Kingdom of Marwar

Coordinates: 26°28′N 73°02′E / 26.467°N 73.033°E / 26.467; 73.033
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(Redirected from Jodhpur State)

Kingdom of Marwar
  • 1226–1581
  • 1583–1947
Flag of Jodhpur
Flag
Coat of arms of Jodhpur
Coat of arms
The Kingdom of Marwar in the Indian Empire in 1920
The Kingdom of Marwar in the Indian Empire in 1920
Detailed map of Marwar (in orange) within Rajputana (in yellow), in the Imperial Gazetteer of India
Detailed map of Marwar (in orange) within Rajputana (in yellow), in the Imperial Gazetteer of India
Status
Capital
Common languagesMarwari
Religion
Hinduism
GovernmentMonarchy
Maharaja 
• 1226–1273
Rao Siha (first)
• 1947–1949
Hanwant Singh (last)
Today part ofRajasthan, Republic of India

Kingdom of Marwar, also known as the Jodhpur State under the British, was a kingdom in the Marwar region from 1243 to 1818 and a princely state under British rule from 1818 to 1947. It was established in Pali by Rao Siha, possibly a migrant Gahadavala noble, in 1243. His successors continued to struggle against regional powers for domination and 9 out of 15 rulers till 1438 died in combat. In 1395, its capital was changed to Mandore by Rao Chunda and to Jodhpur in 1459 by Rao Jodha.

Marwar struggled and resisted against the Mughals under the rule of Rao Ganga and Maldeo Rathore who is known to be one of the greatest warriors of the time. The kingdom remained independent until it was annexed by the Mughal Empire in 1581 after the death of Chandrasen Rathore. It remained under direct Mughal control until Udai Singh was restored to the throne as a vassal and given the title of Raja in 1583. During the late 17th century it was under the strict control of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, but the ruling house of Rathore was allowed to remain semi-autonomous in their territory.

Marwar came into a long period of dispute and war with the Mughals when Raja Jaswant Singh died in 1678 and was supposed to be succeeded by his posthumous-born son Ajit Singh but Ajit was not appointed the ruler by Aurangzeb. During this time Durgadas Rathore struggled to preserve the Rathore dynasty and freed Marwar from the Mughal Empire after 31 years of war. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries the kingdom was overrun by the Maratha hordes of Scindia and Holkar. Marwar was financially bankrupt due to heavy tributes exacted by the Marathas and its once renowned army had now thinned down because of internal wars and rebellions by its nobles, forcing its rulers to ask the British for aid.

The British had no role in the state's affairs until 6 January 1818, when the Raja at that time, Man Singh, entered into a subsidiary alliance, after which the Rajas of Marwar (or Jodhpur) continued as rulers of a princely state. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Rajput Nobles under Thakur Kushal Singh of Auwa led a rebellion against Maharaja Takht Singh and the British, however the rebellion was put to an end by the British armies under Colonel Holmes after a siege of the Thakur's fort in Auwa.[1] The armies of Jodhpur State fought in World War I for the British. They actively fought in Afghanistan and the Middle-east and scored a series of victories for the British empire. The Jodhpur lancers with the support of the Mysore lancers defeated a large host of Turks and Germans in the Battle of Haifa (1918). Some of the other battles they participated in were the battles of Suez, Gaza, Jordan Valley, Abu Tellul and Megiddo.

Following Indian independence in 1947 Maharaja Hanwant Singh, the last ruler of Jodhpur state signed the Instrument of Accession on 11 Aug, 1947 and merged his state in Union of India.

Geography[edit]

Covering an area of 93,424 km2 (36,071 sq mi), Jodhpur State was the largest state under the Rajputana Agency and the third largest state in British India after Jammu and Kashmir State and Hyderabad State. The average revenue of the state was Rs.56,00,000 in 1901.[2] the Maharaja's of Jodhpur originally had a gun salute of 19 guns with 21 personal. However the gun salute was reduced to 17 guns and 21 personal in 1870 due to a quarrel with the Maharana of Udaipur.[3][4]

History[edit]

Origin[edit]

Recent genealogists believe that the Rathores are connected to the Gahadavala dynasty of Kannauj. A connection is often established between Rajput ruler Jaichand and the Rathores.[7] Jaichand was later defeated by Muhammad of Ghor in the Battle of Chandawar.[8] The one branch of the defeated rulers of Kannauj migrated westwards into Rajputana and were invited to settle in Pali.[9] Siha is regarded as the first emigrant in the region to establish his kingdom in Pali in 1243 when he helped the locals drive away the Meds and Meenas and assumed the title of Rao.[10][11] He died fighting an invading Muslim force in 1273. In this invasion large amounts of Brahmins in the region were massacred.[12]
Siha's son Rao Asthana captured Khed from the Guhilas and Idar from the Bhils.[13][14] He died fighting a force of Jalaluddin Khilji in 1291 and was succeeded by his son Dhuhar.[15][16] Dhuhar captured Mandore from the Pariharas but lost it later.[17]

Dhuhar's son Raipal (r.1309-1313) and grandson Karanpal followed by Karanpal's son Bhim who continued to fight the Paramaras and the Turkic invaders.[18] Karanpal's son Jhalansi defeated the Sodha Rajputs, and the ruler of Multan but died fighting the Turks in 1328.[19] His son Chhada defeated the Sodha's, the ruler of Jaisalmer, Nagaur and Jalore.[20] He died fighting the Songaras in 1344.[21] Chhada's son Rao Tida avenged his father's death by defeating the Songara's.[22] Tida was succeeded by his son Tribhuvan and his grandson Mallinath. Mallinath fought with the Songaras, Deoras, Bhatis and the Tughluqs.[23]

Rao Chunda[edit]

In 1384, Mallinath's nephew Chunda gained the title of Rao and became the ruler.[24] Chunda married in a Parihar Rajput clan from which he received the city of Mandore as Dowry. He shifted his capital to that city in 1395.[25] In 1396, Zaffar Khan of Gujarat laid siege to Mandore but was repelled by Chunda. Chunda and Zaffar entered into a tribute with Zaffar but Chunda later counter-attacked Zaffar and captured Sambhar and Ajmer.[26] Chunda's aggressive policy earned him enmity with his neignbours, namely Bhati Rao of Pugal, the Sankhlas of Janglu and the governor of Multan, Khidar Khan. These collectively invaded Nagaur. Chunda died defending Nagaur in 1428.[27]

Ranmal[edit]

Towards the end of his life, he promised his throne to his younger son Kanha which angered his eldest son Ranmal who sought refuge in Mewar. Ranmals sister Hansa Bai had been married to Rana Lakha of Mewar so he was able to become a powerful member of the Mewar court.[28] Karan died soon in the same year and Ranmal was able to gain the throne of Marwar.[29] Ranmal attacked Bhati, Pugal and Jalore chiefs in his 10 year reign. Ranmal was called to help rule Mewar in 1433 when his sister Hansa Bai's son Mokal was assassinated. He helped rule the kingdom but his power was not received well by the Sisodia clan. Rana Kumbha, son of Mokal, got him assassinated in 1438.[30]

Jodha of Mandore, one of the greatest Rathores

Rao Jodha[edit]

After Ranmal's assassination, Mewar and Marwar's relations had gotten bitter and Ranmal's son Rao Jodha escaped Mewar and reached its borders. From there he started building his own power. He recollected allies and defeated his enemies one by one and consolidated power and by 1453, he was able to regain Mandore.[31][32] To end this enmity, Kumbha and Jodha reached settlements and matrimonial alliance was established by marrying Jodha's daughter Shringar Devi to Kumbha's son Raimal in 1459.[33] It was after this that Marwar was able to become a prosperous kingdom under the rule of Rao Jodha. Out of the 15 rulers that preceded Jodha, nine died on the battlefield, six of them against foreign armies. Jodha's son himself died after a battle in which he saved 140 women from Afghan raiders.[34]

Mehrangarh Fort, the capital of Marwar for centuries

After restoring peace, Jodha constructed a new capital fort on a hilltop 6 miles south of Mandore named Mehrangarh. The city came to be known by his name. Thus the city of Jodhpur was settled.[35] Soon, he expanded his territory greatly. One of his sons, Bika captured Janglu which he named Bikaner after himself and became its Rao.[36]

He died in 1489 and was succeeded by his son Rao Satal who died in 1492 who was succeeded by Jodha's second son, Rao Suja.[37] Suja's younger brother Bika laid siege to Jodhpur, demanding a separate kingdom in Bikaner, and in the ensuing negotiations, Bikaner was given to Bika as his independent kingdom.[38] Suja outlived his eldest son Bagha and died in 1515 and was succeeded by his grandson Rao Ganga in 1515.[39]

During the rule of Jodha's sons, many chiefs asserted their independence. This led to formations of factions which favored different candidates for succession. When Rao Ganga ascended to the throne, this factionalism led to a civil war like situation because the succession was disputed by another candidate called Biram Deo.[40][41] Soon after Ganga's accession, Biram was expelled from Jodhpur. To avenge this, Biram started looting Jodhpur. Eventually, with the help of his son Maldeo, Ganga was able to defeat Biram.[42]

