International recognition of Bangladesh

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The Bangladesh Liberation War[a] (Bengali: মুক্তিযুদ্ধ Muktijuddho) was a revolutionary independence war in South Asia during 1971 which established the republic of Bangladesh.[3] The war pitted East Pakistan against West Pakistan, and lasted over a duration of nine months. It witnessed large-scale atrocities, the exodus of 10 million refugees and the indiscriminate killing of 3 million people.[4]

The war broke out on 26 March 1971, when the Pakistani Army launched a military operation called Operation Searchlight against Bengali civilians, students, intelligentsia and armed personnel, who were demanding that the Pakistani military junta accept the results of the 1970 first democratic elections of Pakistan, which were won by an eastern party, or to allow separation between East and West Pakistan. Bengali politicians and army officers announced the declaration of Bangladesh's independence in response to Operation Searchlight. Bengali military, paramilitary and civilians formed the Mukti Bahini ("Liberation Army"), which engaged in guerrilla warfare against Pakistani forces. The Pakistan Army, in collusion with religious extremist[5][6] militias (the Razakars, Al-Badr and Al-Shams), engaged in the systematic genocide and atrocities of Bengali civilians, particularly nationalists, intellectuals, youth and religious minorities.[7][8][9][10][11] Bangladesh government-in-exile was set up in the city of Calcutta (now Kolkata) in the Indian state of West Bengal.

India entered the war on 3 December 1971, after Pakistan launched pre-emptive air strikes on northern India. Overwhelmed by two war fronts, Pakistani defences soon collapsed. On 16 December, the Allied Forces of Bangladesh and India defeated Pakistan in the east. The subsequent surrender resulted in the largest number of prisoners-of-war since World War II.

Foreign reaction[edit]

United Nations[edit]

Though the United Nations condemned the human rights violations during and following Operation Searchlight, it failed to defuse the situation politically before the start of the war.

Following Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's declaration of independence in March 1971, India undertook a worldwide campaign to drum up political, democratic and humanitarian support for the people of Bangladesh for their liberation struggle. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi toured a large number of countries in a bid to create awareness of the Pakistani atrocities against Bengalis. This effort was to prove vital later during the war, in framing the world's context of the war and to justify military action by India.[12] Also, following Pakistan's defeat, it ensured prompt recognition of the newly independent state of Bangladesh.

Following India's entry into the war, Pakistan, fearing certain defeat, made urgent appeals to the United Nations to intervene and force India to agree to a cease fire. The UN Security Council assembled on 4 December 1971 to discuss the hostilities in South Asia. After lengthy discussions on 7 December, the United States made a resolution for "immediate cease-fire and withdrawal of troops". While supported by the majority, the USSR vetoed the resolution twice and the United Kingdom and France abstained on the resolution.

On 12 December, with Pakistan facing imminent defeat, the United States requested that the Security Council be reconvened. Pakistan's Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was rushed to New York City to make the case for a resolution on the cease fire. The council continued deliberations for four days. By the time proposals were finalised, Pakistan's forces in the East had surrendered and the war had ended, making the measures merely academic. Bhutto, frustrated by the failure of the resolution and the inaction of the United Nations, ripped up his speech and left the council.

Most UN member nations were quick to recognise Bangladesh within months of its independence.[12]


India was one of the first countries to recognize Bangladesh as a separate and independent state and established diplomatic relations with the country immediately after its independence in December 1971.


Bhutan became the first[13] country in the world to recognize the newly independent state on 6 December 1971. Muhammad Ullah, the President of Bangladesh, visited Bhutan accompanied by his wife to attend the coronation of Jigme Singye Wangchuck, the fourth King of Bhutan in June 1974.


Myanmar (Burma) was one of the first countries to recognize Bangladesh.[14][15][16][17]

USA and USSR[edit]

Senator Ted Kennedy led congressional support for the liberation of Bangladesh
The Nixon administration was widely criticised for its close ties with the military junta led by General Yahya Khan. American diplomats in East Pakistan expressed profound dissent in the Blood telegram

The United States supported Pakistan[18] both politically and materially. US President Richard Nixon denied getting involved in the situation, saying that it was an internal matter of Pakistan, but when Pakistan's defeat seemed certain, Nixon sent the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise to the Bay of Bengal,[19] a move deemed by the Indians as a nuclear threat. Enterprise arrived on station on 11 December 1971. Declassified Indian Air Force documents reveal the Indians were planning a kamikaze like strike attack using B1 Canbbera Bombers, however, on 6 and 13 December, the Soviet Navy dispatched two groups of ships, armed with nuclear missiles, from Vladivostok; they trailed US Task Force 74 in the Indian Ocean from 18 December until 7 January 1972.[20] [21][22] Nixon and Henry Kissinger feared Soviet expansion into South and Southeast Asia. Pakistan was a close ally of the People's Republic of China, with whom Nixon had been negotiating a rapprochement and which he intended to visit in February 1972. Nixon feared that an Indian invasion of West Pakistan would mean total Soviet domination of the region, and that it would seriously undermine the global position of the United States and the regional position of America's new tacit ally, China. To demonstrate to China the bona fides of the United States as an ally, and in direct violation of the US Congress-imposed sanctions on Pakistan, Nixon sent military supplies to Pakistan and routed them through Jordan and Iran,[23] while also encouraging China to increase its arms supplies to Pakistan. The Nixon administration also ignored reports it received of the genocidal activities of the Pakistani Army in East Pakistan, most notably the Blood telegram.

