List of chief ministers of Punjab (India)

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Chief Minister of Punjab
Seal of Punjab.svg
Bhagwant Mann Portrail 2022.jpg
Incumbent
Bhagwant Mann

since 16 March 2022 (2022-03-16)
Chief Minister's Office
StyleThe Honourable (Formal)
Mr. Chief Minister (Informal)
StatusHead of government
AbbreviationCM
Member of
Reports toGovernor of Punjab
ResidenceDream Land Colony, Patiala Road, Sangrur-148001, Punjab
SeatPunjab Civil Secretariat, Capitol Complex, Chandigarh
AppointerGovernor of Punjab
Term lengthAt the confidence of the assembly
Chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.[1]
PrecursorPrime Minister of Punjab

Prime Minister of East Punjab

Chief Minister of PEPSU
Inaugural holderGopi Chand Bhargava
Formation5 April 1937
(85 years ago)
 (1937-04-05)
DeputyDeputy Chief Minister
Salary
  • 230,000 (US$2,900)/monthly[2]
  • 2,760,000 (US$35,000)/annually

The chief minister of Punjab, an Indian state, is the head of the government of Punjab. As per the Constitution of India, the Governor of Punjab is the state's head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the Punjab Legislative Assembly, the governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.[1]

History[edit]

Punjab Province (1937-1947)[edit]

The province of Punjab was then headquartered in Lahore.Under the Government of India Act 1935, a bicameral legislature was set up with a legislative assembly and a legislative council with a government headed by the Prime Minister. The Unionist Party won the Punjab Provincial Assembly elections, 1937 and Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan became the Premier of Punjab and hold the position up to his death in 1942. Khan was succeeded by Sir Khizar Tiwana. In 1946 elections were held the Unionist Party stood fourth place but with the support of Indian National Congress and Shiromani Akali Dal formed the government under Sir Khizar Tiwana. Tiwana later resigned on 2 March 1947 against the decision of Partition of India.

Patiala and East Punjab States Union (1948-1956)[edit]

Patiala and East Punjab States Union or PEPSU was an Indian state formed by the union of the post-partition province of Punjab on the Indian side of the border with eight princely states, which were allowed to maintain their native monarchs. The state was inaugurated on 15 July 1948 and formally became a state in 1950. Among these princely states, six were salute states:- Patiala, Jind, Kapurthala, Nabha, Faridkot and Malerkotla. The other two states were Nalagarh and Kalsia. PEPSU was earlier headed by the Premier, from 1952 the Chief Minister become the head of the government. On 1 November 1956, PEPSU was merged mostly into East Punjab( Punjab from 1950) following the States Reorganisation Act, 1956.

East Punjab (1947-1966)[edit]

The state of East Punjab was formed in 1947 later it was renamed Punjab in 1950. It consisted of the parts of the Punjab Province of British India that went to India following the partition of India. Since 1947, Punjab has had fifteen chief ministers. The first was Gopi Chand Bhargava of the Indian National Congress party, who was sworn in on 15 August 1947, when India gained independence from the British. He was succeeded by fellow Congressman Bhim Sen Sachar, who was then subsequently replaced after 188 days by former Chief Minister Gopi Chand Bhargava. After a brief term, President Rajendra Prasad placed the Punjab Legislative Assembly under suspension for ninth months to help the state government gets its act together. In 1952, the first state elections took place for the Legislative Assembly. The results of the election saw the return of the Congress government with former Chief Minister Bhim Sen Sachar as its leader. After he resigned in 1956, Partap Singh Kairon became chief minister. Serving until 1964, Kairon remains one of Punjab's longest-serving chief ministers. He was followed by the returning Chief Minister Gopi Chand Bhargava, who briefly held office as acting chief minister for only 15 days. In July 1964, Ram Kishan assumed the office and served for two years. His tenure was followed by the President's rule which lasted for 119 days. On 1 November 1966, the state of Haryana was partitioned from Punjab and some other districts were given to the state of Himachal Pradesh.

