ca.
- "Street Capital to transition under the RFA Brand with a fresh new look!". rfa.ca.
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- "Quick to the Frontier – RBC". rbc.com.
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- "Vancity Community Investment Bank". Retrieved 27 October 2019.
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- "Canada's Credit Unions and Caisses Populaires – March 2003". Fin.gc.ca. 13 November 2008. Archived from the original on 13 February 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- "Largest 100 Credit Unions 2021 4Q" (PDF). Retrieved 27 April 2022.
- "Credit Unions in Canada". ccua.com. Canadian Credit Union Association. 1 September 2019. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "Largest 100 Credit Unions / Caisses Populaires" (PDF). Cucentral.ca. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- "Largest 100 Credit Unions 2022 4Q" (PDF). 29 March 2023.
- "About Desjardins Bank - Desjardins Bank". Archived from the original on 19 August 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
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- "Royal Bank Shuts Down Ally Bank". moneysense.ca. MoneySense. 20 February 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
- http://www.osfi-bsif.gc.ca/Eng/wt-ow/Pages/wwr-er.aspx List of banks regulated by the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions
- List of Canadian banks via the Canada Revenue Agency website
- Credit Union Central of Canada's Publications
- Bank locations in Canada
- List of banks in Canada
- Information about Banks in Canada