KPS 9566

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KPS 9566
Alias(es)ISO-IR-202 (1997 version)
Language(s)Korean, English, Russian
Partial support:
Greek, Japanese
StandardKPS 9566
Current statusUsed only in North Korea.
ClassificationISO-2022-compatible DBCS, CJK encoding
Encoding formatsUHC-style encoding,[1] ISO 2022.
Other related encoding(s)KS X 1001, GB 12052

KPS 9566 ("DPRK Standard Korean Graphic Character Set for Information Interchange")[2] is a North Korean standard specifying a character encoding for the Chosŏn'gŭl (Hangul) writing system used for the Korean language. The edition of 1997 specified an ISO 2022-compliant 94×94 two-byte coded character set. Subsequent editions have added additional encoded characters outside of the 94×94 plane, in a manner comparable to UHC or GBK.[3]

KPS 9566 differs in approach from KS X 1001, its South Korean counterpart, in using a different ordering of chosŏn'gŭl,[4] in encoding explicit vertical presentation forms of punctuation, in not encoding duplicate hanja for multiple readings, and in including several characters specific to the North Korean political system, including special encodings for the names of the country's past and present leaders (Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il and Kim Jong-un).[1][2][3][5]

Although KPS 9566 was the original source of several characters added to Unicode,[6] not all KPS 9566 characters have Unicode equivalents. Those which do not are mapped to similar Unicode characters or to the Private Use Area.[7]

Background and other standards[edit]

The ASCII character set originated in the United States in 1963, and was revised in 1967 to the form it has today.[8] ASCII also became accepted as an international standard in 1967, becoming ECMA-6,[8] designated ISO/IEC 646 by the International Organization for Standardization.[9] It is presently designated ANSI X3.4-1986 and ISO 646:1991.[10] ASCII was a 7-bit, single-byte encoding including 94 graphical characters, the space, and 33 control codes, which provided basic support for representing American English text as a series of bytes.[8][10]

The next edition of ISO 646, published in 1972, revised the standard to introduce the concept of national versions of the code, allowing countries to replace a few less commonly used codes with their own required characters. At the same time, work on defining extension mechanisms for ASCII was underway, with the intention of being applicable to both 7-bit and 8-bit environments. This was completed in 1973 and published as JIS X 0202, ECMA-35 and ISO 2022.[11] ISO 2022 specifies mechanisms for using single-byte and multiple-byte character sets with a certain structure in both 7-bit and 8-bit environments, and for declaring and switching between them in a standard fashion using shift codes and escape sequences.[12]

Countries in East Asia, due to using large repertoires of Chinese characters, introduced standardised double-byte encodings (DBCS) for their writing systems, since the number of characters representable in a single-byte code was not sufficient. In an ISO 2022 compliant DBCS, every character can be represented with two ASCII printing character bytes; the location of a character can be referenced by these byte values, or by two numbers from 1 to 94 (a kuten), equal to the respective bytes minus 32.[13] The first registered ISO 2022 compliant DBCS, and the first East Asian DBCS to be established as a national standard, was the first edition of JIS X 0208 (Japan), published in 1978.[14][15] This was followed by GB 2312 (Mainland China) in 1980, and by Wansung code (South Korea; first designated KS C 5601-1987) in 1987.[16][15] Big5 (Taiwan), defined in 1984, did not follow the ISO 2022 structure.[16] When used in an 8-bit (rather than 7-bit) environment, GB 2312 and Wansung code were usually used with the eighth bit set, with ASCII or a similar SBCS used with the eighth bit unset; these encoding schemes are known as EUC-CN and EUC-KR, respectively.[17]

Although the Korean writing system includes individual symbols (jamo) for consonants and vowels, serving as an alphabet, Korean text is properly typeset with these symbols composed into blocks for each syllable. Wansung code included individual Korean syllable blocks separately, treating them as a large set of characters similarly to hanja,[18] and was first defined by the third edition of the South Korean standard KS C 5601. The first edition had defined an encoding of individual jamo which allowed syllable blocks to be encoded as sequences, which was named N-byte Hangul, and had not been adopted as widely as intended.[19][20]

Wansung code did not encode all possible modern Korean syllables, only a selection of the 2350 most common,[2] although it allowed them to be specified using combining sequences, which often were not supported.[18] An alternative encoding, also South Korean, named Johab did, and served as a competitor to Wansung for some time.[19] Unified Hangul Code (UHC), introduced by Microsoft with Windows 95, extended EUC-KR, allowing the use of invalid EUC double-byte codes to represent all other syllables available in Johab.[18] A similar approach was taken by the Mainland Chinese GBK encoding, extending GB 2312 with support for Traditional Chinese and for less common Chinese characters by encoding them to double-byte codes invalid in EUC-CN.[16]

South Korea was not the only country developing an ISO 2022 DBCS for Korean: the Mainland Chinese GB 12052 was published in 1989. This was not closely related to Wansung code, although it also included composed syllables. Instead, it corresponded to GB 2312 with Korean syllables (and 94 hanja) replacing the Chinese characters, except for the inclusion of a dollar sign in place of a yuan sign. It may have been developed for use by the Korean minority in north-eastern China.[2]

Likewise, North Korea developed KPS 9566. Although North Korea and South Korea both use Korean Chosŏn'gŭl (Hangul) as their primary writing system, they use different lexicographical orders.[21] Hence, character ordering differs between Wansung code and KPS 9566.[4]

KPS 9566 has undergone several revisions, including editions of 1997 and 2003,[22] mainly to enhance compatibility with Unicode. These are commonly indicated by specifying the year (e.g. KPS 9566-97, 9566-2003). The current edition as of the release of Red Star OS 3.0 appears to be KPS 9566-2011, which adds Kim Jong-un to the list of leaders.[3] The publicly available code chart for the 1997 edition of KPS 9566 shows a ISO 2022 94×94 plane.[23] The more recent editions, from what sources of information are available outside of North Korea itself, appear to define additional allocations outside of the EUC plane (similarly to GBK or UHC).[3]

Due to the interoperability issues arising from the use of multiple national standard and platform- or font-specific proprietary character encodings, the Unicode standard was developed with the intent of allowing all representable text to be interchanged in a single, universal format. The first edition of Unicode was published in 1991 and 1992,[24] and ISO/IEC 10646 was established in sync with Unicode in 1993.[25] Unicode formats are preferred for international use on the World Wide Web, where legacy character encodings are treated as partial encodings of Unicode by means of mapping files.[26][27]

Design[edit]

In principle, KPS 9566 is similar to the Wansung character set defined by the South Korean KS X 1001 standard, although the two are not compatible. Both encode a section of punctuation, symbols, jamo, kana and alphabetical characters, followed by a subset of the possible modern chosŏn'gŭl syllables, followed by a section of hanja.[2] However, KPS 9566 uses a different ordering of jamo and syllables to conform with North Korean lexicographical ordering standards.[4] KPS 9566 also includes 28 explicitly rotated punctuation characters for vertical typography, which KS X 1001 does not, and encodes each hanja only once, whereas KS X 1001 encodes several hanja with multiple readings multiple times.[2]

KPS 9566-97 encodes a total of 2679 chosŏn'gŭl syllables and 4653 hanja. This provides better coverage than the 2350 syllables encoded by Wansung code: for instance, the 똠 character used in the name of 똠방각하 [ko], a noted Korean literary work, does not have an assigned Wansung codepoint, but has one (38-02) in KPS 9566.[2] The hanja section includes 4652 characters from the Unified Repertoire and Ordering and one from CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A. The entirety of row 15, the latter half of row 44 (after the syllables block) and the latter half of row 94 (after the hanja block) may be used for user-defined purposes.[2]

KPS 9566 is especially distinguished by its inclusion of several special characters from North Korean political life. Specifically, it includes the hammer, sickle and brush emblem of the Workers' Party of Korea, both uncircled and circled[7] (code points 12-01 and 12-02),[23] and two groups of three special-purpose characters which spell out the names of the North Korean leaders Kim Il-sung (김일성) and Kim Jong-il (김정일) in a special decorative font (code points 04-72 to 04-74 and 04-75 to 04-77, respectively).[28] The syllables for Kim and Il, which are identical in the spelling of both names, are encoded twice. KPS 9566-2011 additionally includes the name of Kim Jong-un (김정은) as code points 04-78 to 04-80.[3][5]

Due to these special characters, there is currently no full round-trip compatibility between KPS 9566 and Unicode, unless unsupported characters are mapped to the Private Use Area.[1]

KPS 10721[edit]

North Korea also developed a second character set, KPS 10721 "Code of the supplementary Korean Hanja Set for Information Interchange", which was published in 2000. KPS 10721 encodes a set of at least 19469 hanja[2] additional to those included in KPS 9566. As of 2009, these did not all have mappings to Unicode, but included 10358 from the Unified Repertoire and Ordering, 3187 from CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A and 107 from CJK Compatibility Ideographs (all in the Basic Multilingual Plane), as well as 5767 from CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B and 50 from CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement (in the Supplementary Ideographic Plane).[2]