Punjab (Since 1969)[edit]

The first chief minister of the newly re-configured state was Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir who led a Congress government from the Vidhan Parishad, one of only two to have done so. In the 1967 elections, he was voted out of power in favour of the Akali Das Sant Fateh Singh Group whose leader Gurnam Singh became the first non-Congress chief minister. Gurnam Singh's government was succeeded by three short-lived Akali Dal governments—Lachhman Singh Gill's government for less than a year and a little more than a year under the returning Gurnam Singh and Parkash Singh Badal. After 272 days under President's rule, the Congress party returned to power under the future President Zail Singh. In 1977, Parkash Singh Badal became the chief minister for the second time. Darbara Singh became chief minister in 1980 and remained in office for three years before a long period under President's rule. A brief interlude under Surjit Singh Barnala followed, after which three Congress-led governments took office—led by Beant Singh from 1992 to 1995, Harcharan Singh Brar from 1995 to 1996 and Rajinder Kaur Bhattal from 1996 to 1997. Upon taking office, Rajinder Kaur Bhattal became the first female chief minister of Punjab and overall the 8th female chief minister in India.

Parkash Singh Badal assumed office for the third time in 1997 and became the first chief minister, since Kairon's resignation in 1964, to serve a full term. Badal was succeeded by Congressman Amarinder Singh, who also successfully served a full term. In 2017 he became CM for the second time but failed to complete his tenure due to internal political factionalism and Charanjit Singh Channi became the first Dalit chief minister of Punjab just 6 months before the expiry of the 15th assembly.

Office[edit]

The office of the chief minister of Punjab is located at Punjab Civil Secretariat, Sector – 1, Chandigarh.[3]

Key[edit]

  •   Acting Chief Minister

Precursors[edit]

Punjab Province (1937-1947)[edit]

No Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)
(Constituency)

Party
(Alliance/ Partner)
Term of office[4] Time in office Assembly
(Election)
Appointed by
Took office Left office
1 Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan.png Sikandar Hayat Khan
(1882-1942)
(West-Punjab Landlord)
Unionist Party 5 April 1937 26 December 1942[d] 5 years, 265 days 1st
(1937)
Herbert William Emerson
2 Malik Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana.png Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana
(1900-1975)
(Khushab)
30 December 1942 19 March 1945 2 years, 79 days Bertrand Glancy
(i) Governor
Rule
- 19 March 1945 21 March 1946 1 year, 2 days - Viscount Wavell
(2) Malik Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana.png Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana
(1900-1975)
(Khushab)
Unionist Party
(INC-SAD)
21 March 1946 2 March 1947 346 days 2nd
(1946)
Bertrand Glancy
(ii) Governor
Rule
- 2 March 1947 15 August 1947[pd] 166 days - Earl Mountbatten

Patiala and East Punjab States Union (1948-1956)[edit]

No.[a] Portrait Name Tenure[5][6] Assembly

(election)

Appointed by Party[b]
Premier of PEPSU (1948-52)
1 Gian Singh Rarewala ex CM.png Gian Singh Rarewala 15 July 1948 13 January 1949 2 years, 312 days Caretaker Government Yadavindra Singh Independent

(Shiromani Akali Dal)

13 January 1949 23 May 1951 Not yet created
2 Raghbir Singh 23 May 1951 21 April 1952 334 days Indian National Congress
Chief Minister of PEPSU (1952-56)
1 Gian Singh Rarewala ex CM.png Gian Singh Rarewala 22 April 1952 5 March 1953 317 days 1st Assembly

(1952 election)

Yadavindra Singh Independent
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
5 March 1953 8 March 1954 1 year, 3 days N/A
2 Raghbir Singh 8 March 1954 12 January 1955
[d]
310 days 2nd Assembly

(1954 election)

Yadavindra Singh Indian National Congress
3 Brish Bhan.png Brish Bhan 12 January 1955 1 November 1956
[pd]
1 year, 294 days

[8]

Chief Minister of Punjab[edit]

No[d] Portrait Name Constituency Tenure Assembly

(election)