The Soviet Union supported Bangladesh and Indian armies, as well as the Mukti Bahini during the war, recognising that the independence of Bangladesh would weaken the position of its rivals – the United States and China. It gave assurances to India that if a confrontation with the United States or China developed, the USSR would take countermeasures. This was enshrined in the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty signed in August 1971. The Soviets also sent a nuclear submarine to ward off the threat posed by USS Enterprise in the Indian Ocean.

At the end of the war, the Warsaw Pact countries were among the first to recognise Bangladesh. The Soviet Union accorded recognition to Bangladesh on 25 January 1972.[24] The United States delayed recognition for some months, before according it on 8 April 1972.[25]


Pakistan, which Bangladesh had gained independence from in the 1971 war, didn't recognise the country until it was pressured by other Muslim-majority nations. Bangladesh's founder Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was kept imprisoned by Pakistani authorities even after the end of war, before being released in January 1972. The recognition issue had been stuck over Pakistan wanting to avoid any of its nationals being tried for war crimes. Muslim-majority countries including Jordan, Egypt, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia however pressured it because they wanted to fix this discord that had emerged in the Islamic world. Foreign ministers of seven nations went to Bangladesh to convince it to drop its planned trials. Pakistan's Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on 22 February 1974, officially announced recognition of the country during a speech before a Lahore television studio filled to the capacity, and got emotional while speaking. He added that while he didn't like it, Bangladesh's independence was a reality. In return, Bangladesh agreed to attend the Organisation of Islamic Conference summit to be held that year in Lahore.[26][27]

Bhutto landed in Bangladesh for a visit on 27 June 1974, the first visit by a Pakistani leader since the 1971 war. The two discussed division of assets between the two nations and Pakistan accepting more non-Bengalis from the country.[28] Relations between the two countries remained lukewarm however because of the dispute on assets and the issues of the Bihari Muslims. After the 15 August 1975 Bangladesh coup d'état, Pakistan immediately recognized the new government and relations improved. Ambassadorial relations were established in January 1976 with Bangladeshi ambassador Zahiruddin and Pakistani ambassador Mohammad Khurshid assuming their respective posts.[29]


As a long-standing ally of Pakistan, the People's Republic of China reacted with alarm to the evolving situation in East Pakistan and the prospect of India invading West Pakistan and Pakistani-administered Kashmir. Believing that just such an Indian attack was imminent, Nixon encouraged China to mobilise its armed forces along its border with India to discourage it. The Chinese did not, however, respond to this encouragement, because unlike the 1962 Sino-Indian War when India was caught entirely unaware, this time the Indian Army was prepared and had deployed eight mountain divisions to the Sino-Indian border to guard against such an eventuality. China instead threw its weight behind demands for an immediate ceasefire.

When Bangladesh applied for membership to the United Nations in 1972, China vetoed their application[30] because two United Nations resolutions regarding the repatriation of Pakistani prisoners of war and civilians had not yet been implemented.[31] China was also among the last countries to recognise independent Bangladesh, refusing to do so until 31 August 1975.[12][30]

List of countries in order of their recognition of Bangladesh[edit]

Country[32] Date of recognition
1  Bhutan 6 December 1971[33][34]
2  India 6 December 1971[35]
3  Poland 12 January 1972
4  Bulgaria 12 January 1972
5 Burma 13 January 1972
6  Nepal 16 January 1972
7  Barbados 20 January 1972
8  Yugoslavia 22 January 1972
9  Soviet Union 24 January 1972
10  Byelorussian SSR 24 January 1972[36][37]
11  Ukrainian SSR 24 January 1972[38][37]
12  Tonga 25 January 1972
13  Czechoslovakia 26 January 1972
14  Cyprus 26 January 1972
15  Hungary 26 January 1972
16  Australia 26 January 1972
17  Fiji 26 January 1972
18  New Zealand 26 January 1972
19  Senegal 1 February 1972
20  United Kingdom 4 February 1972
21  West Germany 4 February 1972
22  Finland 4 February 1972
23  Denmark 4 February 1972
24  Sweden 4 February 1972
25  Norway 4 February 1972
26  Iceland 4 February 1972
27  Israel 4 February 1972
28  Japan 10 February 1972
29  Luxembourg 11 February 1972
30  Netherlands 11 February 1972
31  Belgium 11 February 1972
32  Ireland 11 February 1972
33  Italy 12 February 1972
34  France 14 February 1972
35  Canada 14 February 1972
36  Singapore 16 February 1972
37 Mauritius 20 February 1972
38  Philippines 24 February 1972
39  Malaysia 25 February 1972
40  Indonesia 25 February 1972
41  Malawi 29 February 1972
42  Gambia 2 March 1972
43  Sri Lanka 4 March 1972
44 Republic of China 14 April 1972
45  United States 4 April 1972[25]
46 Malagasy 14 April 1972
47  Iraq 8 July 1972 [39]
48 Upper Volta 19 September 1972
49  Pakistan 22 February 1974[26]
50 PR China 31 August 1975[30]