Besides the mapping of these hanja to Unicode, little is known about the KPS 10721 standard outside of North Korea.[2][5] North Korean reference glyphs are not provided for these hanja in the Unicode code charts, due to a lack of suitable font data available to the Unicode Consortium.[29] Unicode hanja characters with KPS 9566 or KPS 10721 sources are nonetheless cross-referenced to their KPS codes in the Unihan database with the key kIRG_KPSource.[30]

Documentation and relationship to Unicode[edit]

Unicode's initial coverage of Korean syllables, added in version 1.0, was based on Wansung code. In Unicode version 2.0, a new block of Korean syllables (the present Hangul Syllables block) was added, based on the syllable repertoire available in Johab, and the previous block was deleted (it is now occupied by CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A). This was done under the assumption that no Unicode-encoded Korean data existed yet, but became known as the "Korean mess", and the responsible committees pledged not to make such an incompatible change in the future,[31] a pledge codified by the Unicode Stability Policy.[32]

The code chart for KPS 9566-97, published April 1997,[2] was submitted to the ISO International Register of Coded Character Sets for registration for use with ISO/IEC 2022. It was registered in June 1998 with the number ISO-IR-202. This code chart is publicly available from the Information Processing Society of Japan.[23]

In August 1999, the North Korean national body submitted a document to WG2 (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2 Working Group 2), the ISO body responsible for ISO/IEC 10646, the international standard corresponding to Unicode. This document requested the addition of the KPS 9566 codes to the existing cross-references from the CJK Unified Ideographs charts, the addition of 80 symbol characters from KPS 9566 which did not have existing Unicode mappings, a resolution to the difference in collation order between KPS 9566 and Unicode (due to the order of the characters in Unicode following the South Korean encodings) and the addition of 8 combining jamo. It also requested for WG2 to edit the existing Unicode character and block names to use the term "Korean character" rather than "Hangul".[33] An expanded version of this proposal, broken into several documents, was submitted as a work item in December 1999.[34]

A detailed response was submitted by the Swedish representative in March 2000, opposing several of the points and elaborating on Sweden's vote against the proposal. This response stated that changing the encoding of the Korean characters again would cause major disruption, even more so than the first time, which was done when comparatively few implementations existed, but which in retrospect should not have been done. It explained that that few or no languages can be collated correctly by code point value, and that a tailoring for the Unicode Collation Algorithm or ISO/IEC 14651 (then being drafted) should be used for that purpose, and that normative names of characters already assigned cannot be changed, due to the stability policy, although non-normative translations to other languages can be employed. It suggested that a machine-readable mapping file between Unicode and KPS 9566 could be provided by the North Korean body itself, and would be more useful than a printed cross-reference in the standard document. Regarding the proposed additional characters, the response stated that characters which would have compatibility decompositions in Unicode should not be added and that logos, including those of political parties, and special characters for names of particular people should not be added.[35]

In July 2000, the North Korean body wrote to WG2, accusing them of developing both versions of the Unicode encoding for Korean on the basis of South Korean proposals only, without consulting North Korea, accusing them putting the commercial interests of companies and fears of international confusion over respect to North Korea's sovereignty, and stating that North Korea would regard further refusal to change the name and order of the Korean characters in Unicode as an insult to their sovereign dignity and as compromising the ISO's claims to impartiality. They re-iterated their demand for WG2 and Unicode to "correct" the order of the Korean characters, and to "correct" the names "Hangul Jamo" and "Hangul Syllable" to "Korean Alphabet" and "Korean Syllable".[4]

In August 2000, the North Korean national body submitted a more detailed version of their requests in a series of five consecutive proposals. These requested the addition of 14 additional jamo characters,[36] the addition of 82 symbol characters,[37] and the use of the term "Korean alphabet" instead of "Hangul",[38] provided supporting evidence for the North Korean collation order,[21] and requested addition of the North Korean hanja repertoire.[39] These proposals were discussed in two meetings between North Korean, South Korean, Swedish and other WG2 representatives in September 2000, in which the North Korean body was asked to provide manuscript evidence for the additional jamo characters, to resubmit their symbols proposal with symbols which had already been accepted into Unicode removed, and to consider using ISO/IEC 14651, then at final draft stage, for collation purposes.[40]

In September 2001, the North Korean national body submitted a revised series of proposals requesting the addition of several KPS 9566 and KPS 10721 characters, including 70 symbol characters, to Unicode.[41][42] In this version of the proposal, a section of document excerpts demonstrating use of several characters and short explanations of their purpose was included. The Workers' Party of Korea symbol was named the "Hammer and Sickle and Brush",[41] renamed from "Mark of the Workers' Party of Korea" in earlier versions of the proposal,[37] and justified as being used as an identifying symbol on maps.[41] As justification for the proposed characters for leaders' names, they explained that the leaders' names often appear with a different size and font weight in North Korean publications for the purpose of emphasis.[41] A follow-up by South Korean WG2 representatives requested evidence, names in Korean and justifications for adding certain of these characters, and noted that non-emphasised versions of the characters for the leaders' names already existed.[43] A meeting of North and South Korean representatives from WG2 was convened in October 2001, which recommended 47 of the symbol characters for adding to Unicode, and suggested that the leaders' names and WPK symbols be raised for further discussion by WG2.[44]

A subsequent feedback document from February 2002 regarding the North Korean proposed additions requested that the "tea" symbol for a tea house be accepted as a more general "hot beverage" symbol, equating it with symbols used in guidebooks to denote hot or non-alcoholic beverages. It also recommended that the reference glyph for the existing codepoint for an umbrella without rain be modified to harmonise with the proposed reference glyph for the umbrella with rain, equating them to the "keep dry" symbols used on packaging, and raised the question of which lightning bolt and high voltage warning symbols in existing symbol collections could be unified with the proposed "high voltage" character.[45] All three of these characters were accepted into Unicode in version 4.0.[46] It also recommended that the horizontal-barred fractions and the left-up pointing scissors be encoded using a variation selector, since the scissors did not accompany a differently-oriented pair of scissors, and since the existing Unicode fraction codepoints unified the skewed and horizontal forms.[45]

In November 2002, the South Korean body published a set of three-way tables mapping characters between the KPS 9566, KS X 1001 (as EUC-KR) and ISO/IEC 10646 standards as they existed in 2000. These tables had been prepared without input from North Korea.[47]

In August 2004, a pair of mapping tables between KPS 9566-2003 and Unicode were submitted to the OpenOffice.org project by an individual using the name "ooprojlover", who stated that they represented the updated version of the KPS 9566 standard and requested that support be added.[22] These files mapped the characters unavailable in Unicode to the Private Use Area, and included additional encoded forms for other syllable blocks outside of the main ISO-IR-202 plane. A mapping table was later published by the Unicode Consortium in 2011, based on this mapping data but with errors corrected with reference to the ISO-IR chart.[1]

Copies of Red Star OS 3.0 include fonts for a more recent edition of KPS 9566, appearing to be KPS 9566-2011. The mapping table used by Red Star OS internally has been successfully extracted. Besides adding Kim Jong-un to the list of leaders, KPS 9566-2011 amends the mappings of certain vertical forms compared to the 2003 mappings (taking advantage of the Vertical Forms block added in Unicode 4.1), and also includes several additional hanja and symbols encoded outside of the ISO-IR-202 plane. Several of these additional symbols are also mapped to the Private Use Area; however, their identity is not known, since no names or reference glyphs for those characters are known outside of North Korea.[3]

Impact on Unicode today[edit]

Several current Unicode characters were added to Unicode 4.0 as a result of the North Korean proposals, although not always at the original proposed codepoints. These include HOT BEVERAGE (☕, proposed as TEA SYMBOL), which was proposed as a map symbol for marking a tea house, and the flag symbols WHITE FLAG (⚐) and BLACK FLAG (⚑), which were proposed as map symbols for sites of battles and military victories.[6] These characters were proposed for the provisional code points U+270A, U+268E and U+268F respectively,[44] but encoded at the final code points U+2615, U+2690 and U+2691 respectively.[48] They also include a series of directional bold arrows in the range U+2B05 through U+2B0D,[44] excluding a rightward arrow, which was mapped to an existing character in the Dingbats block,[49] which were added at the same code points they were proposed for, besides the north-east and north-west arrows being swapped compared to the proposal.[50]

Other pictographic characters which were included in the North Korean proposal include the umbrella with raindrops (☔), the lightning bolt for high voltage (⚡) and the warning triangle (⚠).[44] Following some discussion about which other high voltage symbol glyphs in use represented the same character as the one from the North Korean proposal,[45] and which glyph would be best to include for it in the Unicode code chart,[51] and following modification of the code chart glyph of the existing umbrella character without rain (U+2602, ☂) to harmonise with the new umbrella with raindrops from the North Korean proposal,[45][53] these characters were also added in Unicode 4.0, at the same time as the flags and the beverage symbol.[46][48][51] Although proposed for the provisional code points U+2618, U+267F and U+267E,[44] they were given the final code points U+2614, U+26A1 and U+26A0 respectively.[48]

Of these characters, the hot beverage, umbrella with raindrops, lightning bolt and warning triangle, and the upward, downward and leftward arrows were subsequently selected as mappings from the Japanese cellular emoji sets,[54] making a total of seven current Unicode emoji which were originally added to Unicode at the request of North Korea. The umbrella with raindrops and the upward, downward and leftward arrows were also unified with characters from the ARIB extensions used in Japanese broadcasting,[55] which include several characters now classified as emoji,[56] and was mapped to Unicode in Unicode 5.2.[57] However, the pair of white and black flags used as emoji or in emoji regional and identity flag sequences is a different, "waving" set added in Unicode 7.0 (U+1F3F3 🏳 and U+1F3F4 🏴),[58][59] not the North Korean pair.

