Coordinates: 32°56′33″N 73°43′32″E / 32.94250°N 73.72556°E / 32.94250; 73.72556
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Clockwise from top: Major Akram Shaheed Memorial, Tareekh-e-Jhelum book cover, Cantonment Square, CMH Mosque and Zamir Jaffri Cricket Stadium
City of Soldiers
Land of Martyrs and Warriors
Map of Jhelum City
Map of Jhelum City
Jhelum is located in Punjab, Pakistan
Location within Punjab, Pakistan
Jhelum is located in Pakistan
Jhelum (Pakistan)
Coordinates: 32°56′33″N 73°43′32″E / 32.94250°N 73.72556°E / 32.94250; 73.72556[1]
Country Pakistan
ProvincePunjab, Pakistan Punjab
Founded byBefore BC
Union Councils7
 • MayorNone (vacant)
 • Deputy CommissionerSamiullah Farooq (PAS)
 • City22.5 km2 (8.7 sq mi)
Elevation233 m (768 ft)
 • City190,425
 • Rank44th, Pakistan
 • Demonym
 • OfficialPunjabi, Urdu
Time zoneUTC+5 (PKT)
Postal code
Dialling code0544

Jhelum (/ˈləm/; جہلم; Punjabi: [d͡ʒěˈlˑə̃mᵊ]; Urdu: [d͡ʒeɦˈləm]) is a city on the East Bank of the Jhelum River, which is located in the district of Jhelum in the North of Punjab province, Pakistan. It is the 44th largest city of Pakistan by population. Jhelum is known for providing many soldiers to the British Army before independence,[4] and later to the Pakistan armed forces, due to which it is also known as City of Soldiers or Land of Martyrs and Warriors.[5][6]

Jhelum is a few miles upstream from the site of the ancient Battle of the Hydaspes between the armies of Alexander and King Porus. Possibly Jhelum City was the capital of Porus' Kingdom, Paurava. A city called Bucephala was founded nearby to commemorate the death of Alexander's horse, Bucephalus. Other notable sites nearby include the 16th-century Rohtas Fort, the Tilla Jogian complex of ancient temples, and the 16th-century Grand Trunk Road which passes through the city. According to the 2017 census of Pakistan, the population of Jhelum was 190,425.[3] The name of the city is derived from the words Jal (pure water) and Ham (snow), as the water that flows through the river originates in the Himalayas. There are a number of industries in and around Jhelum city, including a tobacco factory, wood, marble, glass and flour mills. Its near the capital of Pakistan[7]


Anjum Sultan Shahbaz recorded some stories of the name Jhelum in his book Tareekh-e-Jhelum as:[8]

Many writers have different opinions about the name of Jhelum. One suggestion is that in ancient days Jhelumabad was known as Jalham. The word Jhelum is reportedly derived from the words Jal (pure water) and Ham (snow). The name thus refers to the waters of a river (flowing besides the city) which have their origins in the snow-capped Himalayas.[9]

However, some writers believe that when "Dara-e-Azam" reached a certain place on the river bank after winning many battles, he fixed his flag at that place and called it "Ja-e-Alam" which means "Place of the Flag". With the passage of time it became Jhelum from "Ja-e-Alam".

According to tradition, Saeed Bin Abi Waqas, brother of Saad Bin Abi Waqas, was sent to China to preach Islam, during his journey he arrived at the city of Jhelum, he saw the reflection of a city in the river and said "هذا جهيلم" (this is Jhelum), which means "City besides the river, in full moonlight".

Ahmed Shah Abdali also used "Jheelum" in place of Jhelum and "Harian" for Kharian in his diary.