Rao Maldev Rathore of Marwar

Maldeo Rathore[edit]

Seeing Rana Sanga's success, Ganga decided to align Marwar with Mewar and assisted Sanga in war against Sultan of Gujarat in 1517, his siege of Bayana in 1527 and the Battle of Khanwa in 1527 against Babur. His son Maldeo Rathore participated in the battle and later escorted an unconscious Rana Sanga from the battleground after defeat.[43][44][45] After Sanga's death, Maldeo wanted to fill the vacuum of power in Rajputana and felt that his regnant father couldn't fill it. Ganga mysteriously died in 1531 after falling from his balcony. This fall could've been an accident but is believed that was an assassination by Maldeo.[46][47]

Expansion[edit]

Under Maldeo Rathore, Marwar rose to great power. He was regarded as a great and fearless warrior.[48] According to Ferishta, He was the most potent prince of Hindustan.[49] In 1531, when Bahadur Shah of Gujarat invaded Mewar, Maldeo assisted Rana Vikramaditya.[50] In 1534-35, Maldeo was able to capture Ajmer and Nagaur.[51]

During Maldeo's territorial expansion, Raja of Jaisalmer sued for peace and offered his daughter Umade for marriage.[52] He attacked Jalore in 1538 and took it. Its ruler was imprisoned where he died a few years later.[53] During his rule, Marwar captured a large part of western Rajputana.

He continued his father's policy towards the Kingdom of Mewar by helping its legitimate heir Udai Singh II in taking the throne back from the usurper Banvir.[54] He invaded Bikaner, ruled by a branch of the same family and annexed it in 1542.[55]

Humayun and Sher Shah Suri[edit]

In 1540, Maldeo helped Mughal Emperor Humayun against Sher Shah Suri by providing him 20,000 troops at Bhakkar. There are many reasons about why he provided this assistance including increasing the sphere of influence or avenging shelter given to fugitives in Sher Shah's court.[56] Eventually, an expelled Humayun reached Phalodi, in Marwar, to seek assistance from Maldeo but couldn't secure much help from the Raja.[57] Following a half hearted welcome for Humayun by Maldeo, Sher Shah marched down to Phalodi and asked Maldeo for handing over Humayun, who escaped to Amarkot.[58]

Following Humayun's escape, Sher Shah returned to Delhi and consolidated power. He later planned to invade Maldeo because he was very ambitious.[59] When Sher Shah reached Marwar, he devised a deceptive plan. He dropped several letters addressed to Marwari soldiers asking them to defect to Delhi. This made Maldeo suspect them and order them to retreat. A few thousand soldiers still held frontier who met Sher Shah Suri at the Battle of Sammel.[60] Sher Shah won the battle and further pursued Marwar. Jodhpur was occupied for several months, but was retaken by Maldeo in 1545.[61]

Continued expansion[edit]

In 1550, Maldeo invaded Pokhran and Phalodi and took it over from its chiefs.[62]In 1556, Haji Khan, an ally of Rana Udai Singh of Mewar, sought help from Maldeo to invade Mewar after differences arose between Udai and Haji. In the Battle of Harmada in 1557, Udai Singh was defeated and the territory of Merta was captured by Maldeo.[63]

Akbar[edit]

Akbar succeeded Humayun in 1556, many Rajput chiefs mustered around him with their grievances against the Rathore Chief of Jodhpur. Akbar used this as a casus belli against Maldeo. The Mughals conquered Ajmer and Nagaur in 1557 and soon after Akbar captured Jaitaran and Parbatsar. However the Mughals failed to capture the core territories of Marwar. Maldeo before his death held the districts of Jodhpur, Sojat, Jaitaran, Phalodi, Siwana, Pokhran, Jalore, Sanchore, Merta, Barmer, Kotra and some parts of Jaisalmer. These territories were later captured by Akbar due to the succession war between Maldeo's sons.[64][65][66]

Maldeo Rathore died on 7 November 1562.[67]

Rao Chandrasen of Marwar, the last independent ruler of Marwar

Rao Chandrasen[edit]

After the death of Maldeo, according to his will, his third son Chandrasen Rathore was crowned the Rao. But is first and second son Ram and Udai started a war of succession for the throne. They were defeated by Chandrasen by 1563.[68] After the war of succession, Chadrasen did not accept the suzerainty of Akbar and hence Mughal army invaded Jodhpur and occupied it because of which Chandrasen shifted his capital to Bhadrajun.[69][70]

While Chandrasen continued to defend his kingdom from the Mughal invasions, his neighbor Rana Pratap of Mewar was defeated in the Battle of Haldighati in 1576.[71] After the battle of Haldighati, Mughals turned their attention to Marwar and invaded in the same year. Chandrasen was dislodged from Bhadrajun and became a wanderer for the next 5 years with no capital, throne or shelter. He made several attempts to regain his kingdom, which included several raids on the imperial forces. Although his efforts went in vain and he died in 1581.[72][73]

Udai Singh also known as Mota Raja. He was placed on the throne after the kingdom being captured by Akbar

As a Mughal state[edit]

In 1583, Akbar formally recognized Chandrasen's rival brother Udai Singh as the ruler of Marwar as a Mughal state.[74] This new ruler of Marwar recognized Akbar's supremacy readily as he was under him since 1570.[75] Udai also contributed to Akbar's imperial force in the invasions of Sirohi.[76] A matrimonial alliance was established between Mughals and Marwar in 1586 when Udai Singh's daughter Manvati bai was married to Jahangir.[77] In 1592, Akbar tasked Udai to take care of the administrative affairs of his capital Lahore while he led conquest in Kashmir. Udai Singh died in Lahore in 1595.[78]

Udai was succeeded by his son Sur Singh in 1595. Because of his military abilities, he was given the title Sawai Raja.[79] In 1596, he was also given the control of Gujarat.[80] In 1599, he was sent to assist Daniyal Mirza in the conquest of the Deccan for Emperor Akbar.[81] In 1604 on the request of Daniyal Mirza, he was allowed to return to Jodhpur and was granted Jaitaran and western half of Merta pargana.[82] During Udai and his son Sur's rule, their pradhan (prima minister) Govind Das Bhati reformed the Marwari administrative system and made it similar to the Mughal system.[83] In 1613, he was deputed by the Mughal emperor along with Prince Khurram to undertake the expedition of Mewar.[84] Sur Singh died in 1619 and was succeeded by his son Gaj Singh.[85]
The Mughal emperor was impressed by the military capabilities of Gaj Singh and Gaj helped the Mughal empire subdue Malik Ambar, Nizam ul Mulk and Khan i Jahan Lodhi.[86] Gaj also helped Jahangir quell the rebellion led by his rebellious son Prince Khurram who would later become Shah Jahan.[87] He died in 1638 and the throne passed to his second son, Jaswant.[88] Jaswant was just 12 years old when he ascended to the throne and his decisions were heavily influenced by Shah Jahan. Jaswant accompanied Shah Jahan and his son Aurangzeb on many of his expeditions. He was able to get rid of the Bhatis of Jaisalmer in 1650.[89]

Jaswant Singh, the ruler during Aurangzeb's reign

War of succession of Shah Jahan[edit]

In 1657, when Shah Jahan fell ill and his sons Aurangzeb and Murad started a war of succession, Jaswant Singh led a united Mughal front against the two princes.[90] The two forces met at the Battle of Dharmat in April 1658. During this battle, the Mughal commander Qasim Khan betrayed Jaswant Singh and did not participate in the battle completely causing Rajput casualties. The battle was lost and an injured Jaswant had to retreat.[91] Following the defeat of Dara Shikoh at the Battle of Samugarh, Aurangzeb was crowned as the Mughal Emperor after which he pardoned Jaswant Singh for siding with Dara.[92] In 1661, Aurangzeb ordered Jaswant to help his uncle Shaista Khan to fight against the Maratha leader Shivaji. In 1663, Jaswant captured the fort Kondana, weakening Shivaji.[93] Jaswant died in 1678.

Succession crisis of Jaswant Singh[edit]

At the time of his death, Jaswant Singh had no living heirs, but soon, his wife gave birth to his son posthumously in February 1679. One of these heirs died but the second, Ajit Singh survived. Jaswant's family was moved to Delhi and Aurangzeb converted Marwar into a crown territory to govern it while it did not have a ruler.[94] Aurangzeb didn't immediately crown Ajit Singh as the ruler and demanded him to be a grown adult first.[95] Instead, a grand-nephew of Jaswant, Inder Singh Rathore was crowned by Aurangzeb.[96] One of the ministers of Marwar, Durgadas Rathore along with a Rathore delegation rescued Ajit Singh and the Ranis in June 1679 and took them back to Sirohi where Ajit grew up in anonymity.[97] Over the next few decades, the Mughals and Marwar kept engaging in guerilla warfare.