As of 2018, several KPS 9566 characters remained which are not mapped to Unicode. These include the WPK symbol, four triangular marks, a leftward-pointing pair of scissors (excluded on the rationale that contrastive use with the rightward scissors in the Dingbats block had not been demonstrated), an upward-pointing manicule in a circle, vertical presentation forms of punctuation marks, variants of closing brackets incorporating full stops, horizontal-barred variants of vulgar fractions encoded separately from their slanted versions, and the leaders' names.[60]

A Japanese postal mark with a downward pointing triangle was included in KPS 9566-97 but removed in KPS 9566-2003[1] after the North Korean body had withdrawn it from their Unicode proposal for review[61] in response to requests from the South Korean body for evidence of the symbol's use in North Korea.[43] This mark was re-proposed in 2018 on the basis of KPS 9566 compatibility, and identified as an electrical conformity mark used in Japan prior to its replacement by the PSE diamond.[62] It was added to Unicode in version 13.0, published in 2020.

Encoded forms[edit]

The 1997 edition of KPS 9566 was registered with the International Register of Coded Character Sets for Use with Escape Sequences as ISO-IR-202,[23] and can therefore be encoded using ISO/IEC 2022. It is a 94n multiple-byte G-set, i.e. if it is used in a 7-bit ISO 2022 code (analogous to ISO-2022-JP or ISO-2022-KR), characters will be encoded with pairs of bytes between 0x21 and 0x7E when in the appropriate mode.

The documented mappings between KPS 9566 and Unicode for the 2003[22][1] and 2011[3] editions of KPS 9566 use an encoding resembling an adaptation of Unified Hangul Code (UHC) to encode KPS 9566 rather than Wansung code, with their updated versions of the ISO-IR-202 plane being encoded using pairs of bytes between 0xA1 and 0xFE, and with other two-byte codes used for syllables not present in ISO-IR-202. The order of the extended syllables follows usual KPS 9566 order. Similarly to UHC, they use lead bytes 0x81 and above, and trail bytes from the ranges 0x41–0x5A, 0x61–0x7A and 0x81–0xFE, excluding the range 0xA1–0xFE if the lead byte is 0xA1 or above.[3]

The 2011 edition also includes several additional hanja and symbols encoded outside of the ISO-IR-202 plane, after the range used for the extended syllable blocks.[3] This approach is similar to that taken by GBK, but with the trail bytes remaining in the UHC-style ranges: like the extended syllables with lead bytes 0xA1 and above, these all use the trail byte ranges 0x41–0x5A, 0x61–0x7A and 0x81–0xA0. Extended hanja are encoded with lead bytes between 0xC8 and 0xDC, extended symbols are encoded using lead bytes between 0xE0 and 0xEA, and extended codes with lead bytes between 0xEC and 0xFE are mapped, without gaps, to the Private Use Area[3] (compare the user-defined ranges in GBK). Several of the characters in the extended symbols section and three in the hanja section are also mapped to the Unicode Private Use Area; unlike the PUA-mapped symbols in the main ISO-IR-202 plane, the identity of these characters is not documented.[3]

Lead byte[edit]

This chart details the overall layout of the main plane of the KPS 9566 character set by lead byte.[23] For lead bytes used for characters other than composed chosŏn'gŭl syllables or hanja, links are provided to charts on this page listing the characters encoded under that lead byte. For lead bytes used for hanja, links are provided to the appropriate section of Wiktionary's hanja index.

Where two hexadecimal numbers are given, the value below 0x7F is used in a 7-bit encoding,[a] and the larger value (between 0xA1 and 0xFE) is used in an 8-bit EUC-style encoding.[17] The extended UHC-style 8-bit encodings defined by the 2003 edition onwards likewise use the larger byte values, between 0xA1 and 0xFE inclusive, for the main ISO-IR-202-based plane.[1][3]

KPS 9566 (lead bytes)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
2x/Ax SP[b] 1-_ 2-_ 3-_ 4-_ 5-_ 6-_ 7-_ 8-_ 9-_ 10-_ 11-_ 12-_ 13-_ 14-_ 15-_
3x/Bx 16-_ 17-_ 18-_ 19-_ 20-_ 21-_ 22-_ 23-_ 24-_ 25-_ 26-_ 27-_ 28-_ 29-_ 30-_ 31-_
4x/Cx 32-_ 33-_ 34-_ 35-_ 36-_ 37-_ 38-_ 39-_ 40-_ 41-_ 42-_ 43-_ 44-_ 45-_ 46-_ 47-_
5x/Dx 48-_ 49-_ 50-_ 51-_ 52-_ 53-_ 54-_ 55-_ 56-_ 57-_ 58-_ 59-_ 60-_ 61-_ 62-_ 63-_
6x/Ex 64-_ 65-_ 66-_ 67-_ 68-_ 69-_ 70-_ 71-_ 72-_ 73-_ 74-_ 75-_ 76-_ 77-_ 78-_ 79-_
7x/Fx 80-_ 81-_ 82-_ 83-_ 84-_ 85-_ 86-_ 87-_ 88-_ 89-_ 90-_ 91-_ 92-_ 93-_ 94-_ DEL[b]

Non-Hanja, non-composed sets in the main plane[edit]

Character set 0x21/0xA1 (row number 1, punctuation and vertical forms)[edit]

This set contains common sentence punctuation such as brackets, quotation marks, commas and so forth, as well as presentation forms for use in vertical writing. ASCII punctuation (highlighted) is shown below mapped to Basic Latin codepoints (consistent with articles on other CJK character sets, such as KS X 1001 or JIS X 0208), but is mapped to the Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms block when used in an encoding which combines KPS 9566 with ASCII (as defined by, for example, the 2003 edition).[1]

Compared to the 2003 mapping, the 2011 mapping changes the Unicode mappings of three vertical presentation forms to take advantage of the Vertical Forms block introduced with Unicode 4.1.[3]

KPS 9566 (prefixed with 0x21/0xA1)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
2x/Ax IDSP
3001

3002
,
002C
.
002E
·
00B7
:
003A
;
003B
?
003F
!
0021

2025

2026
~[c]
007E

3003

2015
3x/Bx [d]
2010
_
005F
[e]
FFE3
/
002F
\
005C
|
007C

2225
 ∕ 
2215

2216

309B

309C
´
00B4
`
0060
¨
00A8
^
005E
ˇ
02C7
4x/Cx ˙
02D9
ʼ/ ˚/ ˊ/
22EE
ⸯ[f]
2018

2019

201C

201D
(
0028
)
0029

3014

3015
[
005B
]
005D
5x/Dx {
007B
}
007D

3008

3009

300A

300B

300C

300D

300E

300F

3010

3011
.)[g] .⟫[g]
201A

201B
6x/Ex
201E

201F

FE35

FE36

FE39

FE3A

FE47

FE48

FE37

FE38
︿
FE3F

FE40

FE3D

FE3E

FE41

FE42
7x/Fx
FE43

FE44

FE3B

FE3C
  ASCII punctuation, may also be mapped to the Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms block.
  Mapped to Private Use Area, shown simulated.

Character set 0x22/0xA2 (row number 2, symbols and operators)[edit]

This set includes mathematical operators, and some other symbols such as the ampersand, pilcrow, musical note and so forth. ASCII punctuation (highlighted) is shown below mapped to Basic Latin codepoints (consistent with articles on other CJK character sets), but is mapped to the Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms block when used in an encoding which combines KPS 9566 with ASCII.[1]

Several triangular "road mark" symbols denoting upcoming mountains or inclines ahead or to one side are included in this row, but not presently included in Unicode. They are mapped to the Private Use Area.[41]

KPS 9566 (prefixed with 0x22/0xA2)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
2x/Ax +
002B
-
002D
±
00B1
×
00D7
÷
00F7
=
003D

2260
<
003C
>
003E

2266

2267

221E

2234

2642

2640
3x/Bx
2220

22A5

2312

2202

2207

2261

2252

2248

226A

226B

221A

223D

221D

2235

222B

222C
4x/Cx
222E

2208

220B

2286

2287

2282

2283

2209

220C

2288

2289

2284

2285

222A

2229

2227
5x/Dx
2228
[e]
FFE2

21D2

21D4

2200

2203

2211
#
0023
&
0026
*
002A
@
0040
§
00A7

203B

2606

2605

25CB
6x/Ex
25CF

25CE

25C7

25C6

25A1

25A0

25B3

25B2

25BD

25BC

25B7

25C1

25B6

25C0
[h]
2218
[i]
2219
7x/Fx
2756
[j][k] [j] [j] [j]
2690

2691

266F

266D

266A

2020

2021

00B6

2295

2296
  ASCII punctuation, may also be mapped to the Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms block.
  Mapped to Private Use Area, shown simulated.