The list of the countries that recognized Bangladesh are listed according to their order in The Congressional Record (9 February 1972) of Senate.[40]


  1. ^ This war is known in Bangla as Muktizuddho or Shawdhinota Juddho.[1] This war is also called the Civil War in Pakistan[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Historical Dictionary of Bangladesh, Page 289
  2. ^ Moss, Peter (2005). Secondary Social Studies For Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. p. 93. ISBN 9780195977042. OCLC 651126824.
  3. ^ Library of Congress
  4. ^ en, Samuel; Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs. Dictionary of Genocide: A-L. Volume 1: Greenwood. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-313-32967-8.
  5. ^ "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 17 May 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  6. ^ "New Year 2013". The Daily Star. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  7. ^ Bangladesh Genocide Archive | Collaborators and War Criminals. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  8. ^ New York Times, 30 July 1971
  9. ^ The Wall Street Journal, 27 July 1971.
  10. ^ Daily Sangram, 15 September 1971
  11. ^ "Letters To The Editor | We are mere throwaways?". The Star. The Daily Star. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  12. ^ a b c "The Recognition Story". Bangladesh Strategic and Development Forum. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  13. ^ "Bhutan recognised Bangladesh first". Dhaka Tribune. 8 December 2014.
  14. ^ "Constitution Issued: Rahman Resigns". Altus, Oklahoma, USA. Associated Press. 11 January 1972.
  15. ^ "Bangladesh-Bhutan Relations". Embassy of Bangladesh in Bhutan. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  16. ^ Lal Babu Yadav (1996). Indo-Bhutan relations and China interventions. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 198. ISBN 978-81-7488-218-9.
  17. ^ Narendra Kr. Singh (2003). Encyclopaedia of Bangladesh. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 151–56. ISBN 978-81-261-1390-3.
  18. ^ "Nixon and Pakistan: An Unpopular Alliance". Miami, Florida, USA. Reuters. 17 December 1971.
  19. ^ Scott, Paul (21 December 1971). "Naval 'Show of Force' By Nixon Meant as Blunt Warning to India". Bangor Daily News.
  20. ^ India's Borderland Disputes: China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal, Anna Orton
  21. ^ White, M. (2011). Atrocitology: Humanity's 100 Deadliest Achievements. Canongate Books. ISBN 9780857861252. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  22. ^ "The New York Times". Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  23. ^ Shalom, Stephen R., The Men Behind Yahya in the Indo-Pak War of 1971
  24. ^ "USSR, Czechoslovakia Recognize Bangladesh". Sumter, South Carolina, USA. Associated Press. 25 January 1972.
  25. ^ a b "Nixon Hopes for Subcontinent Peace". Spartanburg, South Carolina, USA. Associated Press. 9 April 1972.
  26. ^ a b Bernard Weinraub (9 April 1972). "Pakistan admits that Bangladesh exists as a nation".
  27. ^ Craig Baxter (11 March 2005). South Asia in World Politics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  28. ^ Craig Baxter (11 March 2005). South Asia in World Politics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  29. ^ Salahuddin Ahmad (2004). Bangladesh: Past and Present. A.P.H. Publishing.
  30. ^ a b c "China Recognizes Bangladesh". Oxnard, California, USA. Associated Press. 1 September 1975.
  31. ^ "China Veto Downs Bangladesh UN Entry". Montreal, Quebec, Canada. United Press International. 26 August 1972.
  32. ^ "Recognition of Bangladesh in 1971: Accountability to History". Center for Bangladesh Genocide Research. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  33. ^ "বাংলাদেশকে সর্বপ্রথম ভুটান ও সর্বশেষ চীন স্বীকৃতি দিয়েছে: সংসদে পররাষ্ট্রমন্ত্রী". Daily Janakantha (in Bengali). Retrieved 15 March 2023.
  34. ^ "Indian & Bhutan Recognize Bangladesh De Jure". Bangladesh. 10 December 1971. Archived from the original on 29 September 2019.
  35. ^ "Bhutan, not India, first recognised Bangladesh". The Hindu. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  36. ^ Constitution of Belarus, Art. 142.
  37. ^ a b "Walter Duranty Explains Changes In Soviet Constitution". Miami News. 6 February 1944. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  38. ^ The Law of Ukraine on Succession of Ukraine, Verkhovna Rada (5 October 1991).
  39. ^ Ahmed, Salahuddin (2004). Bangladesh: Past and Present. APH Publishing. p. 207. ISBN 9788176484695. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  40. ^ "Recognition of the new nation of BANGLADESH" (PDF). cbgr1971. 9 February 1972. Retrieved 19 July 2019.