Durgadas Rathore's painting in Mehrangarh museum, the Rathore minister who rescued Ajit Singh and rallied for his cause

Durgadas and Ajit Rathore's struggle against Aurangzeb[edit]

Marwar and Mewar joined hands to oppose Aurangzeb together but were defeated in the Battle of Debari in 1680.[98] Aurangzeb sent his son Muhammad Akbar to capture Ajit but Akbar ended up rebelling against his father in 1681. Aurangzeb tried to prevent an alliance between the Rajputs and Akbar by planting fake letters between him and Akbar stating that the rebellion is a plot to lure the Rajputs. This worked and no major alliance formed between Marwar and Akbar. Later, to help Akbar, Durgadas took him to the court of Sambhaji.[99] Durgadas was successfully able to distract Aurangzeb and from 1681–87, he was able to recapture vast expanses of the Marwar territory back.[100]

After 1687, Marwar and the Mughals got into negotiations to end the struggle. Ajit was married to the niece of Maharana Jai Singh to eliminate any doubt in the mind of Aurangzeb that Ajit could be an imposter and not the real son of Jaswant Singh.[101] Truce did not last long and after Prince Azam took over in Gujarat he broke the conciliatory policies of his predecessor in 1702. Because of this, Ajit Singh couldn't return to Jodhpur till the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 after which they captured Jodhpur.[102] Ajit Singh captured large parts of Marwar while Prince Muazzam ascended to the Mughal throne as Bahadur Shah I.[103] Bahadur Shah invaded Marwar in 1708, defeated Ajit in the battle of Merta and took control of Marwar in February.[104] In 1708, Ajit Singh of Marwar, Sawai Jai Singh and Maharana Amar Singh came signed a pact of alliance against Mughals and thus began the Rajput Rebellion of 1708. Ajit exiled Durgadas Rathore from Marwar to take complete control of Marwar and Durgadas died in Mewar in 1718.[105]

Ajit Singh, after Jaswant Singh's death, was taken care of by Durgadas Rathore and led a rebellion against the Mughals

The Rajput Rebellion[edit]

Together, Maharana Amar Singh, Ajit Singh and Sawai Jai Singh marched upon Jodhpur in 1708 and expelled Mehrab Khan and placed Ajit Singh on the throne.[106] Later the same year, the alliance marched on Amber and met the forces of Bahadur Shah I at Sambhar. The battle was won by the alliance and by October 1708, Jai Singh II was restored to his throne at Amber.[107] Eventually Bahadur Shah accepted the demands of Ajit and jai Singh and recognized them as the rulers of Jodhpur and Amber respectively in 1710 ending the rebellion.[108]

After the war, Ajit Singh built good relations with the new Mughal Emperor Jahandar Shah who gave him higher privileges.[109] When Farrukhsiyar ascended to the Mughal Throne, he sent Sayyid Husain Ali Khan to invade Marwar in 1714 for not accepting the position of governor of Thatta in Sindh. Ajit negotiated with Hussain and struck a peace deal according to which, his son and heir Abhay Singh will attend the Mughal court and his daughter will be married to Farrukhsiyar.[110] Ajit Singh took his revenge in 1719. Ajit Singh besieged the Red Fort, entered the palace grounds, stabbed Qutb-ul-Mulk and arrested Farrukhsiyar. The emperor was dragged to a small room in Tripoliya gate, where he was tortured and blinded with a needle. On 2 March 1719, Rafi-Ud-Darjat was placed on the throne by Ajit Singh and Jai Singh.[111]

Post rebellion[edit]

After Rafi-ud-Darjat's abdication and Rafi-ud-Daulah's premature death in the same year, Muhammad Shah ascended to the throne. Ajit had enough influence on him to get the privileges of subedar of Ajmer and governorship of Gujarat.[112] Muhammad Shah didn't let himself be influenced by Ajit Singh, he deposed the Sayyid brothers in 1720 and then canceled the appointments of Ajit to Gujarat and Ajmer. When Ajit tried to rebel against this, he was defeated by Hyder Quli Khan. More than a dozen parganas were taken away from Ajit and he had to return to Jodhpur in 1723.[113] Ajit's son, Abhay remained under the influence of Jai Singh II who hadn't lost his prominence in the court after the deposition of the Sayyid brothers. Jai Singh instigated Abhay to get rid of Ajit who ordered his younger brother Bakhat Singh to assassinate Ajit. On 23 June 1724, Bakhat Singh entered the palace of his father and murdered him. Ajit Singh died at the age of 45 and his son Abhay was enthroned as Maharaja Abhay Singh.[114] More than sixty women committed Sati on the funeral pyre of Ajit Singh.[115]

Maratha influence[edit]

Abhay Singh marched against Sarbaland Khan, the previous subedar of Gujarat after he refused to hand over the subedari to Abhay when he was appointed subedar in 1730 by Muhammad Shah.[116] Abhay also attacked and captured Baroda and Jambusar from Marathas in 1732 while they were distracted because of the strife between Baji Rao I and Trimbak Rao Dabhade.[117] He remained the subedar of Gujarat till 1737. In 1734, Maharana Jagat Singh convened a conference at Hurda in order to oppose the Marathas and Abhay Singh was a fore-front signatory of this convention. An alliance launched an attack on the Marathas the same year, but lost and had to give up Chauth of the Malwa region.[118]

After Mughal decline[edit]

During the 1730s, while other Rajput rulers were appeasing the Marathas, Jodhpur remained against the Marathas and rallied in favor of supporting the Mughals and opposing Maratha influence. Because of this Marathas invaded Marwar in 1736.[119] In 1739, Abhay decided to invade Bikaner, but his brother Bakhat Singh decided to side with the Bikaneri Maharaja Zorawar Singh. Bakhat Singh requested for support from Sawai Jai Singh, who marched for his cause in 1740. Eventually, the Rana of Mewar had to intervene and get a treaty signed between the two states which also included a clause of war reparations to Jaipur.[120] In 1739, Nader Shah invaded the Mughal empire and sacked Delhi. Not a single Rajput ruler came to the defense of Muhammad Shah and his calls for mobilisation were ignored.[121]

After the treaty, Abhay and Bakhat Singh united again and this time led a front against Jaipur in June 1741. The forces of Marwar and Amber met at the Battle of Gangwana. This battle was fought with heavy casualties on both sides but eventually Bakhat Singh had to retreat because he was heavily wounded with a bullet and an Arrow.[122][123] The Mughal emperor granted Idar to Abhay who gave it to his rebellious brother Anand Singh. Before dying in 1749, Abhay made an unsuccessful attempt at invading Bikaner and established good relations with the Holkars.[124]

Mahadaji Shinde attacked Marwar several times in late 18th century
Benoît de Boigne, a French general who was known for his army's professionalism and efficiency, was the leading general of the Scindia Army.

Maratha Interference[edit]

Succession crisis of Abhay Singh[edit]

Abhay was succeeded by his son Ram Singh but soon, his position was disputed by his uncle Bakhat Singh. This dispute attracted external parties to intervene. Gaj Singh of Bikaner sided with Bakhat while Ishwari Singh of Jaipur sided with Ram Singh.[125] In 1751, Ram Singh was defeated by Bakhat Singh at the Battle of Luniawas and Bakhat was crowned the maharaja. Ram Singh sought help from the Marathas and Jayappa Scindia soon came to help him. They encamped in Ajmer but soon Bakhat Singh launched an army towards Ajmer so it was abandoned. Before any tangible result could play out, Bakhat Singh died in 1752.[126] His son Bijay Singh could only remain on the throne for a year and was deposed by Ram Singh assisted by Jayappa Scindia.[127] In 1755, Bijay Singh got Jayappa assassinated in Nagaur who was succeeded by Jankoji Rao Scindia.[128]

Jankoji partitioned the kingdom giving the Jodhpur portion to Bijay Singh and the Jalore portion to Ram Singh.[128] Marwar remained neutral during the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 and Bijay was able to use the distracted Marathas to expel Ram Singh from the Jalore portion of Marwar and was able to gain full control. Ram Singh ran away to Jaipur where he died in 1772.[129][128]

After Ram Singh's death, Marwar saw a period of revival under Bijay Singh. Bijay Singh became the first Rathore ruler to mint his own currency with the permission of the Mughal ruler Shah Alam II in 1781.[130][128] In 1787, Mahadji Scindia marched against Jaipur and Jaipur joined forced with Jodhpur to fight the Battle of Lalsot in the town of Tunga. The professionalism of the Scindia forces under French commander Benoit de Boigne couldn't match the valor of the Rajput troops who forced them to retreat and Bijay captured Ajmer.[131][132] de Boigne came back to Marwar and this time, Bijay's army faced two heavy defeats at the Battle of Patan and Mertia in 1790 and Marwar had to cede a lot of territory to the Marathas.[133][132] In 1793, Bijay Singh died and his eldest grandson Bhim Singh took over the throne. Other contenders to the throne were either expelled, blinded or killed except Man Singh.[134] Dhananajaya Singh describes his succession as an orgy of murder.[135] Throughout his reign, Bhim tried to capture his cousin Man Singh but failed multiple times. He died before he could capture his cousin in 1803 and Man Singh was the only remaining heir, so he was crowned the Raja in 1804.[136]