Party[e]
1 Gopi Chand Bhargava.png Gopi Chand Bhargava University 15 August 1947 13 April 1949[f] 1 year, 241 days Interim
Assembly
Indian National Congress
2 Bhim Sen Sachar.png Bhim Sen Sachar Lahore City 13 April 1949 18 October 1949 188 days
(1) Gopi Chand Bhargava.png Gopi Chand Bhargava University 18 October 1949 20 June 1951 1 year, 245 days
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
20 June 1951 17 April 1952 302 days N/A
(2) Bhim Sen Sachar.png Bhim Sen Sachar Ludhiana City South 17 April 1952 22 July 1953[g] 3 years, 281 days 1st
Assembly

(1952 election)

Indian National Congress
22 July 1953 23 January 1956
3 Partap Singh Kairon.png Partap Singh Kairon Sujanpur 23 January 1956 9 April 1957 8 years, 150 days
9 April 1957 11 March 1962 2nd
Assembly

(1957 election)

11 March 1962 21 June 1964 3rd
Assembly

(1962 election)

Gopi Chand Bhargava.png Gopi Chand Bhargava MLC 21 June 1964[h] 6 July 1964 15 days
4 Ram Kishan.png Ram Kishan Jalandhar North East 7 July 1964 5 July 1966 1 year, 363 days
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
5 July 1966 1 November 1966 119 days N/A
Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 enacted
5 Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir.png Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir MLC 1 November 1966 8 March 1967 127 days 3rd
Assembly

(1962 election)

Indian National Congress
6 Justice Gurnam Singh (cropped).jpg Gurnam Singh Qila Raipur 8 March 1967 25 November 1967 262 days 4th
Assembly

(1967 election)

Akali Dal - Sant Fateh Singh
(BJS-CPI)
7 Lachhman Singh Gill.png Lachhman Singh Gill Dharamkot 25 November 1967 23 August 1968 272 days Punjab Janta Party
(INC)
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
23 August 1968 17 February 1969 178 days N/A
(6) Justice Gurnam Singh (cropped).jpg Gurnam Singh Qila Raipur 17 February 1969 27 March 1970 1 year, 38 days 5th
Assembly

(1969 election)

Shiromani Akali Dal
(BJS)
8 Parkash Singh Badal Former CM Punjab.jpg Parkash Singh Badal Gidderbaha 27 March 1970 14 June 1971 1 year, 79 days
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
14 June 1971 17 March 1972 277 days N/A
9 Giani Zail Singh 1995 stamp of India (cropped).png Zail Singh Anandpur Sahib 17 March 1972 30 April 1977 5 years, 44 days 6th
Assembly

(1972 election)

Indian National Congress
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
30 April 1977 20 June 1977 51 days N/A
(8) Parkash Singh Badal Former CM Punjab.jpg Parkash Singh Badal Gidderbaha 20 June 1977 17 February 1980 2 years, 242 days 7th
Assembly

(1977 election)

Shiromani Akali Dal
(JP-CPI)
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
17 February 1980 6 June 1980 110 days N/A
10 Darbara Singh.png Darbara Singh Nakodar 6 June 1980 6 October 1983 3 years, 122 days 8th
Assembly

(1980 election)

Indian National Congress
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
6 October 1983 29 September 1985 1 year, 358 days N/A
11 The Vice President, Shri Mohd. Hamid Ansari with the Governor of Tamil Nadu, Shri Surjit Singh Barnala and the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, Dr. Kalaignar M. Karunanidhi (cropped) (Surjit Singh Barnala).png Surjit Singh Barnala Barnala 29 September 1985 11 June 1987 1 year, 255 days 9th
Assembly

(1985 election)

Shiromani Akali Dal
Emblem of India.svg Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
11 June 1987 25 February 1992 4 years, 259 days N/A
12 Beant Singh 2013 stamp of India (cropped).png Beant Singh Jalandhar Cantonment 25 February 1992 31 August 1995
[†]
3 years, 187 days 10th
Assembly

(1992 election)

Indian National Congress
13 Harcharan Singh Brar ex CM.png Harcharan Singh Brar Muktsar 31 August 1995 21 November 1996 1 year, 82 days
14 Rajinder Kaur Bhattal.jpg Rajinder Kaur Bhattal Lehra 21 November 1996 11 February 1997 82 days
(8) Parkash Singh Badal Former CM Punjab.jpg Parkash Singh Badal Lambi 12 February 1997 26 February 2002 5 years, 14 days 11th
Assembly

