Javanese numerals

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Javanese numerals (Javanese: ꦮꦶꦭꦁꦔꦤ꧀ꦗꦮ, romanized: Wilangan Jawa; Old Javanese: 𑼮𑼶𑼭𑼁, romanized: wilaṅ) are a set of numerals traditionally used in the Javanese language, although Arabic numerals are also used. Javanese numerals follow the Hindu–Arabic numeral system commonly used in the rest of the world.

Javanese language is rich in numerical expressions. What is written here is the form in standard written Javanese. Spoken Javanese or dialects can take different forms.


Basic numerals[edit]

The numerals 0–9 have independent and modifier forms. The modifiers are used to form powers of 10 or modify the sum of object. In some cases, there is more than one word for a numeral reflecting the Javanese register system: ngoko (low-register) and krama (high-register).

Numeral Independent Modifier
Javanese Latin Ngoko Krama Ngoko Krama
0 das - - -
1 siji satunggal sa- -
2 (lo)ro kalih rong kalih
3 tĕlu tiga tĕlung tigang
4 (pa)pat sakawan patang sakawan
5 lima gangsal limang gangsal
6 ĕnĕm - ĕnĕm -
7 pitu - pitung -
8 wolu - wolung -
9 sanga - sangang -

Teen, tween, and thirty numerals[edit]

Like English, Javanese has compound forms for the teens; however, it also has a series of compound 'tweens', 21–29. The teens are based on a root wĕlas and the tweens on likur.

Especially for numerals between 30 and 40, there are two formats: proper form and shortened form (wancahan).

Numeral Teen Numeral Tween Numeral Thirty
Ngoko Krama Ngoko Krama Proper Shortened
11 sawĕlas - 21 salikur - 31 tĕlung puluh siji beh-ji
12 ro wĕlas kalih wĕlas 22 ro likur kalih likur 32 tĕlung puluh (lo)ro beh-ro
13 tĕlu wĕlas tiga wĕlas 23 tĕlu likur tiga likur 33 tĕlung puluh tĕlu beh-lu
14 pat wĕlas sakawan wĕlas 24 pat likur sakawan likur 34 tĕlung puluh (pa)pat beh-pat
15 lima wĕlas gangsal wĕlas 25 salawe salangkung 35 salapan beh-ma
16 ĕnĕm wĕlas - 26 ĕnĕm likur - 36 tĕlung puluh ĕnĕm beh-nĕm
17 pitu wĕlas - 27 pitu likur - 37 tĕlung puluh pitu beh-tu
18 wolu wĕlas - 28 wolu likur - 38 tĕlung puluh wolu beh-wo
19 sanga wĕlas - 29 sanga likur - 39 tĕlung puluh sanga beh-nga

Powers of 10[edit]

When basic numbers are combined with powers of 10, the modifier is applied. The table below uses the modifier of one (sa-) as an example.



Name International notation[1] Short scale Western

(long scale Western)

Javanese Latin
100 ꦱꦶꦗꦶ siji 1 One
101 ꦱꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ sapuluh 10 TenSI prefix: deca-
102 ꦱꦲꦠꦸꦱ꧀ saatus 100 One hundred

SI prefix: hecto-

103 ꦱꦲꦶꦮꦸ saiwu 1,000 One thousand

SI prefix: kilo-

104 ꦱꦊꦏ꧀ꦱ salĕksa 10,000 Ten thousand
105 ꦱꦏꦼꦛꦶ sakĕthi 100,000 One hundred thousand
106 ꦱꦪꦸꦠ sayuta 1,000,000 One million

SI prefix: mega-

107 ꦱꦮꦼꦤ꧀ꦢꦿ sawĕndra 10,000,000 Ten million
108 ꦱꦧꦫ sabara 100,000,000 One hundred million
109 ꦱꦒꦸꦭ꧀ꦩ sagulma 1,000,000,000 One billion

(one milliard) SI prefix: giga-

1010 ꦱꦕꦩꦸ sacamu 10,000,000,000 Ten billion

(ten milliard)

1011 ꦱꦮꦸꦂꦝ sawurdha 100,000,000,000 One hundred billion

(one hundred milliard)

1012 ꦱꦏꦶꦂꦤ sakirna 1,000,000,000,000 One trillion

(one billion) SI prefix: tera-

1013 ꦱꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃꦏꦶꦂꦤ sapuluh kirna 10,000,000,000,000 Ten trillion

(ten billion)

1014 ꦱꦲꦠꦸꦱ꧀ꦏꦶꦂꦤ saatus kirna 100,000,000,000,000 One hundred trillion

(one hundred billion)

1015 ꦱꦠꦸꦠ꧀ꦱ꧀ꦩ satutsma 1,000,000,000,000,000 One quadrillion

(one billiard) SI prefix: peta-

1016 ꦱꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃꦠꦸꦠ꧀ꦱ꧀ꦩ sapuluh tutsma 10,000,000,000,000,000 Ten quadrillion

(ten billiard)

1017 ꦱꦲꦠꦸꦱ꧀ꦠꦸꦠ꧀ꦱ꧀ꦩ saatus tutsma 100,000,000,000,000,000 One hundred quadrillion

(one hundred billiard)

1018 ꦱꦠꦒ sataga 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 One quintillion

(one trillion) SI prefix: exa-

"Minus half" numerals[edit]

There are 3 words that mean "minus half of". The format is ka- + basic numerals + minus half numerals.

