List of Latin-script trigraphs

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A number of trigraphs are found in the Latin script.

A[edit]

aai is used for /aːi̯/ in Dutch and various Cantonese romanisations.

abh is used for /əu̯/ (/oː/ in Ulster) in Irish.

adh is used for /əi̯/ (/eː/ in Ulster) in Irish, when stressed or for /ə/ (/uː/ in Mayo and Ulster), when unstressed word-finally.

aei is used for /eː/ in Irish.

agh is used for /əi̯/ (/eː/ in Ulster) in Irish.

aim is used for /ɛ̃/ (/ɛm/ before a vowel) in French.

ain is used for /ɛ̃/ (/ɛn/ before a vowel) in French. It also represents /ɛ̃/ in Tibetan Pinyin, where it is alternatively written än.

air is used for /ɛː/ in RP, as in chair.

aío is used for /iː/ in Irish, between broad consonants.

amh is used for /əu̯/ in Irish.

aoi is used for /iː/ in Irish, between a broad and a slender consonant.

aon is used for /ɑ̃/ (/ɑn/ before a vowel) in French.

aou is used for /u/ in French.

aoû is used in a few words in French for /u/.

aqh is used for the strident vowel /a᷽/ in Taa (If IPA does not display properly, it is an ⟨a⟩ with a double tilde ⟨≈⟩ underneath.)

B–C[edit]

bhf is used for /w/ and /vʲ/ in Irish. It is used for the eclipsis of ⟨f⟩.

cʼh is used for /x/ (a voiceless velar fricative) in Breton. It should not be confused with ch, which represents /ʃ/ (a voiceless postalveolar fricative).

ccs is used for [tʃː] in Hungarian for germinated ⟨cs⟩. It is collated as ⟨cs⟩ rather than as ⟨c⟩. It is only used within roots; when two ⟨cs⟩ are brought together in a compound word, they form the regular sequence ⟨cscs⟩.

chd is used for /dʒ/ in Eskayan romanised orthography.

chh is used for /tʃʰ/ in Quechua and romanizations of Indic languages

chj is used in for /c/ Corsican.

chw is used for /w/ in southern dialects of Welsh

cci is used for /tʃː/ in Italian.

D[edit]

dch is used for the prevoiced aspirated affricate /d͡tʃʰ/ in Juǀʼhoan.

ddh is used for the dental affricate /tθ/ in Chipewyan.

ddz is a long Hungarian ⟨dz⟩, [dːz]. It is collated as ⟨dz⟩ rather than as ⟨d⟩. It is not used within roots, where ⟨dz⟩ may be either long or short; but when an assimilated suffix is added to the stem, it may form the trigraph rather than the regular sequence *⟨dzdz⟩. Examples are eddze, lopóddzon.

djx is used for the prevoiced uvularized affricate /d͡tʃᵡ/ in Juǀʼhoan.

dlh is used for /tˡʰ/ in the Romanized Popular Alphabet of Hmong.

drz is used for /dʒ/ in English transcriptions of the Polish digraph .

dsh is used for the foreign sound /dʒ/ in German. A common variant is the tetragraph dsch. It is used in Juǀʼhoan for the prevoiced aspirated affricate /d͡tsʰ/.

dsj is used for foreign loan words with /dʒ/ Norwegian. Sometimes the digraph dj is used.

dtc is used for the voiced palatal click /ᶢǂ/ in Naro.

dzh is used for /dʒ/ in English transcriptions of the Russian digraph дж. In the practical orthography of Taa, where it represents the prevoiced affricate /dtsʰ/.

dzi is used for /dʑ/ when it precedes a vowel and /dʑi/ otherwise in Polish, and is considered a variant of the digraph appearing in other situations.

dzs is used for the voiced palato-alveolar affricate /dʒ/ in Hungarian

dzx is used for the prevoiced uvularized affricate /d͡tsᵡ/ in Juǀʼhoan.

dzv is used for the whistled sibilant affricate /dz͎/ in Shona.

E[edit]

eai is used for /a/ in Irish, between slender consonants, or in French to for /e/ after ⟨g⟩.

eái is used for /aː/ in Irish, between slender consonants.

eau is used for /o/ in French and is a word itself meaning "water".

eaw is used for /ɐʏ/ in Lancashire dialect.

ein is used for /ɛ̃/ (/ɛn/ before a vowel) in French.

eoi is used for /oː/ in Irish, between slender consonants.

eqh is used for the strident vowel /e᷽/ in the practical orthography of Taa (If this symbol does not display properly, it is an ⟨e⟩ with a double tilde ⟨≈⟩ underneath).

eeu is used for /iːu/ in Afrikaans.