Character set 0x23/0xA3 (row number 3, digits and Roman)[edit]

This set includes a subset of ASCII, minus punctuation and symbols, comprising western Arabic numerals and both cases of the Basic Latin alphabet. Compare row 3 of JIS X 0208, which this row exactly matches. Compare and contrast row 3 of KS X 1001 and GB 2312, which include their entire national variants of ISO 646 in this row, rather than only the alphanumeric subset.

The characters in this row are shown below mapped to Basic Latin codepoints (consistent with articles on the other character sets), but is mapped to the Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms block when used in an encoding which combines KPS 9566 with ASCII.[1]

KPS 9566 (prefixed with 0x23/0xA3)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
2x/Ax
3x/Bx 0
0030
1
0031
2
0032
3
0033
4
0034
5
0035
6
0036
7
0037
8
0038
9
0039
4x/Cx A
0041
B
0042
C
0043
D
0044
E
0045
F
0046
G
0047
H
0048
I
0049
J
004A
K
004B
L
004C
M
004D
N
004E
O
004F
5x/Dx P
0050
Q
0051
R
0052
S
0053
T
0054
U
0055
V
0056
W
0057
X
0058
Y
0059
Z
005A
6x/Ex a
0061
b
0062
c
0063
d
0064
e
0065
f
0066
g
0067
h
0068
i
0069
j
006A
k
006B
l
006C
m
006D
n
006E
o
006F
7x/Fx p
0070
q
0071
r
0072
s
0073
t
0074
u
0075
v
0076
w
0077
x
0078
y
0079
z
007A

Character set 0x24/0xA4 (row number 4, Chosŏn'gŭl jamo and leaders' names)[edit]

This set contains Chosŏn'gŭl jamo, as well as special encodings for the names of (as of 2003) the North Korean Leaders Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il. The name of Kim Jong-un is also included as of the 2011 edition.[3] Compare with row 4 of KS X 1001.

The jamo in this row which exist in the Unicode Hangul Compatibility Jamo block (which contains the position-independent characters mapped from KS X 1001) are mapped to that block. The obsolete jamo distinguishing palatalised sibilants map to the position-specific characters in the Hangul Jamo block.[1] Conversely, not all of the obsolete jamo encoded by KS X 1001 are encoded in the main plane of KPS 9566. In the 2011 edition of KPS 9566, some of the other historic jamo from KS X 1001 are included outside of the main plane, with the lead byte 0xEA.[3]

The special encodings of the leaders' names are not present in Unicode and are mapped to the Private Use Area. They are shown below simulated with markup.

KPS 9566 (prefixed with 0x24/0xA4)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
2x/Ax
3131

3134

3137

3139

3141

3142

3145

3147

3148

314A

314B

314C

314D

314E

3132
3x/Bx
3138

3143

3146

3149

314F

3151

3153

3155

3157

315B

315C

3160

3161

3163

3150

3152
4x/Cx
3154

3156

315A

315F

3162

3158

315D

3159

315E

3133

3135

3136

313A

313B

313C

313D
5x/Dx
313E

313F

3140

3144

317F

3181

3186

318D

113C

113D

113E

113F

114E

114F

1150

1151
6x/Ex
1154

1155
[l] [l] [l] [l] [l] [l] [l] [l]
7x/Fx [l]
  Mapped to Private Use Area, shown simulated.

Character set 0x25/0xA5 (row number 5, Cyrillic)[edit]

This set includes both cases of 33 letters from the Cyrillic script, sufficient to write the modern Russian alphabet and Bulgarian alphabet, although other forms of Cyrillic require additional letters.[65]

Compare row 12 of KS X 1001 and row 7 of JIS X 0208, which use the same layout (but in a different row).

KPS 9566 (prefixed with 0x25/0xA5)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
2x/Ax А
0410
Б
0411
В
0412
Г
0413
Д
0414
Е
0415
Ё
0401
Ж
0416
З
0417
И
0418
Й
0419
К
041A
Л
041B
М
041C
Н
041D
3x/Bx О
041E
П
041F
Р
0420
С
0421
Т
0422
У
0423
Ф
0424
Х
0425
Ц
0426
Ч
0427
Ш
0428
Щ
0429
Ъ
042A
Ы
042B
Ь
042C
Э
042D
4x/Cx Ю
042E
Я
042F
5x/Dx а
0430
б
0431
в
0432
г
0433
д
0434
е
0435
ё
0451
ж
0436
з
0437
и
0438
й
0439
к
043A
л
043B
м
043C
н
043D
6x/Ex о
043E
п
043F
р
0440
с
0441
т
0442
у
0443
ф
0444
х
0445
ц
0446
ч
0447
ш
0448
щ
0449
ъ
044A
ы
044B
ь
044C
э
044D
7x/Fx ю
044E
я
044F

Character set 0x26/0xA6 (row number 6, Greek letters and Roman numerals)[edit]

This set contains Roman numerals and basic support for the Greek alphabet, without diacritics or the final sigma.

Compare and contrast row 5 of KS X 1001 (which uses the same characters but in a different layout and a different row) and row 6 of JIS X 0208 (which uses the same layout for the Greek letters, but without the Roman numerals).

KPS 9566 (prefixed with 0x26/0xA6)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
2x/Ax Α
0391
Β
0392
Γ
0393
Δ
0394
Ε
0395
Ζ
0396
Η
0397
Θ
0398
Ι
0399
Κ
039A
Λ
039B
Μ
039C
Ν
039D
Ξ
039E
Ο
039F
3x/Bx Π
03A0
Ρ
03A1
Σ
03A3
Τ
03A4
Υ
03A5
Φ
03A6
Χ
03A7
Ψ
03A8
Ω
03A9
4x/Cx α
03B1
β
03B2
γ
03B3
δ
03B4
ε
03B5
ζ
03B6
η
03B7
θ
03B8
ι
03B9
κ
03BA
λ
03BB
μ
03BC
ν
03BD
ξ
03BE
ο
03BF
5x/Dx π
03C0
ρ
03C1
σ
03C3
τ
03C4
υ
03C5
φ
03C6
χ
03C7
ψ
03C8
ω
03C9
6x/Ex
2160

2161

2162

2163

2164

2165

2166

2167

2168

2169
7x/Fx
2170

2171

2172

2173

2174

2175

2176

2177

2178

2179

Character set 0x27/0xA7 (row number 7, encircled, superscript, subscript, fractions)[edit]

Several circled numbers in this row were mapped to Unicode incorrectly in the 2003 edition, due to using non-final proposed code points.[1] They were corrected in the 2011 edition.[3]

KPS 9566 (prefixed with 0x27/0xA7)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
2x/Ax
2460

2461

2462

2463

2464

2465

2466

2467

2468

2469

246A

246B

246C

246D

246E
3x/Bx
246F

2470

2471

2472

2473

3251

3252

3253

3254

3255

3256

3257

3258

3259

325A
4x/Cx
3260

3261

3262

3263

3264

3265

3266

3267

3268

3269

326A

326B

326C

326D
5x/Dx
326E

326F

3270

3271

3272

3273

3274

3275

3276

3277

3278

3279

327A

327B
6x/Ex
2070
¹
00B9
²
00B2
³
00B3

2074

2075

2076

2077

2078

2079
½
00BD

2153

2154
¼
00BC
¾
00BE
7x/Fx
2080

2081

2082

2083

2084

2085

2086

2087

2088

2089
1/2[m] 1/3[m] 2/3[m] 1/4[m] 3/4[m]
  Mapped to Private Use Area, shown simulated.

Character set 0x28/0xA8 (row number 8, unit, quantity and currency symbols)[edit]

This set contains symbols for units of measure and currency. Those present in ASCII (highlighted) are shown below mapped to Basic Latin codepoints (consistent with articles on other CJK character sets), but are mapped to the Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms block when used in an encoding which combines KPS 9566 with ASCII.[1]

The Kelvin sign was replaced with a euro sign in the 2003 edition.[1] The 2011 edition includes an alternative encoding of the Kelvin sign at 0xE988.[3]

Compare and contrast with the repertoire of unit symbols included in row 7 of KS X 1001.

KPS 9566 (prefixed with 0x28/0xA8)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
2x/Ax °
00B0

2032

2033

2103

2109
/[n]
FFE6
$
0024
[e]
FFE0
[e]
FFE1
[e]
FFE5
%
0025

2030

212B

33C4
3x/Bx
33A1

33A5

339D

33A0

33A4

339C

339F

33A3

3377

3378

3379

339E

33A2

33A6

3399

339A
4x/Cx
339B

33A7

33A8

338D

338E

338F

33B4

33B5

33B6

33B7

33B8

33B9

3380

3381

3382

3383
5x/Dx
3384

33BA

33BB

33BC

33BD

33BE

33BF

2126

33C0

33C1

3390

3391

3392

3393

3394

33DE
6x/Ex
33DF

33B0

33B1

33B2

33B3

338A

338B

338C

33A9

33AA

33AB

33AC

2113

3395

3396

3397
7x/Fx
3398

33FF

3388

3389

33AD

33AE

33AF

32CC

33DD

33C8

32CD

32CE

33D6

33CB

33CA
  ASCII punctuation, may also be mapped to the Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms block.