The Rajput, Gujjars, Labana,[10][11][12] who now hold the Salt Range and its northern plateau respectively, appear to have been the earliest inhabitants of Jhelum.[13] The next major point in the history of the district was the Battle of the Hydaspes between Alexander and the local ruler, Porus the Elder. Abisares (or Abhisara;[14] in Greek Αβισαρης), called Embisarus (Eμ Oβισαρoς) by Diodorus,[15] was an Indian king of the Abhira tribe.[16] descent beyond the river Hydaspes, whose territory lay in the mountains, sent embassies to Alexander both before and after the conquest of Porus in 326 BC, although inclined to espouse the side of the latter. Alexander not only allowed him to retain his kingdom but increased it, and on his death appointed his son as his successor. Porus' kingdom Paurava was on the left bank of the Jhelem River corresponding the limits of the present Gujrat District. The Gakhars appear to represent an early wave of conquerors from the west, who still inhabit a large tract in the mountain north of tilla range. Gakhars were the dominant race during the early Muslim era and they long continued to retain their independence, both in Jhelum itself and in the neighbouring district of Rawalpindi.[13]


In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin. In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region including Jhelum. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region.

The Mughals were Persianized Turks who claimed descent from both Timur and Genghis Khan and strengthened the Persianate culture of Muslim India. Being very few in number, main families of Mughal Barlas, the descent of Ameer-i Taimoor settled in Mong Rasool and afterward scattered to village chak Nazar, Shamaspur, Aima Afghana, khardiyala, Chak sikander, Malhar Muglain, Mota Garbi, Bhimber, they adopted a policy of converting the local Jats and Gakhars mandatory as recorded in the Baburnama.[17] Thus it is credited to the Mughals, who were largely responsible for the conversion of the Jats to Islam.[18]

With the collapse of the Mughal Empire after the death of Aurangzeb, the Durrani Empire had occupied the plains but were eventually ousted by the Sikhs.

Later periods[edit]

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the region fell under Afghan occupation. During the decline of Afghan rule following the Third Battle of Panipat, the newly emerging Sikh Empire invaded and occupied Jhelum District in 1808 from its Gakhar ruler Raja Sultan Muqarrab Khan. In 1849 Jhelum passed with the rest of the Sikh territories to the British. The British conquered Jhelum in 1849 with the assistance of the local Gakhars who resented Sikh rule. In 1857 the 14th Native Infantry stationed at Jhelum town mutinied, and displayed a vigorous defence against a force sent from Rawalpindi to disarm them, but decamped for the night following the action, with the main body being subsequently arrested by the Kashmiri authorities, into whose territory they had escaped. They were then handed over to the British colonial authorities and executed for treason.

A Sikh-era fort in Jhelum City

British Raj[edit]

During British rule, Jhelum was connected by the North-Western Railway to other cities in the Indian Empire, 1,367 miles from Calcutta, 1,413 from Bombay, and 849 from Karachi. The population according to the 1901 census of India was 14,951.[19]

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India:

The present town is of modern origin, the old town, which may have been the Bucephala of Alexander having been, on the left or opposite bank of the river. Under Sikh rule the place was quite unimportant, being mainly occupied by a settlement of boatmen, and at the time of annexation contained about 500 houses. It was then chosen as the site of a cantonment and as the headquarters of the civil administration. For some years it was the seat of the Commissioner of the Division, but in 1859 his headquarters were transferred to Rawalpindi. Under British rule, Jhelum has steadily advanced in prosperity; and is the entrepôt for most of the trade of the District, though, since the completion of the Sind-Sāgar branch of the North-Western Railway; the salt trade no longer passes through it. It is an important timber dépôt, the timber from the Kashmir forests which is floated down the river being collected here. A good deal of boat-building is carried on. The cantonment, which is 3 miles from the civil station, contains the church and post office. The normal strength of the garrison is one Native cavalry and four Native infantry regiments. The municipality was founded in 1867. During the ten years ending 1902–3 the receipts averaged Rs. 32,100, and the expenditure Rs, 31,900. Receipts and expenditure from cantonment funds in the same period averaged Rs. 31,900 and Rs. 6,100 respectively. The chief income of the municipality in 1903-4 was Rs. 34,200 chiefly from octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 41,000. The town has two Anglo vernacular schools, a municipal high school, and a middle school maintained by the American Presbyterian Mission. Besides the civil hospital, the mission also maintains a hospital.[19]