G[edit]

geü is used for /ʒy/ in French words such as vergeüre.

ggj is used for /ʝː/ in the Nynorsk Norwegian standard, e.g. leggja "lay".

ggw is used for ejective /kʷʼ/ in Hadza.

ggy is used for [ɟː] in Hungarian as a geminated ⟨gy⟩. It is collated as ⟨gy⟩ rather than as ⟨g⟩. It is only used within roots; when two ⟨gy⟩ are brought together in a compound

ghj is used for /ɟ/ in Corsican.

ghw is used for a labialized velar/uvular /ʁʷ/ in Chipewyan. In Canadian Tlingit it represents /qʷ/, which is written gw⟩ in Alaska.

gli is used for /ʎː/ before a vowel other than ⟨i⟩ in Italian.

gln is used for /ŋn/ in Talossan.

gni is used for /ɲ/ in a few French words such as châtaignier /ʃɑtɛɲe/.

guë and güe are used for /ɡy/ at the ends of words that end in the feminine suffix -e in French. E.g. aiguë "sharp" and ambiguë "ambiguous". In the French spelling reform of 1990, it was recommended that traditional ⟨guë⟩ be changed to ⟨güe⟩.

gqh is used for the prevoiced affricate /ɢqʰ/ in the practical orthography of Taa.

gǃh gǀh gǁh gǂh are used in Juǀʼhoan for its four prevoiced aspirated clicks, /ᶢᵏǃʰ, ᶢᵏǀʰ, ᶢᵏǁʰ, ᶢᵏǂʰ/.

gǃk gǀk gǁk gǂk are used in Juǀʼhoan for its four prevoiced affricate ejective-contour clicks, /ᶢᵏǃ͡χʼ, ᶢᵏǀ͡χʼ, ᶢᵏǁ͡χʼ, ᶢᵏǂ͡χʼ/.

gǃx gǀx gǁx gǂx are used in Juǀʼhoan for its four prevoiced affricate pulmonic-contour clicks, /ᶢᵏǃ͡χ, ᶢᵏǀ͡χ, ᶢᵏǁ͡χ, ᶢᵏǂ͡χ/.

H–I[edit]

hhw is used for a labialized velar/uvular /χʷ/ in Chipewyan.

hml is used for /m̥ˡ/ in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong.

hny is used for /ɲ̥/ in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong.

hky is used for the aspirated voiceless post-alveolar affricate /t͡ʃʰ/ in some romanizations of Burmese ချ or ခြ.

idh is used for an unstressed word-final /əj/ in Irish, which is realised as /iː/, /ə/ and /əɟ/ depending on dialect.

ieë represents /iː/ in Afrikaans.

igh is used for an unstressed word-final /əj/ in Irish, which is realised as /iː/, /ə/ and /əɟ/ depending on dialect. In English it may be used for /aɪ/, e.g. light /laɪt/.

ign is used for /ɲ/ in a few French words such as oignon /ɔɲɔ̃/ "onion" and encoignure "corner". It was eliminated in the French spelling reform of 1990, but continues to be used.

ije is used for /je/ or /jeː/ in the ijekavian reflex of Serbo-Croatian.

ilh is used for /ʎ/ in Breton.

ill is used for /j/ in French, as in épouiller /epuje/.

iqh is used for the strident vowel /i᷽/ in the practical orthography of Taa. (If IPA does not display properly, it is an ⟨i⟩ with a double tilde ⟨≈⟩ underneath.)

iúi is used for /uː/ in Irish, between slender consonants.

J–L[edit]

khu is used for /kʷʼ/ in Ossete.

khw is used for /qʷʰ/ in Canadian Tlingit, which is written kw⟩ in Alaska.

kkj is used for /çː/ in the Nynorsk Norwegian standard, e.g. in ikkje "not".

kng is used for /ᵏŋ/ in Arrernte.

k'u is used for /kʷʰ/ in Purépecha.

kwh is a common convention for /kʷʰ/.

lhw is used for /l̪ʷ/ in Arrernte.

lli is used for /j/ after /i/ in a few French words, such as coquillier.

lly is used for [jː ~ ʎː] in Hungarian as a geminated ⟨ly⟩. It is collated as ⟨ly⟩ rather than as ⟨l⟩. It is only used within roots; when two ⟨ly⟩ are brought together in a compound word, they form the regular sequence ⟨lyly⟩.

lyw is used for /ʎʷ/ in Arrernte.