War over Krishna Kumari[edit]

Bhim Singh had been engaged to the Mewar princess Krishna Kumari since an early age but died before he could married her.[137][138] So Maharana Bhim Singh decided to marry her to Sawai Jagat Singh of Jaipur. Successor of Bhim Singh of Marwar, Man Singh insisted that Krishna be married to him and got Daulat Rao Scindia to mediate the issue.[139] Eventually, Daulat Rao pulled out and the Rajputana broke into war over Krishna Kumari.[140] Jagat Singh laid siege to Mehrangarh fort in 1807 but found no success and had to retreat back to Jaipur because his own kingdom was being invaded by the Scindias. Amir Khan sided with Man Singh and suggested that either Krishna Kumari be married to Man Singh or be killed. He also attacked Udaipur and burned several villages.[141] Bhim Singh of Mewar eventually decided that Krishna will be poisoned and she died of poisoning on 21 July 1810.[142][141][143]

Spoils of Amir Khan Pindari[edit]

In 1808, Man Singh dispatched Indra Singh Sanghvi against Bikaner who defeated one force in Udasar but failed to take the Bikaner fort. A second force dispatched was also defeated and captured. Eventually, Maharaja of Bikaner reached a settlement with Marwar.[144] Meanwhile, Amir Khan Pindari's raids into Jaipur territory forced Jagat Singh to reach settlement with Marwar as well, establishing another matrimonial alliance.[145]

After the war over Krishna Kumari, Amir Khan became increasingly demanding and wanted to extract booty from Marwar for the help in the war.[146] Ministers and other nobles in the Marwari court, worried of the influential position held by minister Indra Raj Sanghvi, convinced Amir Khan that his dues were pending due to Sanghvi who was assassinated by the Pindaris in 1815.[147] Khan took advantage of a weak Marwar and extracted lakhs of rupees as bounty.[148] The murder of Indra Raj Sanghvi led to a power struggle between his rival Mehta Akhey Chand and his brother Sanghvi Gul Raj. This eventually led to the murder of Gul Raj and Mehta Akhey convinced Man Singh to abdicate in favor is his heir Chattar Singh.[149][150]

Man Singh I, who signed a treaty with the British EIC in 1818, and lost against the EIC in 1839, losing complete control of his kingdom to the British

Under the British Empire[edit]

Treaty of 1818[edit]

The British East India Company made the first contacts with the Rajputana in 1803 when it defeated the Marathas in the Second Anglo-Maratha War. It had gained the control of the Maratha territory upto the Yamuna river and had also reached the doorstep of Rajputana and requested the Rajput rulers to be cooperative. They understood the importance of travel routes to Delhi, Agra and Mau which all went through the Rajput lands.[151] After the EIC defeated Bharatpur in 1805, many Rajput states started looking up to the British as an entity that could take the place of the Mughals and provide protection.[152]

During the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the British defeated Amir Khan at the Pindari war in 1817 and gave the possession of Tonk to him and made him its Nawab. Having dealt with Amir Khan, Man Singh signed a treaty with the British in 1818 with the following clause.

  1. The British will protect the principality and territory of Jodhpur.
  2. Man Singh will act in subordinate cooperation.
  3. Marwar will not inter into any negotiations with any chief or state without the knowledge and sanction of the British Government.
  4. To pay a tribute of 108,000 which was being paid to the Scindias.
  5. and that Rathores were the absolute rulers of Marwar.

including other articles of the treaty.[153] After the untimely death of Chattar Singh in 1818, Man Singh came out of his abdication and took control of his state affairs.[154]

Invasion of 1839[edit]

Man Singh's first affair in office this time was to round up the faction which caused the power struggle in the court during his inactivity, who invited Amir Khan Pindari and led to the assassination of Indra Raj Sanghvi. Mehta Akhey Chand was executed along with other members of the faction in 1820.[155] Man Singh did not act subordinate in the next one decade committing acts like sheltering absconding rulers from the British and attacking neighboring states in violation of the British treaty and ignoring the Governor-General's requests.[156] After being defeated at the Third Anglo-Maratha war, Mudhoji II Bhonsle asked for shelter in Marwar which was granted where he lived the rest of his life and died in 1840.[157]

Umaid Bhawan Palace

Man Singh also refused to attend Lord William Bentinck's durbar at Ajmer in 1832, considered a more serious violation.[157] Having had enough from Man Singh, the British decided to move against him in 1839, they invaded Marwar and captured Mehrangarh fort. Captain Ludlow was appointed as the Company's political agent to Marwar and the clause of the 1818 treaty stating the Maharaja being the absolute ruler was demolished and the British established permanent presence in Marwar. Man Singh retired from the job and died in 1843.[158]

Man Singh's sons had predeceased him and on advice of his widows and other senior Rathores, the second cousin of the Raja of Idar and great-great-grandson of Maharaja Ajit Singh, Takht Singh was elected the successor of Man Singh and was invited to be crowned.[159][160]

Over the next decades the seat of power in Marwar shifted from the Maharaja to the British Resident. By the end of the 19th century, he enjoyed executive, financial and judicial power.[161] Several attempts of modernisation were made in this era. Diwani and Faujdari courts were established and judicial officers were brought in from other residencies.[162] Infanticide and child trafficking was criminalised. Roads and an Astronomical observatory was constructed.[163]

Revolt of 1857[edit]

Rulers of Marwar[edit]

The Rathore dynasty of Jodhpur are Rajputs claimed to be descendants of Rastrakuta dynasty[164] On the fall of the Rashtrakuta dynasty they migrated north and formed their kingdom in Kannauj as Gahadavala dynasty and after the death of last emperor Jaichand in Battle of Chandwar his descendants migrated to Marwar and established Rathore dynasty [165][164]

Rulers 1226–1438 CE (From Pali and Mandore)[edit]

Name Notes Reign began Reign ended
1 Rao Siha He conquered Pali and became the first rao of the Rathore dynasty in Marwar. He died in the battle of Lakha Jhawar (1273) against Ghaus ud-din Balban. 1226 1273
2 Rao Asthan Conquered Kher from the Gohils and Idar from the Bhils. He died in battle against Jalaludin Khilji. Both he and his brother Rao Sonag conquered Idar and began the kingdom of Idar. 1273 1292
3 Rao Doohad He conquered more than 140 villages. He was killed in battle against the Parihars. 1292 1309
4 Rao Raipal He avenged his father by killing the ruler of the Parihars. During a famine in Marwar he distributed his own personal grains to the people. 1309 1313
5 Rao Kanhapal He suffered raids from the Turko-Afgan tribes and was killed in action defending his lands. 1313 1323
6 Rao Jalansi He defeated the Sodhas. He took the turban of the Sodha chief to mark his supremacy in the region. 1323 1328
7 Rao Chado 1328 1344
8 Rao Tida He was killed in battle against the sultan of Delhi. 1344 1357
Rao Kanhadev 1357 1374
Rao Salkha 1374 ?
9 Rao VIkramdev ? 1383
11 Rao Chunda He successfully defended Mandore from the Turks in 1396. He further conquered the areas of Nagaur, Sambhar, Khatu, Nadol and Ajmer from the Tughlaq Empire. Was killed in battle against Khidar Khan of Multhan. 1383 1428
12 Rao Kanha Fought battles with his brothers. Died young in Mandore. 1428 1428
13 Rao Ranmal He consolidated his rule with the help of the Sisodias of Mewar. He was later assassinated on the orders of Rana Kumbha. 1428 1438

Rulers 1438–1949 CE (From Jodhpur)[edit]