Marble lectern in memory of 35 British soldiers

During the Mutiny of 1857, 35 British soldiers of the Regular 24th Regiment of Foot were killed at the Battle of Jhelum by mutineers from the Honourable East India Companies 14th Bengal Native Infantry (roughly 500 of the soldiers mutinied with roughly 100 of the Sikh soldiers remaining loyal). Among the dead was Captain Francis Spring, the eldest son of Colonel William Spring.[20] A lectern inside St John's Church Jhelum shows the names of those 35 soldiers. St John's Church is located in the Jhelum Cantonment, Pakistan beside the river Jhelum. It was built in 1860 and remains a landmark in the city. It was built as a Protestant church and was in use throughout the British period. For the past forty years, it has been closed to the public and in poor condition, however, it has since[when?] been renovated and reopened and is now maintained.

The British soldier William Connolly won a Victoria Cross for his bravery during this battle. Mirza Dildar Baig, also known as Khaki Shah, took part in the mutiny at Jhelum and was later celebrated by Indian Nationalists. He was captured and arrested with the remaining mutineers by authorities in Kashmir and later hanged near the river Jhelum. His grave is in a shrine in Jhelum Dildarnagar, and a small town in Uttar Pradesh is also named after him.

The railway bridge on the river Jhelum was built in 1873 by the British engineer William St. John Galwey. He also made the great Empress Victoria Bridge over the river Sutlej. During World War I, the Jhelum District "stood first" among districts in recruiting for the British war effort, with greater financial assistance from the British government channelled into the area in return.[21]


The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while Muslim refugees from India settled down in the Jhelum District.


The River Jhelum below the bridge from Sarai Alamgir side

As well as being district capital, Jhelum city is also the headquarters of Jhelum Tehsil, the city of Jhelum is administratively subdivided into seven union councils:[22] Jhelum-I, Jhelum-II, Jhelum-III, Jhelum-IV, Jhelum-V, Jhelum-VI and Jhelum-VII.


The population of the Jhelum city is about 188,800 (2012) and it is the 32nd largest city of Pakistan with respect to population. Total area of city is about 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi). Population density is 261/km. Population growth rate is 1.51[23] which is very low as compared to other urban areas of Pakistan. The majority of the population i.e. 98.47 percent is Muslim. Among the minorities Christians are in the majority sharing 1.36 percent in the district.

The literacy rate of Jhelum is among the highest in Pakistan. At 79%, it is only lower than that of Islamabad and neighbouring Rawalpindi.[24] Somewhat higher than the literacy in Punjab province (58 percent).[24] The literacy rate has remarkably increased from 38.9 percent in 1981. The rate is much higher in the urban areas for both males and females. 84% of the population have electricity and 96% have access to water.[25] Human Development Index of Jhelum is 0.770, which is highest in Pakistan after Karachi.

Geography and climate[edit]

Lying at 32°56′ North latitude and 73°44′ East longitude, Jhelum is located a 1-hour and 30 minutes drive from the Capital of Pakistan Islamabad, and 3 hours drive from the heart of Punjab Lahore. Jhelum is linked with these cities through the National Highway N-5. Several cities are within 1 to 2 hours drive including Gujrat (home to fan manufacturing),[26] Gujranwala,[27] Chakwal and Mirpur, Azad Kashmir.

Jhelum has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa) and is extremely hot and humid in summer, and cold and generally dry in winter. The maximum recorded temperature in the pre-monsoon season of April to June is 49.2 °C (120.6 °F), whereas in winter the minimum temperature recorded is −0.6 °C (30.9 °F). Average annual rainfall is about 850 millimetres (33 in) which is much below the required quantity given the extremely high evaporation levels. Nevertheless, in the rainy season water torrents flow from the north to the Jhelum River very rapidly and cause damage to the crops, bridges, roads. This is responsible for the soil erosion in the district.[28]

Over the years, global climate change has affected Jhelum as well as any other place on Earth and below comparison charts from Weatherbase and NOAA show the difference in rainfall between 1990 and 2015:

Climate data for Jhelum, Pakistan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19
Average low °C (°F) 4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 35
Source: Weatherbase 2015[29]
Climate data for Jhelum, Punjab
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.1
Average high °C (°F) 19.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.3
Average low °C (°F) 5.0
Record low °C (°F) −0.6
Average rainfall mm (inches) 33.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 212.8 202.9 225.3 256.8 312.7 284.7 247.0 243.6 257.0 287.5 251.9 215.3 2,997.5
[citation needed]

Major floods[edit]

The biggest floods in Jhelum in recent years were in 1992. Jhelum city and surrounding areas were almost completely submerged under flood waters.