N[edit]

nch is used for /ɲɟʱ/ in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong.

ndl is used for /ndˡ/ in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong. In Xhosa is represents /ndɮ/.

ndz is used for /ndz/ in Xhosa.

ngʼ is used for /ŋ/ in Swahili. Technically, it may be considered a digraph rather than a trigraph, as ⟨ʼ⟩ is not a letter of the Swahili alphabet.

ngb is used for /ⁿɡ͡b/, a prenasalised ⟨gb⟩ /ɡ͡b/, in some African orthographies.

ngc is used for /ŋǀʱ/ in Xhosa.

ngg is used for /ŋɡ/ in several languages such as Filipino and Malay that use ⟨ng⟩ for /ŋ/.

ngh is used for /ŋ/, before ⟨e⟩, ⟨i⟩, and ⟨y⟩, in Vietnamese. In Welsh, it represents a voiceless velar nasal (a c under the nasal mutation). In Xhosa, ⟨ngh⟩ represents a murmured velar nasal.

ng'h is used for voiceless /ŋ̊/ in Gogo.

ngk is used for a back velar stop, /ⁿɡ̠ ~ ⁿḵ/, in Yanyuwa

ngm is used for doubly articulated consonant /ŋ͡m/ in Yélî Dnye of Papua New Guinea.

ngq is used for /ŋǃʱ/ in Xhosa.

ngv is used for /ŋʷ/ in Bouyei and Standard Zhuang.

ngw is used /ŋʷ/ or /ŋɡʷ/ in the orthographies of several languages.

ngx is used for /ŋǁʱ/ in Xhosa.

nhw is used for /n̪ʷ/ in Arrernte.

nkc is info for /ŋ.ǀ/ in Xhosa.

nkh is used in for /ŋɡʱ/ the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong.

nkp is used for /ⁿk͡p/, a prenasalized /k͡p/, in some African orthographies.

nkq is used for the alveolar click /ŋ.ǃ/ in Xhosa.

nkx is used for the prenasalized lateral click /ŋ.ǁ/ in Xhosa.

nng is used in Inuktitut and Greenlandic to write a long (geminate) velar nasal, /ŋː/.

nny is a long Hungarian ⟨ny⟩, [ɲː]. It is collated as ⟨ny⟩ rather than as ⟨n⟩. It is only used within roots; when two ⟨ny⟩ are brought together in a compound word, they form the regular sequence ⟨nyny⟩.

nph is used for /mbʱ/ in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong.

npl is used for /mbˡ/ in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong.

nqh is used for /ɴɢʱ/ in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong.

nrh is used for /ɳɖʱ/ in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong.

ntc is used for the click /ᵑǂ/ in Naro.

nth is used for /ndʱ/ in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong. In the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages such as Yanyuwa it represents a dental stop, /n̪t̪ ~ n̪d̪/.

ntj is used for /nt͡ʃ/ in Cypriot Arabic.

ntl is used for /ntɬʼ/ in Xhosa.

nts is used for /ɳɖʐ/ in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong. In Malagasy it represents /ⁿts/.

ntx is used for /ndz/ in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong.

nyh is used for /n̤ʲ/ in Xhosa. In Gogo it's voiceless /ɲ̊/.

nyk is used for a pre-velar stop, /ⁿɡ̟ ~ ⁿk̟/ in Yanyuwa.

nyw is used for /ɲʷ/ in Arrernte.

nzv is used for the prenasalized whistled sibilant /ndz͎/ in Shona.

nǃh is used for the alveolar murmured nasal click /ᵑǃʱ/ in Juǀʼhoan

nǀh is used for the dental murmured nasal click /ᵑǀʱ/ in Juǀʼhoan.

nǁh is used for the lateral murmured nasal click /ᵑǁʱ/ in Juǀʼhoan.

nǂh is used for the palatal murmured nasal click /ᵑǂʱ/ in Juǀʼhoan.