Name Notes Reign began Reign ended
1 Rao Jodha Fought Rana Kumbha and reclaimed his lands. He later founded the city of Jodhpur and made it his capital. He subjugated the states of Jalore and Bundi and annexed Ajmer, Sambhar and Mohilavati. 12 May 1438 6 April 1489
2 Rao Satal Died from wounds after saving 140 women from Afghan raiders. 6 April 1489 March 1492
3 Rao Suja March 1492 2 October 1515
4 Rao Biram Singh Grandson of Suj. 2 October 1515 8 November 1515
5 Rao Ganga Assisted Rana Sanga in his campaigns against the Sultans of India. 8 November 1515 9 May 1532
6 Rao Maldeo Successfully repelled the invasions of Sher Shah Suri. Called as one of the most potent rulers of Hindustan by Ferishta. 9 May 1532 7 November 1562
7 Rao Chandra Sen He defended his kingdom for nearly two decades against relentless attacks from the Mughal Empire. 7 November 1562 1581
8 Raja Udai Singh Mota Raja He became ruler of Jodhpur after death of Rao Chandrasen and was granted the title of Raja. 4 August 1583 11 July 1595
9 Sawai Raja Suraj Mal Was granted the title of Sawai Raja in recognition of his many services.[166] 11 July 1595 7 September 1619
10 Maharaja Gaj Singh I The first to take the title Maharaja 7 September 1619 6 May 1638
11 Maharaja Jaswant Singh He fought against Aurangzeb in the Battle of Dharmatpur. 6 May 1638 28 November 1678?
12 Maharaja Ajit Singh Became Maharaja of Marwar after 31 years of war with Aurangzeb. Durgadas Rathore played a key role in the war. Deposed Farukhsiyar with the help of the Sayyid brothers. 19 February 1679 24 June 1724
13 Raja Indra Singh Installed in opposition to Maharaja Ajit Singh by Emperor Aurangzeb but unpopluar with people of Marwar 9 June 1679 4 August 1679
14 Maharaja Abhai Singh Defeated Sarbuland Khan and occupied all of Gujarat for a short time. He helped his brother Anand Singh to conquer Idar, in which the current Idar family traces descent to him. 24 June 1724 18 June 1749
15 Maharaja Ram Singh First reign 18 June 1749 July 1751
16 Maharaja Bakht Singh He was the general of the Marwari forces against Sarbuland Khan and defeated him. In the Battle of Gangwana he defeated a combined army of Kachwahas and Mughal reinforcements . July 1751 21 September 1752
17 Maharaja Vijay Singh First reign 21 September 1752 31 January 1753
18 Maharaja Ram Singh Second reign 31 January 1753 September 1772
19 Maharaja Vijay Singh Second reign – Was defeated by Mahadji Scindia and forced to surrender the fort and city of Ajmer. September 1772 17 July 1793
20 Maharaja Bhim Singh 17 July 1793 19 October 1803
21 Maharaja Man Singh Entered into treaty relations with the British on 6 January 1818. 19 October 1803 4 September 1843
22 Maharaja Sir Takht Singh Not in the direct line, but a great-great-great grandson of Ajit Singh. Formerly from Ahmednagar. 4 September 1843 13 February 1873
23 Maharaja Sir Jaswant Singh II Kaisar-i-Hind 13 February 1873 11 October 1895
24 Maharaja Sir Sardar Singh Colonel in the British Indian Army 11 October 1895 20 March 1911
25 Maharaja Sir Sumer Singh Colonel in the British Indian Army 20 March 1911 3 October 1918
26 Maharaja Sir Umaid Singh Lieutenant-General in the British Indian Army 3 October 1918 9 June 1947
27 Maharaja Sir Hanwant Singh Ruler of Marwar (Jodhpur) until accession to the Union of India in 1949; died on 26 January 1952 9 June 1947 7 April 1949
28 (titular) Maharaja Gaj Singh II of Jodhpur Became head of the House on 26 January 1952 26 January 1952 Present