Character set 0x29/0xA9 (row number 9, box drawing)[edit]

KPS 9566 (prefixed with 0x29/0xA9)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
2x/Ax
2500

2502

250C

2510

2518

2514

251C

252C

2524

2534

253C

2501

2503

250F

2513
3x/Bx
251B

2517

2523

2533

252B

253B

254B

2520

252F

2528

2537

253F

251D

2530

2525

2538
4x/Cx
2542

2512

2511

251A

2519

2516

2515

250E

250D

251E

251F

2521

2522

2526

2527

2529
5x/Dx
252A

252D

252E

2531

2532

2535

2536

2539

253A

253D

253E

2540

2541

2543

2544

2545
6x/Ex
2546

2547

2548

2549

254A
7x/Fx

Character set 0x2A/0xAA (row number 10, Hiragana)[edit]

This row contains Hiragana for use in the Japanese language.

Compare row 10 of KS X 1001, which uses the same layout. Compare and contrast row 4 of JIS X 0208, which also uses the same layout, but in a different row.

KPS 9566 (prefixed with 0x2A/0xAA)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
2x/Ax
3041

3042

3043

3044

3045

3046

3047

3048

3049

304A

304B

304C

304D

304E

304F
3x/Bx
3050

3051

3052

3053

3054

3055

3056

3057

3058

3059

305A

305B

305C

305D

305E

305F
4x/Cx
3060

3061

3062

3063

3064

3065

3066

3067

3068

3069

306A

306B

306C

306D

306E

306F
5x/Dx
3070

3071

3072

3073

3074

3075

3076

3077

3078

3079

307A

307B

307C

307D

307E

307F
6x/Ex
3080

3081

3082

3083

3084

3085

3086

3087

3088

3089

308A

308B

308C

308D

308E

308F
7x/Fx
3090

3091

3092

3093

Character set 0x2B/0xAB (row number 11, Katakana)[edit]

This row contains Katakana for use in the Japanese language. However, the Japanese long vowel mark, which is used in katakana text and included in row 1 of JIS X 0208, is not included (similarly to with GB 2312 and KS X 1001),[66] although it is included by KPS 9566-2011 outside of the main plane, at 0xEA48.[3]

Compare row 11 of KS X 1001, which uses the same layout. Compare and contrast row 5 of JIS X 0208, which also uses the same layout, but in a different row.

KPS 9566 (prefixed with 0x2B/0xAB)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
2x/Ax
30A1

30A2

30A3

30A4

30A5

30A6

30A7

30A8

30A9

30AA

30AB

30AC

30AD

30AE

30AF
3x/Bx
30B0

30B1

30B2

30B3

30B4

30B5

30B6

30B7

30B8

30B9

30BA

30BB

30BC

30BD

30BE

30BF
4x/Cx
30C0

30C1

30C2

30C3

30C4

30C5

30C6

30C7

30C8

30C9

30CA

30CB

30CC

30CD

30CE

30CF
5x/Dx
30D0

30D1

30D2

30D3

30D4

30D5

30D6

30D7

30D8

30D9

30DA

30DB

30DC

30DD

30DE

30DF
6x/Ex
30E0

30E1

30E2

30E3

30E4

30E5

30E6

30E7

30E8

30E9

30EA

30EB

30EC

30ED

30EE

30EF
7x/Fx
30F0

30F1

30F2

30F3

30F4

30F5

30F6

Character set 0x2C/0xAC (row number 12, miscellaneous symbols and arrows)[edit]

For the purpose of mapping this row to Unicode, the bold rightward arrow was unified with the bold rightward arrow from Zapf Dingbats (U+27A1),[49] although earlier tables (which lacked mappings for the other bold arrows) had instead unified it with U+279E, a slightly different Zapf Dingbats character.[47] Since corresponding arrows in other directions were not included in the Dingbats block, additional arrows were encoded between U+2B05 and U+2B0D for compatibility with KPS 9566. These were incorporated into the Unicode code charts using the reference glyphs proposed by the North Korean national body, while U+27A1 retained its reference glyph based on Zapf Dingbats.[49] These arrows (U+2B05 through U+2B07, plus U+27A1) were chosen in Unicode 6.0 as the mappings for some of the arrow characters in cellular emoji sets.[54] Subsequently, during the addition of the Wingdings 3 repertoire in Unicode 7.0, the Unicode coverage of arrow characters was reviewed, resulting in an additional rightward arrow being added at U+2B95 with the intent of harmonising with characters U+2B05 through U+2B0D (in text presentation), since changing the reference glyph for the Zapf Dingbats character was not considered appropriate.[49]

In earlier editions of KPS 9566, such as the 1997 edition, this row included both the simple Japanese-style postal mark (〒) and a version in a downward-pointing triangle,[41][23] which was proposed by the North Korean national body for addition to Unicode alongside the other missing KPS 9566 characters.[41] A response by a South Korean representative, amongst other requests, requested evidence for the symbol's use in North Korea, noting that the Japanese-style postal mark is not used in South Korea, which uses a circled 우 (i.e. ㉾) for a similar purpose, and enquiring whether a Japanese-style postal mark was in use in North Korea.[43] A subsequent meeting was held to discuss this proposal, attended by North and South Korean WG2 representatives; the meeting report notes that the North Korean body had decided to review the character before discussing it further, and therefore did not recommend it for consideration by WG2 as a whole.[61] The postal mark triangle was subsequently removed from KPS 9566 in 2003, leaving only the unenclosed postal mark.[1]

The postal mark triangle was eventually added to Unicode in version 13.0, both for compatibility with the legacy KPS 9566-97 character, and subsequent to the mark being identified as a symbol which had been used for certification for electrical appliances in Japan (as a predecessor to the PSE diamond).[62]

Certain KPS 9566 characters in this row, namely two forms of the emblem of the Workers' Party of Korea, a pair of scissors pointing in a different direction to those in the Dingbats block, and a circled upward-pointing manicule, remain mapped to the Private Use Area.[1]

The north-east and north-west white arrows used incorrect swapped Unicode mappings in the 2003 edition.[1] This was corrected in the 2011 edition mappings.[3]

KPS 9566 (prefixed with 0x2C/0xAC)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
2x/Ax [o] [o]
235F

2600

2602
☔︎
2614

2601

2744
⚡︎
26A1

26A0

2116

2192

2190

2191

2193
3x/Bx
2197

2196

2198

2199

2194

2195

21E8

21E6

21E7

21E9

2B00

2B01

2B02

2B03

2B04

21F3
4x/Cx [p]
27A1

2B05

2B06

2B07

2B08

2B09

2B0A

2B0B

2B0C

2B0D

2663

2665

2660

2666

3012
[q]
2B97
5x/Dx
260F

260E

23CE
[r]
261E
[s] [t] ☕︎
2615

327C

327D

321D

321E

33C7

32CF

3250

2121

213B
6x/Ex
337A
®
00AE
7x/Fx
  Mapped to Private Use Area, shown simulated.

Character set 0x2E/0xAE (row number 14, Latin-1 subset)[edit]

The characters in this set were not present in the 1997 version of the character set, but were added in the 2003 version.[1] They constitute a subset of the Latin-1 Supplement block of Unicode (equivalent to the upper half of the ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) character set). This includes accented Roman letters and symbols. Some of the symbols which were already included are omitted, while some others are duplicated as halfwidth counterparts to the earlier fullwidth forms: for example, the not sign (¬, U+00AC) is represented as 0xAEAC, while its fullwidth form (¬, U+FFE2) is represented as 0xA2D1 (in row 2).[1]

This row is omitted from the mapping for the 2011 edition of the standard,[3] indicating it may have been removed at some point after the 2003 edition. The halfwidth yen sign is instead encoded at 0xE98E in the 2011 edition.[3]

The required space would fall outside of the 94-character range, colliding with the area used for extended chosŏn'gŭl syllables when a UHC-style encoding is used (specifically, with the syllable 쁲),[1] and is omitted. Although the y with trema also falls outside the 94-character range, and the trail byte 0xFF is otherwise unused, the code 0xAEFF is mapped to it in KPS 9566-2003.[1]

KPS 9566-2003 (prefixed with 0x2E/0xAE)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
2x/Ax ¡
00A1
¢
00A2
£
00A3
¤
00A4
¥
00A5
¦
00A6
©
00A9
ª
00AA
«
00AB
¬
00AC
SHY ¯
00AF
3x/Bx µ
00B5
¸
00B8
º
00BA
»
00BB
¿
00BF
4x/Cx À
00C0
Á
00C1
Â
00C2
Ã
00C3
Ä
00C4
Å
00C5
Æ
00C6
Ç
00C7
È
00C8
É
00C9
Ê
00CA
Ë
00CB
Ì
00CC
Í
00CD
Î
00CE
Ï
00CF
5x/Dx Ð
00D0
Ñ
00D1
Ò
00D2
Ó
00D3
Ô
00D4
Õ
00D5
Ö
00D6
Ø
00D8
Ù
00D9
Ú
00DA
Û
00DB
Ü
00DC
Ý
00DD
Þ
00DE
ß
00DF
6x/Ex à
00E0
á
00E1
â
00E2
ã
00E3
ä
00E4
å
00E5
æ
00E6
ç
00E7
è
00E8
é
00E9
ê
00EA
ë
00EB
ì
00EC
í
00ED
î
00EE
ï
00EF
7x/Fx ð
00F0
ñ
00F1
ò
00F2
ó
00F3
ô
00F4
õ
00F5
ö
00F6
ø
00F8
ù
00F9
ú
00FA
û
00FB
ü
00FC
ý
00FD
þ
00FE
ÿ
00FF

Precomposed Chosŏn'gŭl sets (rows number 16 through 44)[edit]

Precomposed Chosŏn'gŭl syllable clusters are allocated code points in a continuous sorted block between code points 16-01 and 44-47 inclusive. Not all possible clusters are allocated code points.[67] Compare the different ordering and availability in KS X 1001.