Important sites[edit]

Front view of Melange supermarket
Akram Shaheed Library

Rohtas Fort is a garrison fort built by the great Afghan king Sher Shah Suri. This fort is about 4 km in circumference. Qila Rohtas is situated in a gorge approximately 18 km NW of Jhelum and 7 km from Dina.

The old city has a labyrinth of narrow streets and bazaars. Opposite the CMH Jhelum Cantt is located the CMH Masjid Jhelum mosque.

Located in the cantonment area is the St. John's Church Jhelum which was built in 1860. There was a local stadium near Gul Afshan Colony which was changed to a cricket stadium named Zamir Jaffri Cricket Stadium. Altaf Park which was constructed in 1994–95 is in a very close proximity of Cricket Stadium. Nearly 100 m from Shandar Chowk, in the center of city, is Major Akram Shaheed Memorial Park. Major Muhammad Akram Memorial Library is also present in this park. This is also a site of a parade which takes place every year on 6 September at the occasion of Defence Day.

Mangla Dam Water Reservoir

Lehri Nature Park is located 10 kilometers away from G. T. Road between Jhelum and Islamabad, it is 30 kilometers from Jhelum and 90 kilometers from Islamabad in the hilly Pothohar region.

The Mangla Dam is located on the Jhelum River about 30 km (19 mi) from Jhelum, it is the twelfth largest dam in the world. It was constructed in 1967 across the Jhelum River. There is the Mangla View Resort that is the first planned resort development in Pakistan to offer residences, villas, townhouses, hotels, serviced apartments and retail outlets. The resort is located on a 340-acre (1.4 km2) site on the Mangla Dam area.

Rasul Barrage is located on the Jhelum River about 30 km downstream from Jhelum. Two major water canals originate at the Rasul barrage, Rasul-Qadirabad link canal which is also called Lower-Jhelum link canal and Rasul-Shahpur branch canal. The area around the Rasul Barrage lake is also a picnic spot.

Travel and tourism[edit]

Bus Stand Jhelum
Jhelum Railway Station

Auto Rickshaws are a common mode of transport for short routes within the city. Many of the new rickshaws in the city use Compressed natural gas (CNG) instead of the petrol engines as CNG is environmentally clean and cheaper than petrol. Rickshaws are another important mode of transportation. The older horse drawn tongas are now defunct although some can still be privately commissioned. Taxis and privately commissioned small passenger carrying vans are available. Daewoo Express Bus Service and other bus services operate from the city to the entire country.[30]

The Jhelum Railway Station was built in 1928 during British rule before the independence of Pakistan. It was connected by the North-Western Railway to other cities in the Indian empire. Jhelum is on main line of Pakistan Railways, and linked to whole country through Railway line across Pakistan. The nearest international airport is the Islamabad International Airport, which is approximately 110 km by road from Jhelum. The Sialkot International Airport, is approximately 100 km by road from Jhelum. A small airport called Gurha Salim Airport is situated 13 km (8 mi) from the city centre. It is not being used by any commercial airlines, but only for military purposes.[31]


Cricket Stadium Jhelum
Horse and rider in action

Located within the city is a golf course called the River-View Golf Club, where national golf tournaments are held regularly.