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Political Awakening and Indian Freedom Movement with Special Reference to Rajasthan pg 28–35
  2. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 14, page 195 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library".
  3. ^ The Administration of Jodhpur State, 1800-1947 A.D. by Nirmala M. Upadhyaya, International Publishers, 1973 p.240
  4. ^ Gazetteer of the Territories Under the Government of the Viceroy of India p.388
  5. ^ Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1978). A Historical atlas of South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 147, map XIV.4 (a). ISBN 0226742210.
  6. ^ "Historical Atlas of India" by Charles Joppen (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1907)
  7. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "However, the more recent keepers of traditional genealogies ... King Jayachand (also spelt Jayachandra, and Jai Chand) of the Gahadavala dynasty, who was the last great ruler of Kanauj.".
  8. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Following Muhammad of Ghor's victory ... Jayachand died in battle, leaving the Ghori chief victorious and the might and splendour of the fabled Imperial Kanauj shattered.".
  9. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Out of the Kanauj émigrés, one branch of the Kanauj ruling family apparently journeyed westward.".
  10. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Tradition holds that the first prince of the displaced Kanauj royal family to establish himself as a chief in any part of Marwar was Siha, son of Set Ram, who probably reached Marwar about c. AD 1243.".
  11. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Having occupied Pali, Siha went on to put down the Meds. Simultaneously, Siha became the ruler of Pali, taking the title of ‘Rao’.".
  12. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Siha died in 1273 fighting off a Muslim force that attacked Pali and put to death its prosperous Brahmin community.".
  13. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "There is a tradition that it was during Asthana's reign that the territory of Khed (near Balotra, in present-day Barmer district), was captured by the Rathores from the Guhilas (Gohils) who held it at the time.".
  14. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Asthana is credited with capturing the Idar area from the Bhils who held it.".
  15. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "He met his end fighting off an attack on Pali by the Delhi Sultanate troops of Jalaluddin Khilji in AD 1291.".
  16. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, " Asthana was followed by his son, Rao Dhuhar (r. 1291-1309).".
  17. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Dhuhar led his clan against their neighbours, and captured Mandore (ancient Mandavyapur) from the Parihars. (Mandore was later lost).".
  18. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Raipal was succeeded by Karanpal, and the latter by his eldest son, Bhim. According to the khyats of Bankidas and Dayaldas, like Raipal, these Rathore chiefs too fought the Parihars, Bhatis and Turkish soldiers".
  19. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Karanpal's younger son, Rao Jalansi (r. ?13-d. 1328) is remembered for having defeated Sodha Rajputs of Umarkot, the Solankis of Bhinmal and the Muslim governor of Multan, before he too fell in battle around c. 1328, while leading his troops against the Bhatis and Turks’.".
  20. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Jalanasi's eldest son and successor, Rao Chhada ... and fought the Muslim governors of Jalore and Nagaur".
  21. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "He lost his life on the battlefield near the village of Rama, in the tract of Jalore, in an engagement against the Sonagra and Deora Chauhans in 1344.".
  22. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Chhada's successor, Tida (r. 1344-??), exacted revenge for his father's death by defeating the Sonagra Chauhans".
  23. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, " His successor, Tribhuvanshi, and after him Mallinath ... He fought the Sonagras, Deoras, Bhatis, Turks, and in c. 1378 Firoze Shah Tughlaq's subedar of Malwa, Nizamuddin, besides the ruler of Gujarat.".
  24. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Rao Chunda (r. 1384-1428), Mallinath's nephew, became the twelfth Rathore to rule in Marwar.".
  25. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Meanwhile, around c. AD 1395. Chunda had married into the Eenda branch ... The ancient walled city and fortress of Mandore (old Mandavyapur) ... Subsequently Mandore became Chunda's capital and the centre of the Rathore principality.".
  26. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, " Soon afterwards, in 1396, Chunda was called upon to defend Mandore ... In this, Chunda was successful ... Conquering further tracts of territory ... Chunda soon occupied places like Sambhar, Didwana, Khatu and Ajmer too. Chunda also seized the town of Phalodi, after defeating his brother, Jai Singh.".
  27. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In 1428, the combined forces of the Bhati Rao of Pugal, the Sankhlas of Janglu and the governor of Multan, Khidar Khan, attacked Nagaur. Caught relatively unprepared, Chunda took “...the only honourable course open to a Rajput in similar straits: [to] sally forth and rush into the thickest of the enemy to court an immortal death”".
  28. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Following Chunda's declaration that promised the throne of Marwar to a younger son ... Ranmal thus felt sure of a welcome at his brother-in-law's court. Ranmal soon became very powerful at the Mewar court,".
  29. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Kanha ascended the throne in 1428, only to die shortly afterwards. Rao Satta too had a short reign. With the succession issue open once again, Ranmal returned to Mandore and wresting back his inheritance, with the help of Mewari forces, became the new Rao of Marwar (r. 1428-1438).".
  30. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Some years later, upon the premature death of Mokal ... Rathore ruler became the real seat of power in Mewar, much to the dismay of the Sisodia clan, until his assassination at Chittor around c. 1438.".
  31. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Ranmal's death and the accompanying falling out between Marwar and Mewar ... his son Jodha (r. 1438-1489), was driven to seek shelter ... set about trying to retrieve the prestige and lost territories of his family .... It took Jodha several years to strengthen his vulnerable position ... satisfy honour and avenge the death of his father, Ranmal.".
  32. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Finally, the one-time capital of Mandore appeared within his grasp, and Jodha regained it in AD 1453.".
  33. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Eventually, Rao Jodha of Marwar and his kinsman, Rana Kumbha of Mewar entered into diplomatic negotiations to end the strife between the two kingdoms. Peace terms were settled....To further cement the new understanding, a matrimonial alliance was arranged, with the daughter of Jodha, Shringar Devi, marrying Kumbha's son, Raimal.".
  34. ^ Vyas, Varsha S. (2007). Rajasthan, the Quest for Sustainable Development. New Delhi: Academic Foundation. p. 355.
  35. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Peace having been established ... Located atop a hill, some six miles south of Mandore, the new capital took its name from its founder ...major city of Rajasthan.".
  36. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Prince Bika, with the help of his uncle Kandhal, occupied Janglu, Deshnoke, and Kodamdesar, to the north and west of Marwar, and founded a separate kingdom that came to be known as ‘Bikaner’ after his name".
  37. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Rao Jodha died in April 1489 ... Jodha's sons, Suja (r. 1492-1515) ascended the gaddi (throne) of Marwar.".
  38. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "The early part of Suja's reign was marked by the siege of Jodhpur at the hands of Rao Bika of Bikaner. The siege was lifted only after the intervention of the queen-mother of Marwar, who prevailed on Suja to let Bika take away to Bikaner the coveted symbols of ancestral royalty (believed to date back to the migration from Kanauj)".
  39. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Upon Suja's death in AD 1515, the throne of Marwar passed to his grandson Ganga, despite the claim put forward by Biram-Deo, one of Jodha's direct descendants from the line of the old Rao's eldest son (as we shall see in a later chapter).".
  40. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In Marwar the reign of Jodha's son, Rao Suja (r. 1492-1515), saw various subordinate chiefs and kinsmen asserting their independence.".
  41. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Ganga's accession to the gaddi of Jodhpur led to a civil war-like situation, however, as his right to the throne was disputed by some courtiers and nobles who upheld the rival claim of his cousin, Biram Deo.".
  42. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Ganga's eldest son, Maldeo ... Rao Ganga eventually humbled the pride of Biram Deo by over-running his patrimony of Merta too.".
  43. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Besides consolidating Marwar, Rao Ganga ... under the command of his son, Prince Maldeo, to assist Sanga's confederacy against Babur .... (Later, when Sanga was rendered unconscious at Khanua, after being struck by an arrow to his head, and was evacuated from the battleground in that unconscious state, Maldeo along with Akheyraj Deora of Sirohi and Prithviraj of Amber formed part of the escort).".
  44. ^ Agarwal, B.D. (1979). Rajasthan District Gazetteers: Jodhpur. Gazetteer of India. Directorate of District Gazetteers, Government of Rajasthan. p. 31. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
  45. ^ History of Mewar from Earliest Times to 1751 A.D., R.V. Somani. p. 173.
  46. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "This vacuum, Maldeo had realised, Rao Ganga could not fill, in spite of his achievements. Rather fortuitously for Maldeo, he did not have long to wait, for Rao Ganga died on 21 May 1531, following a fall from a balcony located high above a sheer drop in the towering great fortress-town of Jodhpur.".
  47. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "The fall may have been an accident, but it is commonly held that Rao Ganga was pushed out of the balcony by Maldeo, who was apparently eager to gather the reins of the state into his own hands.".
  48. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Rao Maldeo (r. 1531-1562), whose mother, ... 1511. By the time he ascended the throne of Marwar ... Maldeo was a fearless warrior in the tradition expected of all Rajputs.".
  49. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Nineteenth and twentieth century historians have acknowledged the political foresight, military leadership, constructive genius, and diplomatic ability of Maldeo in availing of the opportunity thus provided, while the medieval writer, Ferishta, who was closer in time to Maldeo, refers to him as ‘the most potent prince in Hindustan’ .".
  50. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Shortly after this, when Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat invaded Mewar, Maldeo dispatched a contingent of his army to assist Rana Vikramaditya of Mewar.".
  51. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Thus, by 1535, Maldeo succeeded in gaining control of both Nagaur and Ajmer.".
  52. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Rawal Lunkaran of Jaisalmer was driven to sue for peace, and he proposed a matrimonial alliance between the Rao of Marwar and his daughter, Uma-Dey .".
  53. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In 1538 Maldeo attacked Jalore, annexing it and taking Sikandar Khan of Jalore captive. Sikandar Khan was imprisoned at Jodhpur, where he died some time afterwards.".
  54. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In 1537, he responded to the appeal ... Banbeer, an illegitimate son of Mewar's Prince".
  55. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "hus, in 1542 he invaded the kingdom of Bikaner and besieged its capital. Bikaner's ruler, Rao Jaitsi fell in battle at Suwa/Sahba, near Bikaner, after a gallant resistance, and the Bikaner area came under Maldeo's domination.".
  56. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In the interim, much had altered at the imperial power-centre ... a force of 20,000 troops to assist the refugee in regaining his throne.".
  57. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "According to the record left by Princess Gulbadan Begum ... criticised Maldeo for his inhospitable treatment of Humayun, which some hold amounted to treachery.".