The encoded form documented for KPS 9566-2003 encodes the KPS 9566 plane on GR (0xA1-0xFE) and additionally encodes the remaining syllable clusters using lead bytes in the range 0x80-0xC2 and trail bytes in the ranges 0x41-0x5A, 0x61-0x7A and 0x81-0xFE (where at most one byte is in the range 0xA1-0xFE),[1] similarly to Unified Hangul Code but with the omitted clusters from and sorting order of KPS 9566, not KS X 1001.

  • Row 16: 가 각 간 갇 갈 갉 갊 감 갑 값 갓 강 갖 갗 같 갚 갛 갔 갸 갹 갼 걀 걈 걋 걍 거 걱 건 걷 걸 걹 걺 검 겁 것 겅 겆 겉 겊 겋 겄 겨 격 견 겯 결 겸 겹 겻 경 곁 겪 겼 고 곡 곤 곧 골 곪 곬 곯 곰 곱 곳 공 곶 곺 교 굔 굘 굡 굣 구 국 군 굳 굴 굵 굶 굻 굼 굽 굿 궁 궂 규 균 귤 귬 귱 그 극 근 귿
  • Row 17: 글 긁 긇 금 급 긋 긍 기 긱 긴 긷 길 긺 김 깁 깃 깅 깆 깇 깉 깊 개 객 갠 갤 갬 갭 갯 갱 갰 걔 걘 걜 게 겍 겐 겔 겜 겝 겟 겡 겠 계 곈 곌 곕 곗 괴 괵 괸 괼 굄 굅 굇 굉 굈 귀 귁 귄 귈 귐 귑 귓 긔 과 곽 관 괃 괄 괆 괌 괍 괏 광 괐 궈 궉 권 궐 궘 궝 궜 괘 괙 괜 괠 괩 괭 괬 궤 궥 궷 나 낙
  • Row 18: 낛 난 낟 날 낡 낢 남 납 낫 낭 낮 낯 낱 낳 낚 났 냐 냑 냔 냘 냠 냡 냥 너 넉 넋 넌 널 넒 넓 넘 넙 넛 넝 넢 넣 넊 넜 녀 녁 년 녈 념 녑 녓 녕 녘 녔 노 녹 논 놀 놂 놈 놉 놋 농 높 놓 뇨 뇩 뇬 뇰 뇸 뇹 뇻 뇽 누 눅 눈 눋 눌 눔 눕 눗 눙 눞 뉴 뉵 뉸 뉼 늄 늅 늉 느 늑 는 늘 늙 늚 늠 늡 늣 능
  • Row 19: 늦 늪 니 닉 닌 닐 닒 님 닙 닛 닝 닢 내 낵 낸 낼 냄 냅 냇 냉 냈 냬 네 넥 넨 넬 넴 넵 넷 넹 넸 녜 녠 뇌 뇐 뇔 뇜 뇝 뇟 뉘 뉜 뉠 뉨 뉩 뉭 늬 늰 늴 늼 닁 놔 놘 놜 놧 놨 눠 눨 눳 눴 놰 눼 다 닥 단 닫 달 닭 닮 닯 닲 닳 담 답 닷 당 닺 닻 닾 닿 닦 닸 댜 더 덕 던 덛 덜 덞 덟 덤 덥 덧 덩 덫
  • Row 20: 덮 덯 덖 덨 뎌 뎐 뎔 뎡 뎠 도 독 돈 돋 돌 돎 돐 돔 돕 돗 동 돛 돝 됴 두 둑 둔 둘 둠 둡 둣 둥 듀 듄 듈 듐 듕 드 득 든 듣 들 듥 듦 듧 듬 듭 듯 등 디 딕 딘 딛 딜 딤 딥 딧 딩 딪 딮 딨 대 댁 댄 댈 댐 댑 댓 댕 댔 댸 데 덱 덴 덷 델 뎀 뎁 뎃 뎅 뎄 뎨 뎬 되 된 될 됨 됩 됫 됭 됬 뒤 뒥 뒨 뒬
  • Row 21: 뒴 뒵 뒷 뒹 듸 듼 딀 딉 딍 돠 돤 돨 둬 둰 둴 둼 둿 뒀 돼 됀 됄 됐 뒈 뒝 라 락 란 랄 람 랍 랏 랑 랒 랖 랗 랐 랴 략 랸 랼 럄 럅 럇 량 러 럭 런 럴 럼 럽 럿 렁 렆 렇 렀 려 력 련 렬 렴 렵 렷 령 렸 로 록 론 롤 롬 롭 롯 롱 롶 료 룐 룔 룜 룝 룟 룡 루 룩 룬 룰 룸 룹 룻 룽 류 륙 륜 률 륨 륩
  • Row 22: 륫 륭 르 륵 른 를 름 릅 릇 릉 릊 릍 릎 리 릭 린 릴 림 립 릿 링 맆 래 랙 랜 랠 램 랩 랫 랭 랬 럐 레 렉 렌 렐 렘 렙 렛 렝 렜 례 롄 롈 롑 롓 뢰 뢴 뢸 룀 룁 룃 룅 룄 뤼 뤽 륀 륄 륌 륏 륑 릐 릔 릘 릠 롸 롼 뢉 뢍 뤄 뤘 뢔 뢨 뤠 마 막 만 많 맏 말 맑 맒 맘 맙 맛 망 맞 맟 맡 맣 먀 먁 먄 먈
  • Row 23: 먐 먕 머 먹 먼 멀 멁 멂 멈 멉 멋 멍 멎 멓 멌 며 멱 면 멸 몀 몁 몃 명 몇 몄 모 목 몫 몬 몯 몰 몲 몸 몹 못 몽 뫃 묘 묜 묠 묩 묫 무 묵 문 묻 물 묽 묾 뭄 뭅 뭇 뭉 뭍 뭏 묶 뮤 뮥 뮨 뮬 뮴 뮷 뮹 므 믄 믈 믐 믑 믓 믕 미 믹 민 믿 밀 밂 밈 밉 밋 밍 및 밑 밌 매 맥 맨 맬 맴 맵 맷 맹 맺 맸 먜
  • Row 24: 메 멕 멘 멜 멤 멥 멧 멩 멨 몌 몐 뫼 묀 묄 묌 묍 묏 묑 뮈 뮌 뮐 믜 믠 믬 뫄 뫈 뫙 뫘 뭐 뭔 뭘 뭠 뭡 뭣 뭤 뫠 뭬 바 박 밗 반 받 발 밝 밞 밟 밤 밥 밧 방 밭 밖 뱌 뱍 뱐 뱜 뱝 버 벅 번 벋 벌 벍 벎 범 법 벗 벙 벚 벜 벘 벼 벽 변 별 볌 볍 볏 병 볓 볕 볐 보 복 본 볼 봄 봅 봇 봉 봏 볶 뵤 뵨
  • Row 25: 뵬 부 북 분 붇 불 붉 붊 붐 붑 붓 붕 붙 붚 뷰 뷴 뷸 븀 븁 븃 븅 브 븍 븐 블 븜 븝 븟 븡 비 빅 빈 빌 빎 빔 빕 빗 빙 빚 빛 배 백 밴 밷 밸 뱀 뱁 뱃 뱅 뱉 뱄 뱨 베 벡 벤 벧 벨 벰 벱 벳 벵 벴 볘 볜 뵈 뵉 뵌 뵐 뵘 뵙 뵜 뷔 뷕 뷘 뷜 뷩 븨 븬 븰 븽 봐 봔 봡 봣 봤 붜 붤 붯 붴 붰 봬 봰 뵀 붸
  • Row 26: 사 삭 삯 산 삳 살 삵 삶 삼 삽 삿 상 샅 샀 샤 샥 샨 샬 샴 샵 샷 샹 서 석 섟 선 섣 설 섦 섧 섬 섭 섯 성 섶 섞 섰 셔 셕 션 셜 셤 셥 셧 셩 셨 소 속 손 솓 솔 솖 솜 솝 솟 송 솥 솎 쇼 쇽 숀 숄 숌 숍 숏 숑 수 숙 순 숟 술 숨 숩 숫 숭 숯 숱 숲 슈 슉 슌 슐 슘 슙 슛 슝 스 슥 슨 슬 슭 슲 슳 슴
  • Row 27: 습 슷 승 시 식 신 싣 실 싫 심 십 싯 싱 싶 새 색 샌 샐 샘 샙 샛 생 샜 섀 섄 섈 섐 섕 세 섹 센 셀 셈 셉 셋 셍 셑 셒 셌 셰 셴 셸 솅 쇠 쇡 쇤 쇨 쇰 쇱 쇳 쇵 쇴 쉬 쉭 쉰 쉴 쉼 쉽 쉿 슁 싀 싄 솨 솩 솬 솰 솻 솽 숴 쉈 쇄 쇈 쇌 쇔 쇗 쇘 쉐 쉑 쉔 쉘 쉠 쉡 쉥 자 작 잔 잖 잗 잘 잚 잠 잡 잣 장
  • Row 28: 잦 잤 쟈 쟉 쟌 쟎 쟐 쟘 쟙 쟝 저 적 전 절 젊 점 접 젓 정 젖 젔 져 젹 젼 졀 졈 졉 졋 졍 졌 조 족 존 졸 졺 좀 좁 좃 종 좆 좇 좋 죠 죡 죤 죨 죰 죵 주 죽 준 줄 줅 줆 줌 줍 줏 중 쥬 쥰 쥴 쥼 즁 즈 즉 즌 즐 즘 즙 즛 증 지 직 진 짇 질 짊 짐 집 짓 징 짖 짙 짚 재 잭 잰 잴 잼 잽 잿 쟁 쟀 쟤
  • Row 29: 쟨 쟬 제 젝 젠 젤 젬 젭 젯 젱 젶 젰 졔 졘 졜 죄 죈 죌 죔 죕 죗 죙 죘 쥐 쥑 쥔 쥗 쥘 쥠 쥡 쥣 즤 좌 좍 좐 좔 좝 좟 좡 줘 줬 좨 좽 좼 줴 줸 줼 쥄 쥅 쥈 차 착 찬 찮 찰 참 찹 찻 창 찾 찼 챠 챤 챦 챨 챰 챱 챵 처 척 천 철 첨 첩 첫 청 첬 쳐 쳑 쳔 쳘 쳤 초 촉 촌 촐 촘 촙 촛 총 쵸 쵼 춀 춈
  • Row 30: 추 축 춘 춛 출 춤 춥 춧 충 츄 츈 츌 츔 츙 츠 측 츤 츨 츰 츱 츳 층 치 칙 친 칟 칠 칡 침 칩 칫 칭 채 책 챈 챌 챔 챕 챗 챙 챘 챼 체 첵 첸 첼 쳄 쳅 쳇 쳉 쳈 쳬 쳰 촁 최 쵠 쵤 쵬 쵭 쵯 쵱 취 췬 췰 췸 췹 췻 췽 츼 촤 촥 촨 촬 촹 춰 췃 췄 쵀 쵄 췌 췐 카 칵 칸 칼 캄 캅 캇 캉 캎 캈 캬 캭 캰
  • Row 31: 캼 캽 컁 커 컥 컨 컫 컬 컴 컵 컷 컹 컽 컾 컸 켜 켠 켤 켬 켭 켯 켱 켰 코 콕 콘 콜 콤 콥 콧 콩 쿄 쿠 쿡 쿤 쿨 쿰 쿱 쿳 쿵 큐 큔 큘 큠 크 큭 큰 클 큼 큽 킁 키 킥 킨 킬 킴 킵 킷 킹 킾 캐 캑 캔 캘 캠 캡 캣 캥 캪 캤 컈 케 켁 켄 켈 켐 켑 켓 켕 켸 쾨 쾰 퀴 퀵 퀸 퀼 큄 큅 큇 큉 킈 콰 콱 콴
  • Row 32: 콸 쾀 쾅 쿼 퀀 퀄 퀑 쾌 쾐 쾔 쾡 퀘 퀙 퀠 퀭 타 탁 탄 탈 탉 탐 탑 탓 탕 탚 탔 탸 탼 턍 터 턱 턴 털 턺 텀 텁 텃 텅 텄 텨 텬 텼 토 톡 톤 톨 톰 톱 톳 통 톺 툐 투 툭 툰 툴 툼 툽 툿 퉁 튜 튠 튤 튬 튱 트 특 튼 튿 틀 틂 틈 틉 틋 틍 티 틱 틴 틸 팀 팁 팃 팅 태 택 탠 탤 탬 탭 탯 탱 탶 탰 턔
  • Row 33: 테 텍 텐 텔 템 텝 텟 텡 텦 톄 톈 퇴 퇸 툇 툉 튀 튁 튄 튈 튐 튑 튕 틔 틘 틜 틤 틥 톼 퇀 퉈 퉜 퇘 퉤 퉨 퉸 파 팍 판 팔 팖 팜 팝 팟 팡 팥 팎 팠 퍄 퍅 퍼 퍽 펀 펄 펌 펍 펏 펑 펐 펴 펵 편 펼 폄 폅 폇 평 폈 포 폭 폰 폴 폼 폽 폿 퐁 표 푠 푤 푭 푯 푸 푹 푼 푿 풀 풂 품 풉 풋 풍 퓨 퓬 퓰 퓸
  • Row 34: 퓻 퓽 프 픈 플 픔 픕 픗 픙 피 픽 핀 필 핌 핍 핏 핑 패 팩 팬 팰 팸 팹 팻 팽 팼 퍠 페 펙 펜 펠 펨 펩 펫 펭 펲 폐 폔 폘 폡 폣 푀 푄 퓌 퓐 퓔 퓜 퓟 픠 픤 퐈 퐝 풔 풩 하 학 한 할 핥 함 합 핫 항 햐 향 허 헉 헌 헐 헒 헕 헗 험 헙 헛 헝 혀 혁 현 혈 혐 협 혓 형 혔 호 혹 혼 혿 홀 홅 홈 홉 홋
  • Row 35: 홍 홑 효 횬 횰 횹 횻 후 훅 훈 훌 훑 훔 훕 훗 훙 휴 휵 휸 휼 흄 흇 흉 흐 흑 흔 흖 흗 흘 흙 흝 흠 흡 흣 흥 흩 히 힉 힌 힐 힘 힙 힛 힝 해 핵 핸 핼 햄 햅 햇 행 했 햬 헤 헥 헨 헬 헴 헵 헷 헹 헸 혜 혠 혤 혭 회 획 횐 횔 횝 횟 횡 휘 휙 휜 휠 휨 휩 휫 휭 희 흰 흴 흼 흽 힁 화 확 환 활 홤 홥
  • Row 36: 홧 황 훠 훡 훤 훨 훰 훵 홰 홱 홴 횃 횅 횄 훼 훽 휀 휄 휑 까 깍 깐 깓 깔 깖 깜 깝 깟 깡 깥 깎 깠 꺄 꺅 꺈 꺌 꺼 꺽 껀 껄 껌 껍 껏 껑 꺾 껐 껴 껸 껼 꼇 꼍 꼈 꼬 꼭 꼰 꼱 꼲 꼴 꼼 꼽 꼿 꽁 꽂 꽃 꾜 꾸 꾹 꾼 꾿 꿀 꿇 꿈 꿉 꿋 꿍 꿎 뀨 끄 끅 끈 끊 끌 끎 끓 끔 끕 끗 끙 끝 끼 끽 낀 낄 낌
  • Row 37: 낍 낏 낑 깨 깩 깬 깰 깸 깹 깻 깽 깼 꺠 께 껙 껜 껠 껨 껩 껫 껭 껬 꼐 꾀 꾁 꾄 꾈 꾐 꾑 꾕 뀌 뀐 뀔 뀜 뀝 뀡 꽈 꽉 꽌 꽐 꽛 꽝 꽜 꿔 꿘 꿜 꿥 꿧 꿩 꿨 꽤 꽥 꽨 꽬 꽹 꿰 꿱 꿴 꿸 뀀 뀁 뀅 뀄 따 딱 딴 딸 딿 땀 땁 땃 땅 땋 딲 땄 땨 땰 떠 떡 떤 떨 떪 떫 떰 떱 떳 떵 떻 떴 뗘 뗬 또 똑 똔
  • Row 38: 똘 똠 똡 똣 똥 뚀 뚜 뚝 뚠 뚤 뚫 뚬 뚭 뚱 뜌 뜨 뜩 뜬 뜯 뜰 뜸 뜹 뜻 뜽 띠 띡 띤 띨 띰 띱 띳 띵 때 땍 땐 땔 땜 땝 땟 땡 땠 떼 떽 뗀 뗄 뗌 뗍 뗏 뗑 뗐 뙤 뙨 뛰 뛴 뛸 뜀 뜁 뜅 띄 띅 띈 띌 띔 띕 띙 똬 똰 똴 뚸 뛌 뙈 뙉 뛔 빠 빡 빤 빨 빪 빰 빱 빳 빵 빻 빴 뺘 뺙 뺜 뺨 뻐 뻑 뻔 뻗 뻘 뻠
  • Row 39: 뻣 뻥 뻤 뼈 뼉 뼘 뼙 뼛 뼝 뼜 뽀 뽁 뽄 뽈 뽐 뽑 뽓 뽕 뾰 뿅 뿌 뿍 뿐 뿔 뿜 뿝 뿟 뿡 쀼 쁑 쁘 쁜 쁠 쁨 쁩 삐 삑 삔 삘 삠 삡 삣 삥 빼 빽 뺀 뺄 뺌 뺍 뺏 뺑 뺐 뺴 뻬 뻭 뻰 뻴 뻼 뼁 뾔 쀠 쁴 뽜 뿨 싸 싹 싻 싼 쌀 쌈 쌉 쌋 쌍 쌓 쌌 쌰 쌴 쌸 썅 써 썩 썬 썰 썲 썸 썹 썻 썽 썪 썼 쎠 쏘 쏙 쏜
  • Row 40: 쏟 쏠 쏢 쏨 쏩 쏫 쏭 쑈 쑌 쑐 쑘 쑝 쑤 쑥 쑨 쑬 쑴 쑵 쑹 쓔 쓘 쓧 쓩 쓰 쓱 쓴 쓸 쓺 쓿 씀 씁 씅 씨 씩 씬 씯 씰 씸 씹 씻 씽 씼 쌔 쌕 쌘 쌜 쌤 쌥 쌧 쌩 쌨 썌 쎄 쎅 쎈 쎌 쎔 쎕 쎙 쎼 쏀 쐬 쐭 쐰 쐴 쐼 쐽 쑀 쒸 쒼 씌 씐 씔 씜 쏴 쏵 쏸 쏼 쐇 쐉 쐈 쒀 쒔 쐐 쐑 쐤 쒜 쒠 쒭 짜 짝 짠 짢 짤
  • Row 41: 짧 짬 짭 짯 짱 짰 쨔 쨘 쨤 쨩 쩌 쩍 쩐 쩔 쩗 쩜 쩝 쩟 쩡 쩠 쪄 쪘 쪼 쪽 쫀 쫄 쫌 쫍 쫏 쫑 쫒 쫓 쫗 쬬 쬰 쬼 쭁 쭈 쭉 쭌 쭐 쭘 쭙 쭛 쭝 쮸 쯀 쯔 쯕 쯘 쯜 쯤 쯧 쯩 쯪 찌 찍 찐 찔 찜 찝 찟 찡 찢 찦 찧 째 짹 짼 쨀 쨈 쨉 쨋 쨍 쨌 쨰 쨴 쩨 쩩 쩬 쩰 쩸 쩹 쩽 쪠 쬐 쬔 쬘 쬠 쬡 쬤 쮜 쯰 쯴
  • Row 42: 쫘 쫙 쫜 쫠 쫭 쫬 쭤 쭹 쭸 쫴 쬈 쮀 아 악 안 앉 않 알 앍 앎 앒 앓 암 압 앗 앙 앝 앞 앟 았 야 약 얀 얃 얄 얇 얌 얍 얏 양 얕 얗 얐 어 억 언 얹 얻 얼 얽 얾 엄 업 없 엇 엉 엊 엌 엎 엏 었 여 역 연 엳 열 엶 엷 염 엽 엾 엿 영 옅 옆 옇 엮 였 오 옥 온 올 옭 옮 옰 옳 옴 옵 옷 옹 옻 옾 요 욕
  • Row 43: 욘 욜 욤 욥 욧 용 우 욱 운 울 욹 욺 움 웁 웃 웅 유 육 윤 율 윰 윱 윳 융 윷 으 윽 은 읃 을 읅 읊 음 읍 읏 응 읒 읓 읔 읕 읖 읗 이 익 인 일 읽 읾 잃 임 입 잇 잉 잊 잎 있 애 액 앤 앨 앰 앱 앳 앵 앴 얘 얜 얠 얩 에 엑 엔 엘 엠 엡 엣 엥 엤 예 옌 옐 옘 옙 옛 옝 옜 외 왹 왼 욀 욈 욉 욋 욍
  • Row 44: 위 윅 윈 윌 윔 윕 윗 윙 의 읜 읠 읨 읫 와 왁 완 왇 왈 왐 왑 왓 왕 왔 워 웍 원 월 웜 웝 웟 웡 웠 왜 왝 왠 왬 왯 왱 웨 웩 웬 웰 웸 웹 웻 웽 윁