O[edit]

obh is used for /əu̯/ (/oː/ in Ulster) in Irish.

odh is used for /əu̯/ (/oː/ in Ulster) in Irish.

oeë is used for /uː/ in Afrikaans.

oei is used for /uiː/ in Dutch and Afrikaans.

oen is that represents a Walloon nasal vowel.

oeu is used for /ø/ and /øː/ in the Classical Milanese orthography for the Milanese dialect of Lombard.

ogh is used for /əu̯/ (/oː/ in Ulster) in Irish.

oin is used for /wɛ̃/ (/wɛn/ before a vowel) in French. In Tibetan Pinyin, it represents /ø̃/ and is alternately ön.

oío is used for /iː/ in Irish, between broad consonants.

omh is used for /oː/ in Irish.

ooi is used for /oːi̯/ in Dutch and Afrikaans.

oqh is used for the strident vowel /o᷽/ in the practical orthography of Taa. (If this symbol does not display properly, it is an ⟨o⟩ with a double tilde ⟨≈⟩ underneath.)

P–R[edit]

plh is used for /pˡʰ/ in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong.

pmw is used for /ᵖmʷ/ in Arrernte.

pqb is used for /ᵖqᵇ/ in Soninke.

p'h is used in Kuanua, in p'hoq̄e'ẽ "water".

pss is used for /psˤ/ in Silesian.

que is used for final /k/ in some English words of French origin, such as macaque, oblique, opaque, and torque.

quh is used for /k/ in several English names of Scots origin, such as Sanquhar, Farquhar, and Urquhart or /h/, as in Colquhoun.

qxʼ is used for the affricate /qχʼ/ in the practical orthography of Taa.

rds is used for the sje sound /ɧ/ in Swedish in the word gärdsgård /'jæɧgo:ɖ/ "roundpole fence".

rlw is used for /ɭʷ/ in Arrernte.

rnd is used for a retroflex stop /ɳʈ ~ ɳɖ/ in Yanyuwa.

rng is used for [ɴŋ], a uvular nasal followed by velar nasal, in Inuktitut.

rnw is used for /ɳʷ/ in Arrernte.

rrh is used for /r/ in words of Greek derivation such as diarrhea.

rrw is used for /rʷ/ in Arrernte.

rsk is used for the sje sound /ɧ/ in Swedish as in the word marskalk /'maɧalk/ "marshal".

rtn is used for /ʈɳ/ in Arrernte.

rtw is used for /ʈʷ/ in Arrernte.

S[edit]

sch is used for [ʃ] in German and other languages influenced by it such as Low German and Romansh. It is used for the sje sound /ɧ/ in Swedish at the end of a French loanword, e.g. marsch (fr. marche), or in Greek loanwords, such as schema (schedule) and ischias. In Walloon it represents a consonant that is variously /h/, /ʃ/, /ç/ or /sk/, depending on the dialect. In English, ⟨sch⟩ is usually used for /sk/, but the word schedule (from the Late Latin schedula) can be /sk/ or /ʃ/ depending on dialect. In Dutch it may represent word-final [s], as in the common suffix -isch and in some (sur)names, like Bosch and Den Bosch. In the Rheinische Dokumenta, ⟨sch⟩ is used to denote the sounds [ʃ], [ɕ] and [ʂ], while ⟨sch⟩ with an arc below denotes [ʒ].

sci is used in Italian for /ʃː/ before ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩.

shʼ is used in Bolivian Quechua for /ʂ/.

shr is used in Gwich'in for [ʂ].

skj represents a fricative phoneme /ʃ/ in some Scandinavian languages. In Faroese (e.g. at skjóta "to shoot") and in Norwegian (e.g. kanskje "maybe") it is a usually the voiceless postalveolar fricative [ʃ]. In Swedish (e.g. skjorta "shirt") it is often realised as the sje sound [ɧ].

ssi is used for /ʃ/ in English such as in mission. It is used in a few French loanwords in Swedish for the sje sound /ɧ/, e.g. assiett "dessert plate".

ssj is used for the sje sound /ɧ/ in a few Swedish words between two short vowels, such as hässja "hayrack".

sth is found in words of Greek origin. In French, it is pronounced /s/ before a consonant, as in isthme and asthme; in American English, it is pronounced /s/ in isthmus and /z/ in asthma.

stj is used for the sje sound /ɧ/ in 5 native Swedish words, it can also represent the voiceless postalveolar fricative /ʃ/ or the consonant cluster /stʲ/ in Norwegian depending on dialect.

ssz is a long Hungarian ⟨sz⟩, [sː]. It is collated as ⟨sz⟩ rather than as ⟨s⟩. It is only used within roots; when two ⟨sz⟩ are brought together in a compound word, they form the regular sequence ⟨szsz⟩.

sze is used for /siː/ in Cantonese romanization.

s-c and s-cc are used for the sequence /stʃ/ in Piedmontese.

s-g and s-gg are used for the sequence /zdʒ/ in Piedmontese.