  58. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Humayun hastily led his small party away to the security offered by Amarkot, from where he would later attempt to get help from Iran.".
  59. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 527.
  60. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 526–529.
  61. ^ Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part II, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.43
  62. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In 1550, he seized Pokhran from its chief, Kanha. The same year, he sent his forces to take Phalodi from its Bhati chief".
  63. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 532.
  64. ^ Kothiyal, Tanuja (2016). Nomadic Narratives: A History of Mobility and Identity in the Great Indian. Cambridgr University Press. p. 78. ISBN 9781107080317. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  65. ^ G.R. Parihar,Marwar and the Marathas: 1724–1843 A.D. p. xiii
  66. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "By 1557 Nagaur and Ajmer were in the hands of the Mughals.....The chief of Jaitaran, Ratansi Udawat, appealed for help from Maldeo ... opted not to help Ratansi. As a result, on 12 May 1558, Jaitaran was occupied by Mughal troops. Maldeo would soon rue this fait accompli.".
  67. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, " However, before the Mughal emperor put such a plan into practice, Marwar's doughty warrior-king died at Jodhpur on 7 November 1562 .".
  68. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "After Maldeo's death, the succession to the throne of Marwar was not a peaceful one, ... Ram Singh, at Nadol in 1563.".
  69. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, " Meanwhile, Prince Ram Singh had sought Imperial help through Hussain Quli Beg, the Imperial hakim of Nagaur. Thus, in 1563-64 Mughal forces occupied the fort and adjacent city of Jodhpur".
  70. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Meanwhile, the beleaguered Rao Chandrasen quit Jodhpur and shifted the centre of his activities to Bhadrajun, from where he kept up his resistance against the Imperial forces.".
  71. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Soon afterwards, on 14 February 1571, a Mughal contingent led by Khan Kalan forced Chandrasen to evacuate Bhadrajun....ended with the defeat of Rana Pratap of Mewar.".
  72. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In 1576 the Mughal emperor deputed a powerful army consisting of the contingents of Shah Quli Mahram, Bikaner's Rai Singh, Keshav Das etc .... Chandrasen's forces were defeated by the contingents of Bikaner's chief Rai Singh, under the command of Gopaldas.... an impossible dream for the Rao by this stage ... died near the Sachiyayi pass in the Piploda hills, far from the capital city of Jodhpur founded by his ancestor, Jodha. ".
  73. ^ Visheshwar Sarup Bhargava 1966, pp. 52–53.
  74. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In 1583, the emperor formally recognised Maldeo's son and one of Chandrasen's surviving brothers, Udai Singh (also known as ‘Mota Raja’) as the ruler of Marwar (r. 1583-1595), and granted him a portion of the pargana of Jodhpur as jagir.".
  75. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "The accession of Udai Singh marked a new turn in the political history of Jodhpur, since the new Rao openly acknowledged the supremacy of the Mughal emperor.".
  76. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "As ruler of Marwar, Udai Singh joined Imperial forces in various expeditions.... that challenged the Imperial might along the frontiers of the Mughal Empire.".
  77. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "This was the marriage of Rao Udai Singh's daughter, Princess Mani Bai — better known later as ‘Jodha Bai’...‘Jodha Bai’ became the mother of the future emperor, Shah Jahan 128 .".
  78. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "At the end of July 1592 the emperor deputed ‘Mota Raja’ Udai Singh to look after the administration and affairs at Lahore, while he himself proceeded to Kashmir. The following year the ‘Mota Raja’ took possession of Jasol (Mallani), and also assisted Prince Daniyal in the Deccan. In 1595 Udai Singh died at Lahore .".
  79. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In 1595, ‘Mota Raja’ Udai Singh was succeeded by his son, Sur Singh (r. 1595-1619). By dint of his military talents and service, Sur Singh had previously already earned for himself the title of ‘Sawai Raja’ during the lifetime of his father, and held a mansab of 2,000 zat and sawar. ".
  80. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In 1596 the emperor gave the charge of Gujarat to Sur Singh. Part of the period that Sur Singh occupied the gaddi of Marwar/Jodhpur extended into the reign of Emperor Jahangir (r. 1605-1628) and shall be taken up later.".
  81. ^ Visheshwar Sarup Bhargava 1966, pp. 63.
  82. ^ Visheshwar Sarup Bhargava 1966, pp. 65.
  83. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Maharaja Sur Singh, with the help of his premier, or pradhan, Bhati Govind Das (who had previously served Sur Singh's predecessor, ‘Mota’ Raja Udai Singh), saw to the further reorganisation of the administration of Marwar on the pattern of the Mughal system. Posts such as that of the dewan, bakshi, hakim, daftri, daroga, potedar, waqiya-navees, khansama, etc. became firmly established as part and parcel of the Marwar administrative system".
  84. ^ Visheshwar Sarup Bhargava 1966, pp. 68.
  85. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Sur Singh was succeeded by his eldest son, Gaj Singh (r. 1619-1638), who was at the time on Imperial duty at Burhanpur".
  86. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, " Following his accession... subdue Malik Ambar in 1621, and much later, the Nizam-ul-Mulk and Khan-i-Jahan Lodi in 1630.".
  87. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In 1622-1623, Gaj Singh was deputed to assist the Mughal prince Parvez ... Khurram was defeated in the battle that followed, and Emperor Jahangir rewarded Gaj Singh with the parganas of Phalodi and Merta.".
  88. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In keeping with the declared wishes of Gaj Singh, ... passed over his elder son, Prince Amar Singh, in favour of Gaj Singh's younger son and apparently his preferred nominee, Prince Jaswant Singh (r. 1638-1678)".
  89. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Having obtained the grant of Pokhran in 1650 from the Mughal emperor, Jaswant Singh beat off the Bhatis of Jaisalmer to occupy it.".
  90. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "When a war-of-succession broke out between the Mughal princes, following Shah Jahan's illness in September 1657, Jaswant Singh was among those ... to quell the advance of Aurangzeb and Murad..
  91. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "The rival armies met on the battlefield of Dharmat on April 16, 1658....that the cause was lost, the nobles of Marwar compelled the wounded Jaswant Singh to leave the battlefield on the afternoon of April 16. Jaswant Singh and his Marwar contingent thereafter made their way to Jodhpur..
  92. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Aurangzeb and Murad's victory at Dharmat had been followed by the defeat of their elder brother, Dara and the Imperial forces under his command at Samugarh...Aurangzeb assumed the Imperial title and throne...where he was pardoned for having sided with Dara Shikoh.".
  93. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In 1661 ... captured the fort of Kondana in 1663 and weakened the defences of Shivaji. Thereafter, the Marwar contingent saw other action in the Deccan.".
  94. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "On learning of the death of the Rathore ruler, ...resumed the whole of Marwar into the empire's khalsa (crown) lands...Jaswant Singh's family was asked to proceed to Delhi... One of the new-born boys died soon afterwards, but the other — Ajit Singh, born on 19 February 1679, would live to stake claim to the gaddi of Jodhpur.".
  95. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Meanwhile, ... requested him to confer Marwar on the posthumous son of their late Maharaja... and on reaching adulthood would be given due mansab and the throne of Marwar.... Later, Aurangzeb began to question Ajit Singh's legitimacy and insist that a fake prince was being palmed off by the Marwar nobles, to prevent the state going into the hands of someone they would not be able to manipulate)..
  96. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Instead, in May 1679, the emperor ... Inder Singh Rathore, the chief of Nagaur, ... whose superior rights to the Marwar gaddi had been overlooked by Emperor Shah Jahan.".
  97. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "At this, Durga Das Rathore ... daring rescue of the closely guarded infant Ajit Singh and the widowed ranis of Jaswant Singh ... where they arrived in the third week of July 1679, and then on to Jaitaran and Balunda on July 23, 1679.".
  98. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "The rebellious Prince Akbar proclaimed himself as the ‘Emperor of Hindustan’ ...Aurangzeb incited suspicions about an Imperial conspiracy...In time, the emperor's ploy was realised, but it was too late for Akbar's allies to aid him afresh....Durga Das took him to Sambhaji's court at Konkan around June 11, 1681. Durga Das's object in escorting Prince Akbar from Marwar to Sambhaji's court may either have been to divert Imperial attention away from Marwar, or else, to forge some sort of a Rajput-Maratha alliance against the Mughal emperor.".
  99. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In any event, Durga Das's gamble paid off.... Aurangzeb himself left Rajasthan ...Marwar loyalists ample opportunity to challenge Mughal authority ... which were captured and re-captured over the course of the next six years.".
  100. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Thus, negotiations towards a truce...The marriage of Ajit Singh with a niece of Maharana Jai Singh of Mewar...Mewar would not have knowingly married one of its princesses to one they knew to be an impostor.".
  101. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, ""The period of truce between the Mughals and the Rathores of Marwar finally came to end...Ajit Singh was unable to enter the capital-city of Marwar until after the death of Aurangzeb...Ajit Singh wrested the fort and city of Jodhpur.".
  102. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "As a result, Ajit Singh wrested possession of Jodhpur, Sojat, Pali and Merta from the Mughals by the time Prince Muazzam ascended the Mughal throne as emperor".
  103. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "While Bahadur Shah marched towards Ajmer...Marwar forces were defeated in the battle of Merta on February 12 1708, and the Mughal army took possession of the fort of Merta...Jodhpur was once again taken into Imperial control.".
  104. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "However, not long afterwards, Ajit Singh was to exile the faithful aged Durga Das from Marwar. ... Following Durga Das's death in November 1718, a cenotaph was raised in his memory on the banks of the river Kshipra, near Ujjain .".
  105. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Both Ajit Singh and Jai Singh persisted...opened lines of communication with Mewar's Rana Amar Singh II....allying together, quit the Imperial camp...their joint forces advanced upon Jodhpur....Ajit Singh formally took his place on the ancestral gaddi of Marwar at Jodhpur.".
  106. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Following the restitution of Ajit Singh, the allied forces marched towards Amber...went on to defeat the Imperial army near the famous salt-lake town of Sambhar...Marwar and Dhoondhar ensured the return of Jai Singh II to his sequestered throne in October 1708.".
  107. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah eventually opted to change his policy...By May 1710, official Imperial farmans, had been issued by the emperor, confirming Ajit Singh and Jai Singh as rulers of their respective lands.".
  108. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Ajit Singh's position at the Mughal court was further consolidated during the reign of Bahadur Shah's son and successor, Jahandar Shah. The new emperor not only raised Ajit Singh's mansab rank to 7,000 zat and sawar, he also appointed the Marwar ruler as the subedar of Gujarat.".
  109. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Subsequently, ...did not comply with orders to report at Thatta in Sindh, as the subedar-designate, an Imperial force, under the command of Sayyid Hussain Ali Khan, was sent against Marwar....According to the terms of the settlement, which was ratified by Ajit Singh on 19 March 1714, Ajit Singh was to send his heir, Prince Abhay Singh, to the Imperial court; to personally attend court himself whenever summoned, and to pay a ‘peshkash’ or tribute to the emperor....It was also agreed that Princess Inder Kanwar, the daughter of Ajit Singh, would be married to Emperor Farrukhsiyar. This marriage took place on December 11, 1715, and was solemnized at Delhi, with Rajput customs given due place in the ceremony.".