(1997 election)

Shiromani Akali Dal
(BJP)
15 Amarinder Singh.jpg Amarinder Singh Patiala Urban 26 February 2002 1 March 2007 5 years, 3 days 12th
Assembly

(2002 election)

Indian National Congress
(8) Parkash Singh Badal Former CM Punjab.jpg Parkash Singh Badal Lambi 1 March 2007 14 March 2012 10 years, 15 days 13th
Assembly

(2007 election)

Shiromani Akali Dal
(BJP)
14 March 2012 16 March 2017 14th
Assembly

(2012 election)

(15) Amarinder Singh.jpg Amarinder Singh Patiala Urban 16 March 2017 20 September 2021 4 years, 188 days 15th
Assembly

(2017 election)

Indian National Congress
16 Charanjit Singh Channi (cropped).png Charanjit Singh Channi Chamkaur Sahib 20 September 2021 16 March 2022 177 days
17 Bhagwant Mann Lok Sabha.jpg Bhagwant Mann Dhuri 16 March 2022 Incumbent 150 days 16th Assembly
(2022 election)
Aam Aadmi Party

List of Chief Ministers of Punjab by Party[edit]

Following is the summary of the hold of the Chief Minister's office by members of Indian political parties.

S. No. Party Number of Chief Ministers Total days of holding CM Office
1 Indian National Congress 12 15278 days
2 Shiromani Akali Dal 3 7977 days
3 Punjab Janta Party 1 272 days
4 Akali Dal Sant 1 262 days
5 Aam Aadmi Party 1 150 days

Parties by number of their members served as Punjab Chief Ministers[edit]

2.5
5
7.5
10
12.5
15
INC
SAD
ADSF
PJP
AAP

Living former Chief Ministers of Punjab[edit]

As of 13 August 2022, there are four Living former chief ministers of Punjab:

The most recent death of a former chief minister was that of Surjit Singh Barnala on 14 January 2017.[9]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A number in parentheses indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  2. ^ This column only names the chief minister's party. The state government he heads may be a complex coalition of several parties and independents; these are not listed here.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i President's rule may be imposed when the "government in a state is not able to function as per the Constitution", which often happens because no party or coalition has a majority in the assembly. When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of the chief minister thus lies vacant, and the administration is taken over by the governor, who functions on behalf of the central government. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.[7]
  4. ^ A number in parentheses indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  5. ^ This column only names the chief minister's party. The state government he heads may be a complex coalition of several parties and independents; these are not listed here.
  6. ^ Bhargava resigned from the post of chief minister on 6 April 1949 but hold the office until Sachar succeeded him on 13 April.
  7. ^ Sachar resigned from the post of Chief Minister due to the differences with cabinet ministers Sri Ram Sharma, but on same day re-sworn as Chief Minister.
  8. ^ Bhargava was also the only caretaker Chief Minister who served for a few days due to the resignation of Partap Singh Kairon.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Durga Das Basu. Introduction to the Constitution of India. 1960. 20th Edition, 2011 Reprint. pp. 241, 245. LexisNexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9. Note: although the text talks about Indian state governments in general, it applies for the specific case of Punjab as well.
  2. ^ Captain Amarinder Singh. Pay Check. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  3. ^ "Chief Minister, Punjab Office". Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  4. ^ World statesman - British India
  5. ^ "Honorable Chief Ministers of Madhya Pradesh" (in Hindi). Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Retrieved on 14 September 2018.
  6. ^ "Instances of 'President's Rule' in Madhya Pradesh" (in Hindi). Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Retrieved on 14 September 2018.
  7. ^ Amberish K. Diwanji. "A dummy's guide to President's rule". Rediff.com. 15 March 2005.
  8. ^ "Bhagwant Mann: Age, Biography, Education, Wife, Caste, Net Worth & More". Oneindia. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  9. ^ The Hindu, 14 January 2017. Surjit Singh Barnala passes away. Retrieved 11 February 2021.

External links[edit]