Hanja sets (rows number 45 through 94)[edit]

The hanja at 69-09 (0xE5A9) is mapped to U+676E in all documented tables; characters are, however ordered according to their readings, from which it appears that it is intended to be U+67FF instead.[68]

Extended non-syllable, non-hanja sets in KPS 9566:2011[edit]

Following are charts for the non-syllable, non-hanja section of KPS 9566-2011 outside of the main plane.[3]

Extension set 0xE0 (symbols and pictographs)[edit]

KPS 9566-2011 (prefixed with 0xE0)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
4x
25D1

2298

2709

261B

261E

270C
5x
270D

270F

270E

2710

2713

2714

22A1

2394
6x
2299
7x ⚓︎
2693

263C
8x
25C9
9x
272A

272F

272C

272B

272E

272D

2730

2729
  Not in Unicode, mapped to Private Use area

Extension sets 0xE1, 0xE2, 0xE3 (unknown)[edit]

These extension sets map to the private use area. Their purpose is not documented.[3]

KPS 9566-2011 (prefixed with 0xE1)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
4x
5x
6x
7x
8x
9x
Ax (Part of main plane.)
  Not in Unicode, mapped to Private Use area
KPS 9566-2011 (prefixed with 0xE2)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
4x
5x
6x
7x
8x
9x
  Not in Unicode, mapped to Private Use area
KPS 9566-2011 (prefixed with 0xE3)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
4x
5x
6x
7x
8x
9x
  Not in Unicode, mapped to Private Use area

Extension set 0xE4 (arrows)[edit]

This set includes several, mostly rightward arrows mapping to the Unicode Dingbats block and elsewhere.[3]

KPS 9566-2011 (prefixed with 0xE4)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
4x
2794

2798

2799

279A

279B

279C

279D

279F

27A0

27A2

27A3

27A4

27A5

27A6

27A7
5x
27A8

27A9

27AA

27AB

27AC

27AD

27AE

27AF

27B1

27B2

27B3
6x
27B4

27B5

27B6

27B7

27B8

27B9

27BA

27BB

27BE

27BC

27BD
7x
8x
27F7

21CC

296B

296C

21D0

27F9
9x
  Not in Unicode, mapped to Private Use area

Extension set 0xE5 (Roman superscripts and subscripts)[edit]

This row includes several lowercase Roman superscripts with trail bytes corresponding to their uppercase ASCII equivalents, and lowercase Roman subscripts with trail bytes corresponding to their lowercase ASCII equivalents.[3]

KPS 9566-2011 (prefixed with 0xE5)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
4x
1D43

1D47

1D9C

1D48

1D49

1DA0

1D4D

1D4F

1D50

207F

1D52
5x
1D56

1D57

1D58

1D5B
6x
2090

2091

1D62

2C7C

2092
7x
1D63

1D64

1D65

2093
8x
9x
  Not in Unicode, mapped to Private Use area

Extension set 0xE6 (Greek and symbol superscripts and subscripts)[edit]

KPS 9566-2011 (prefixed with 0xE6)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
4x
1D45

1D5D

1D5E

1D5F

1D4B
ᶿ
1DBF

1DB9
5x
1D60

1D61
6x
1D66

1D67
7x
1D68

1D69

1D6A
8x
207A

207B
9x
208A

208B
  Not in Unicode, mapped to Private Use area

Extension set 0xE7 (further list markers)[edit]

KPS 9566-2011 (prefixed with 0xE7)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
4x
325B

325C

325D

325E

325F

32B1

32B2

32B3

32B4

32B5

32B6

32B7

32B8

32B9

32BA
5x
32BB

32BC

32BD

32BE

32BF
6x
7x
8x
9x
  Not in Unicode, mapped to Private Use area

Extension set 0xE8[edit]

KPS 9566-2011 (prefixed with 0xE8)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
4x
5x
6x
7x
8x
FE30
9x
  Not in Unicode, mapped to Private Use area

Extension set 0xE9 (additional symbols and punctuation)[edit]

This set contains playing card suit symbols, various miscellaneous symbols, and halfwidth counterparts for some of the currency symbols in row 8. The Kelvin sign is also included,[3] having been replaced in row 8 by the euro sign.[1]

KPS 9566-2011 (prefixed with 0xE9)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
4x
2205

2297

3013

2667

2661

2664

2662

25EF

29BE
5x
6x
7x
8x
212A

20A9

20A4
¥
00A5
9x
  Not in Unicode, mapped to Private Use area

Extension set 0xEA (Japanese punctuation and additional jamo)[edit]

This set contains several punctuation marks used in Japan, and some characters from the Hangul Compatibility Jamo Unicode block which are not already included in row 4.[3] This comprises some of the jamo characters present in KS X 1001, but previously absent in KPS 9566.

KPS 9566-2011 (prefixed with 0xEA)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
4x
30FD

30FE

309D

309E

3005

3006

3007

30FC
5x
6x
3165

316D

3171

3172

3173

3174

3175

3176

3177

3178

3179

317A

317B

317D

317E
7x
3180

3184

3185

3187

3188

3189

318A

318B

318C

119E

318E
8x