  110. ^ William Irvine. p. 379-418.
  111. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "While the new emperor confirmed Ajit Singh as the governor of Gujarat, the imprisoned Farukhsiyar was murdered in April 1719...Emperor Muhammad Shah, who ascended the throne after Rafi-ud-Daulah's premature death in the early autumn of 1719, made Ajit Singh the subedar of Ajmer, along with confirming him in the governorship of Gujarat.".
  112. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "The death of one of the ‘king-makers’, ...marked a change in fortunes for Ajit Singh. ...the emperor took away the subedari of Gujarat from Ajit Singh, and later that August, removed Ajit Singh from the governorship of Ajmer as well....This was complied with. By November 1723, the sorely disappointed Ajit was able to return to Jodhpur.".
  113. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Abhay Singh became more and more influenced by his friendship with his brother-in-law (and later father-in-law), Sawai Jai Singh II....It is held that Sawai Jai Singh was among those who advised and instigated Abhay Singh to rid Marwar of his father....Bakhat Singh entered his father's palace and murdered him.".
  114. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 99.
  115. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In 1730, Emperor Mohammed Shah appointed him subedar of Gujarat.... Abhay Singh was victorious against Sarbaland Khan in a battle fought near Ahmedabad and the banks of the Sabarmati River.".
  116. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Abhay Singh took the advantage of the strife between Baji Rao Peshwa and Trimbak Rao ...capture of the forts of Baroda and Jambusar in 1732.".
  117. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In the interim, Abhay Singh had been one of the key participants at the conference held at Hurda in 1734 to check Maratha inroads into Rajasthan....hauth revenue from the Mughal-administered province of Malwa.".
  118. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Meanwhile, since Abhay Singh did not approve of Sawai Jai Singh II of Jaipur's policy of ‘appeasing’ ...In retaliation the Marathas invaded Marwar in 1736.".
  119. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Abhay Singh once again attacked Bikaner, but Bakhat supported Bikaner's Maharaja Zorawar Singh...The latter asked Dhoondhar's Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II for help...The Maharana of Mewar once again interceded...followed by a treaty, which included a clause".
  120. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, pp. 103.
  121. ^ R.K Gupta, S.R Bakshi (2008). Rajasthan Through the Ages, Vol 4, pages 154-155
  122. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Bakhat Singh attacked Ajmer....However, the vagaries of battle resulted in Bakhat Singh finding himself forced to retreat from the field".
  123. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Abhay Singh promptly despatched a large force against Gaj Singh...Holkar agreed to maintain cordial relations.".
  124. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Following the death of Marwar's Maharaja Abhay Singh in 1749, ...The uncle-nephew squabble escalated ...Bikaner's Maharaja Gaj Singh taking the part of Bakhat Singh and those of Dhoondhar's Maharaja Sawai Ishwari Singh that of Ram Singh".
  125. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Within a year, in July 1751, Bakhat Singh (r. 1751-1752) finally attained the throne of Marwar, after capturing Jodhpur 43 ....However, Bakhat Singh died in September 1752, before any tangible result could be achieved.".
  126. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Bijay Singh (r. 1752-1793), the son of Bakhat Singh, succeeded his father, and Ram Singh launched a fresh bid to regain his lost inheritance....while Bijay Singh sought refuge in the fort of Nagaur. Nagaur was subjected to a long siege".
  127. ^ a b c d Dhananajaya Singh 1996, pp. 105.
  128. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Marwar remained neutral during the Maratha-Abdali contest, ......Ram Singh sought help from Madho Singh of Jaipur....much to the relief of Bijay Singh, he died in 1772.".
  129. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Commerce revived too,...1780 Bijay Singh introduced the silver ‘Bijay-shabi’ coin, with the permission of the Mughal emperor, Shah Alam II. ...(In 1859 Queen Victoria's name replaced that of the Mughal emperor).".
  130. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In 1787 Jaipur was threatened with the formidable army of the Marathas under Mahadji Scindia...The battle was fought at Tunga (1787) in which the Rathores showed their valour....compelling Scindia to abandon the field.".
  131. ^ a b Dhananajaya Singh 1996, pp. 106.
  132. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "The genius of Mahadji Scindia and the talents of De Boigne helped the Marathas recover their position swiftly....Bijay Singh was forced to agree to Marathas terms. He paid over an indemnity of sixty lakh rupees, and returned Ajmer to the Marathas in 1791, along with Sambhar and its productive salt-lake area, Khairwa, Masuda and twenty-nine villages of Bhinai.".
  133. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Bhim Singh (r. 1793-1803) was successful in ascending the gaddi of Marwar... The sole major claimant who remained to effectively challenge Bhim Singh was his cousin, Man Singh (son of Guman Singh), who was beyond Bhim Singh's reach in the strong fort of Jalore.".
  134. ^ Dhananajaya Singh 1996, pp. 108.
  135. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Bhim Singh despatched a force commanded by Singhvi Akheyraj against his cousin and rival, Man Singh.....Man Singh reached Jodhpur on 5 November 1803, and the formal coronation ceremony was held in the Marwar capital on 17 January 1804.".
  136. ^ Dhananajaya Singh 1996, pp. 109.
  137. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "The princess had been betrothed to Maharaja Bhim Singh of Marwar, but the death of the Rathore ruler and the succession of his relative, Man Singh, to the Marwar gaddi altered arrangements.".
  138. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In the interim, a Jaipur princess, Chand Kanwar, who was married to the Mewar Maharana, suggested that Krishna Kumari be married to Jaipur's Maharaja Sawai Jagat Singh. Jaipur accepted the proposal, but Man Singh of Jodhpur insisted that the marriage-alliance previously arranged between Mewar and Marwar should stand and Krishna Kumari be married to him.".
  139. ^ Mathur, Tej Kumar (1987). Feudal Polity in Mewar. p. 76.
  140. ^ a b Dhananajaya Singh 1996, pp. 109–110.
  141. ^ Mathur, Tej Kumar (1987). Feudal Polity in Mewar. p. 80.
  142. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "According to one version, an uncle offered the young princess a chalice...the third cup of poison drunk by Krishna Kumari finally brought her young life to a close.".
  143. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Man Singh despatched an army, under the command of the faithful minister, Indra Raj Singhvi, ... Faced by a lack of cooperation from Indra Raj Singhvi, Kalyanmal Lodha's contingent was defeated, and Kalyanmal himself was taken prisoner. ...Maharaja Surat Singh of Bikaner accepted a settlement. Under the terms agreed upon, Bikaner agreed to pay a war indemnity of three lakhs and sixty thousand rupees, and surrender the town of Phalodi".
  144. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Meanwhile, taking advantage of the unresolved rivalry between the neighbouring states of Marwar and Dhoondhar, Amir Khan had taken to plundering Dhoondhar's territories....Maharaja Jagat Singh of Jaipur's sister would marry Maharaja Man Singh of Jodhpur, and Maharaja Man Singh's daughter would marry Maharaja Jagat Singh".
  145. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "By this time, Amir Khan had become an influential factor in the politics of this region.....obtained some eighteen lakhs of rupees from Maharaja Man Singh!".
  146. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Five lakhs were paid over as an advance amount to the Pindari leader. Subsequently, the Marwar ruler's spiritual guru, Dev Nath, and the state's loyal minister, Indra Raj Singhvi, were both assassinated within the Jodhpur fort on October 10, 1815 by Amir Khan's men.".
  147. ^ Rima Hooja, 2006 & loc"At the instance of Amir Khan, Indra Raj's opponents Mehta Akhey Chand and Bhandari Chaturbhuj were appointed as musahib and fauj-bakshi respectively. Amir Khan extracted twenty lakhs from them within two months and left Marwar in December 1815".
  148. ^ Rima Hooja, 2006 & loc""At the instance of Amir Khan, Indra Raj's opponents Mehta Akhey Chand and Bhandari Chaturbhuj were appointed as musahib and fauj-bakshi respectively....Gul Raj was arrested and killed in April 1817. ...to hand over the administration of Marwar to his heir-apparent, Chhatar Singh.".
  149. ^ Dhananajaya Singh 1996, pp. 111.
  150. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "In the interim, following the signing of the Treaty of Bassein, Lord Wellesley, the Governor General, attempted to extend British territory up to the river Jamuna (also Yamuna)...possibilities of treaties with some of the princely states of the region — like Jaipur, Jodhpur etc. were discussed.".
  151. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Thus, the rulers of kingdoms like Mewar, Jaipur and Kota....‘Princely States of Rajputana’: ‘land of the Rajputs’.".
  152. ^ Dhananajaya Singh 1996, pp. 114.
  153. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "The untimely death of Kunwar Chhatar Singh in March 1818 created a vacuum in the political set up of Jodhpur....The Munshi persuaded the recluse Maharaja Man Singh to come out of seclusion and take over the administration of Marwar afresh.".
  154. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Following assurances by the British, Man Singh resumed the reins of the state of Marwar on November 4, 1818....including Mehta Akhey Chand, Kilendar Nath Karan, Vyas Vinod Ram, had been executed or murdered.".
  155. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "They invited Dhonkal Singh. ...Man Singh's relations with the British were never easy, however. In 1829 Man Singh gave shelter to Appa Saheb Bhonsle, the dethroned ruler of Nagpur, at Maha Mandir, and refused to hand him over to the British in spite of persistent demands by Governor General Lord William Bentinck. ...he sent troops against neighbouring states like Jaisalmer, Kishangarh and Sirohi, and paid little heed to the letters of the Governor General.".
  156. ^ a b Dhananajaya Singh 1996, pp. 117.
  157. ^ Dhananajaya Singh 1996, pp. 118.
  158. ^ Dhananajaya Singh 1996, pp. 119.
  159. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Man Singh's sons (including Chhatar Singh) having predeceased him, the British Political Agent, in consultation with the widows of Man Singh and the senior nobles, put Takhat Singh of Idar on the throne on 1 December 1843. (Idar had come into the hands of a scion of the Rathore ruling house of Marwar in 1728, and that cadet line had continued to hold it thereafter).".
  160. ^ Dhananajaya Singh 1996, p. 120.
  161. ^ Rima Hooja 2006, "Infanticide was prohibited too...finances set aside for the purchase of astronomical instruments, globes, etc.".
  162. ^ a b India: The Peacock's Call by Aline Dobbie p.41
  163. ^ Niyogi, Roma (1959). The History of the Gāhaḍavāla Dynasty.pg -30 Oriental. OCLC 5386449
  164. ^ Dhananajaya Singh 1996, p. 77.
  • Jodhpur, Published by [s.l.], 1933.
  • Maharaja Man Singh of Jodhpur and His Times (1803–1843 A.D.), by Padmaja Sharma. Published by Shiva Lal Agarwala, 1972.
  • The Administration of Jodhpur State, 1800–1947 A.D., by Nirmala M. Upadhyaya. International Publishers, 1973.
  • Marwar under Jaswant Singh, (1658–1678): Jodhpur hukumat ri bahi, by Satish Chandra, Raghubir Sinh, Ghanshyam Datt Sharma. Published by Meenakshi Prakashan, 1976.
  • Jodhpur, Bikaner, Jaisalmer: Desert Kingdoms, by Kishore Singh, Karoki Lewis. Lustre Press Ltd. 1992.
  • Modern Indian Kingship: Tradition, Legitimacy & Power in Jodhpur, by Marzia Balzani. Published by James Currey Limited, 2003. ISBN 0-85255-931-3.
  • Jodhpur and the Later Mughals, AD 1707–1752, by R. S. Sangwan. Published by Pragati Publications, 2006.
  • Jodhpur's Umaid Bhawan: The Maharaja of Palaces, by Aman Nath. Published by India Book House, 2008.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

26°28′N 73°02′E / 26.467°N 73.033°E / 26.467; 73.033