T[edit]

tcg is used for the click /ǂχ/ in Naro.

tch is used for the aspirated click /ǂʰ/ in Naro, the aspirated affricate /tʃʰ/ in Sandawe, Hadza and Juǀʼhoan, and the affricate /tʃ/ in French and Portuguese. In modern Walloon it is /tʃ/, which used to be written ch. In Swedish it is used for the affricate /tʃ/ in a small number of English loanwords, such as match and batch. In English it is a variant of the digraph ⟨ch⟩, used in situations similar to those that trigger the digraph ⟨ck⟩ for ⟨k⟩.

tcx is used for the uvularized affricate /tʃᵡ/ in Juǀʼhoan.

thn and tnh are used for /ᵗ̪n̪/ in Arrernte.

ths is used for /tsʰ/ in Xhosa. It is often replaced with the ambiguous trigraph ⟨tsh⟩.

thw is used for /t̪ʷ/ in Arrernte.

tlh is used for /tɬʰ/ in languages such as Tswana, and is /tɬ/ in the fictional Klingon language from Star Trek, where it is treated as a single letter.

tnh and thn are used for /ᵗ̪n̪/ in Arrernte.

tnw is used for /ᵗnʷ/ in Arrernte.

tny is used for /ᶜɲ/ in Arrernte.

tsg is used for /tsχ/ in Naro.

tsh is used in various languages, such as Juǀʼhoan, for the aspirated affricate /tsʰ/. In the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, it represents the sound /tʂʰ/. In Xhosa, it may be used to write /tsʰ/, /tʃʼ/, or /tʃʰ/, though it is sometimes limited to /tʃʼ/, with /tsʰ/ and /tʃʰ/ distinguished as ⟨ths⟩ and ⟨thsh⟩.

tsj is used for /tʃ/ in Dutch and Norwegian.

tsv is used for the whistled sibilant affricate /ts͎/ in Shona.

tsx is used for the uvularized affricate /tsᵡ/ in Juǀʼhoan.

tsy is used for /tʃ/ or /dʒ/ in Seneca, can also be ⟨j⟩.

tsz is used for the syllables /t͡si/ and /t͡sʰi/ in Cantonese romanization.

tth is used for dental affricate /tθʰ/ in Chipewyan.

ttl is used for ejective /tɬʼ/ in Haida (Bringhurst orthography).

tts is used for ejective /tsʼ/ in Haida (Bringhurst orthography).

tty is used for [cː] in Hungarian as a geminated ⟨ty⟩. It is collated as ⟨ty⟩ rather than as ⟨t⟩. It is only used within roots; when two ⟨ty⟩ are brought together in a compound word, they form the regular sequence ⟨tyty⟩.

txh is used for /tsʰ/ in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong.

tyh is used for /tʲʰ/ in Xhosa.

tyw is used for /cʷ/ in Arrernte.

tze is used for /t͡si/ in Cantonese names (such as Cheung Tze-keung) or in Chinese names (such as Yangtze).

U–Z[edit]

uío is used for /iː/ in Irish, between broad consonants.

uqh is used for the strident vowel /u᷽/ in the practical orthography of Taa. (If this symbol does not display properly, it is an ⟨u⟩ with a double tilde ⟨≈⟩ underneath.)

urr is used for /χʷ/ in Central Alaskan Yup'ik.

xhw is used for /χʷ/ in Canadian Tlingit, which is written xw⟩ in Alaska.

zzs is used for [ʒː] in Hungarian as a geminated ⟨zs⟩. It is collated as ⟨zs⟩ rather than as ⟨z⟩. It is only used within roots; when two ⟨zs⟩ are brought together in a compound word, they form the regular sequence ⟨zszs⟩.

Other[edit]

ŋgb (capital Ŋgb) is used for [ŋ͡mɡ͡b] in Kabiye, a pre-nasalized ⟨gb⟩.

ǃʼh ǀʼh ǁʼh ǂʼh are used in Juǀʼhoan for its four aspirated nasal clicks, /ᵑ̊ǃʰ, ᵑ̊ǀʰ, ᵑ̊ǁʰ, ᵑ̊ǂʰ/.

ǃkx ǀkh ǁkx ǂkx are used in Khoekhoe for its four plain aspirated clicks, /ǃʰ, ǀʰ, ǁʰ, ǂʰ/.