There is a cricket and football stadium, Zamir Jaffri Cricket Stadium, where district level tournaments are held. In October 2008, Pakistan Cricket Board upgraded this stadium for regional events.[32]


University of the Punjab, Jhelum Campus

Jhelum has six degree colleges for women, six degree colleges for men, six co-education colleges, six commerce colleges, one law college, numerous higher secondary schools and over 150 high schools. It also has a campus Of Punjab University, Punjab University Jhelum Campus, near Rathiyan, Kala Gujran and Satellite Town Jhelum.[33]

The University of the Punjab has established a campus in Jhelum offering programs related to business, commerce, law, and computer science. The new undergraduate and postgraduate degree programs are due to commence soon.[when?] The literacy rate of Jhelum is high in comparison to other cities of the Punjab. 65 kanals of land was allocated to establish this campus by Government of Punjab.[34] Jhelum also has two sub-campuses of the Virtual University of Pakistan, Virtual University Campus at Civil Lines opposite city Church, and a private virtual campus, Wings Institute of Learning. Virtual University of Pakistan inaugurated its own Campus in Jhelum in March 2012; VU Jhelum Campus is located in the middle of the city.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Location of Jhelum – Falling Rain Genomics". Fallingrain.com website. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  2. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Jhelum, Pakistan". Weatherbase website.
  3. ^ a b "Pakistan: Provinces and Major Cities – Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". Citypopulation.de website.
  4. ^ "Pakistan Army". Globalsecurity.org website. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  5. ^ Syed Shoaib Hasan (17 June 2009). "Rise of Pakistan's 'quiet man' (Ashfaq Parvez Kayani)". BBC News. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  6. ^ "AAJ TV NEWS Report (City of martyrs and warriors)". Youtube.com. 10 February 2009. Archived from the original on 12 December 2021. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  7. ^ "Tehsil Municipal Administration Jhelum – Industries of Jhelum". Tehsil Municipal Administration Jhelum website. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  8. ^ Shahbaz, Anjum Sultan (14 September 2012). Tareekh-e-Jhelum. History of Jhelum (2nd ed.). Book Corner, Main Bazar, Jhelum. p. 92. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  9. ^ "The District Jhelum". Jhelum Police website. 2 March 2008. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  10. ^ Kapoor, Subodh (2002). Encyclopaedia of Ancient Indian Geography – Subodh Kapoor. ISBN 9788177552980. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  11. ^ Kapoor, Subodh (16 July 2017). Encyclopaedia of Ancient Indian Geography. Cosmo Publications. ISBN 9788177552980 – via Google Books.
  12. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, v. 8, 20, 29; Curtius Rufus, Historiae Alexandri Magni, viii. 12–14, ix. 1, x. 1
  13. ^ a b "Jhelum District Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14, p. 152". Digital South Asia Library website. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  14. ^ Chisholm, Hugh (1910). "Alexander III (Alexander the Great)". Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. Vol. 1.
  15. ^ Diodorus, Bibliotheca, xvii. 90
  16. ^ Enthoven, Reginald Edward (1990). The Tribes and Castes of Bombay: Ill – Reginald E. Enthoven. ISBN 9788120606302. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  17. ^ "Biography of Abdur Rahim Khankhana". Archived from the original on 17 January 2006. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  18. ^ ^ a b c Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 20: "The Mughals – Persianized Turks who invaded from Central Asia and claimed descent from both Timur and Genghis – strengthened the Persianate culture of Muslim India."
  19. ^ a b "Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14, p. 159-160". Digital South Asia Library website. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  20. ^ The London Gazette, 19 May 1858 http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/22141/pages/2492/page.pdf
  21. ^ The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab. Orient Blackswan. 2003. ISBN 9788178240596. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  22. ^ "Tehsils & Unions in the District of Jhelum – Government of Pakistan". National Reconstruction Bureau. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  23. ^ "Population growth rate". World-gazetteer.com. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  24. ^ a b "Literacy - Population 10 Years And Older" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  25. ^ "District Profile - Jhelum". Dawn (newspaper). Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  26. ^ "University of Gujrat". University of Gujrat. 3 March 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  27. ^ "Gujranwala Business Center". 13 May 2007. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  28. ^ "Jhelum, Pakistan Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase.
  29. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Jhelum, Pakistan". Weatherbase. 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  30. ^ "Jhelum city". Daewoo Express Bus Service. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  31. ^ "Air Force Question Thread". Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  32. ^ "(District Cricket Stadium, Jhelum)". The News International (newspaper). Archived from the original on 30 September 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  33. ^ "School Directory of PUNJAB (Jhelum)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  34. ^ "Punjab University NewsLetter - November 2006" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2021.

External links[edit]