Tĕngah Sasur Bĕlah
Numeral Name Numeral Name Numeral Name
minus half of 1 minus half of 10 minus half of 100 and so on (depending on basic unit)
12 satĕngah 35 kapat sasur 150 karo bĕlah
1+12 karo tĕngah 45 kalima sasur 250 katĕlu bĕlah
2+12 katĕlu tĕngah 55 kaĕnĕm sasur 350 kapat bĕlah
3+12 kapat tĕngah 65 kapitu sasur 450 kalima bĕlah
4+12 kalima tĕngah 75 kawolu sasur 550 kaĕnĕm bĕlah
5+12 kaĕnĕm tĕngah 85 kasanga sasur 650 kapitu bĕlah
6+12 kapitu tĕngah 95 kasapuluh sasur 750 kawolu bĕlah
7+12 kawolu tĕngah 850 kasanga bĕlah
8+12 kasanga tĕngah 950 kasapuluh bĕlah
9+12 kasapuluh tĕngah 1,500 karo bĕlah iwu
99+12 kasaatus tĕngah 45,000 kapat bĕlah lĕksa
and so on...

Specifically for the word bĕlah, it can be used for hundreds and above. Sasur only used for thirty and above.


Fractions are made up of numerator (modifier form) + pra + denominator. Below is the example:

Numeral Numerator Denominator Name
34 tĕlu pat tĕlung prapat
13 siji tĕlu sapratĕlu
45 pat lima patang pralima

Special numerals[edit]

There are several forms of numbering that do not follow the pattern above. These special numerals can be combined with the powers of 10.

Numeral Name
Ngoko Krama
25 salawe salangkung
35 salapan -
50 saikĕt -
60 sawidak -
75 tĕlung lawe -
400 samas -
800 dhomas -


Numeral Javanese English
Literal Transcription
351+12 Kapat bĕlah karo tĕngah Four hundred minus fifty and two minus one-half Three hundred fifty-one and a half
500,075 Limang kĕthi kawolu sasur Five kĕthi and eighty minus five Five hundred thousand and seventy five
123,456,789 Sabahara rong wĕndra tĕlung yuta kalima belah kĕthi ĕnĕm iwu pitung atus wolung puluh sanga One bahara two wĕndra three million five hundred minus fifty thousand and six thousand seven hundred eighty-nine One hundred and twenty-three million four hundred and fifty-six thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine
17,000,000,000 Sacamu pitung gulma One camu seven gulma Seventeen billion (short scale)
6,789,000,000,000,000 Ĕnĕm tutsma pitung atus wolung puluh sanga kirna Six tutsma seven hundred eighty nine kirna Six quadrillion seven hundred and eighty-nine trillion

Old Javanese numerals[edit]

Old Javanese numerals have two sets of names: native names (from Austronesian) and loan names (from Sanskrit).



Old Javanese
Native Sanskrit
𑽐 0 - śūnya (𑼯𑼹𑼥𑽂𑼫)
𑽑 1 siji (𑼱𑼶𑼙𑼶) eka (𑼎𑼒𑼃)
𑽒 2 rwa (𑼬𑽂𑼮)
ro (𑼬𑼾𑼴)
dwi (𑼣𑽂𑼮𑼶)
𑽓 3 tĕlu (𑼡𑽀𑼭𑼸)
tiga (𑼡𑼶𑼔)
tri (𑼡𑽂𑼬𑼶𑼠𑼶)
𑽔 4 pat (𑼦𑼡𑽁)
pāt (𑼦𑼵𑼡𑽁)
catur (𑼗𑼡𑽂𑼮𑼴𑼬𑼷)
𑽕 5 lima (𑼭𑼶𑼪)
gaṅsal (𑼔𑼁𑼱𑼭𑽁)
pañca (𑼦𑼛𑽂𑼗)
𑽖 6 nĕm (𑼥𑽀𑼪𑽁) ṣaṭ (𑼰𑼜𑽁)
𑽗 7 pitu (𑼦𑼶𑼡𑼸) sapta (𑼱𑼦𑽂𑼡)
𑽘 8 wwalu (𑼮𑽂𑼮𑼭𑼸)
wolu (𑼮𑼾𑼵𑼭𑼸)
dwalapan (𑼣𑽂𑼮𑼭𑼦𑼥𑽁)
aṣṭa (𑼄𑼰𑽂𑼜)
𑽙 9 saṅa (𑼱𑼖)
salapan (𑼱𑼭𑼦𑼥𑽁)
nawa (𑼥𑼮)
𑽑𑽐 10 sapuluh (𑼱𑼦𑼸𑼭𑼸𑼃) daśa (𑼣𑼯)

The word śūnya for zero was calqued into Arabic as صف sifr, meaning 'nothing', which became the term "zero" in many European languages via Medieval Latin zephirum.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Use of separator in digit grouping here follows customs in most English-speaking countries. For international standards and details, see decimal mark.
  2. ^ "zero - Origin and meaning of zero by Online Etymology Dictionary".


  • Poerwadarminta, W.J.S. (1939). Baoesastra Djawa (in Javanese). Groningen, Batavia: J.B. Wolters' Uitgeversmaatschappij N.V.
  • Uhlenbeck, E.M. (1978). Studies In Javanese Morphology. Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. pp. 195–228.
  • Zoetmulder, P.J. (1982). Old Javanese-English Dictionary. Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff.