Intel Core

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Intel Core
Intel Core logo
Logo since 2020
General information
LaunchedJanuary 2006
Marketed byIntel
Designed byIntel
Common manufacturer(s)
  • Intel
Performance
Max. CPU clock rate1.0 GHz to 5.8 GHz
Cache
L1 cache
  • Data:
  • 32 KB to 48 KB per core
  • Instruction:
  • 32 KB to 64 KB per core
L2 cache256 KB to 2 MB per core
L3 cache3 MB to 36 MB
L4 cacheNone to 128 MB
Architecture and classification
Technology node65 nm to Intel 7
Architecture
Microarchitecture
Instruction set
Extensions
Physical specifications
Cores
    • Mainstream P-cores: 2 to 10
    • Mainstream E-cores: 4 to 16
    • HEDT: Up to 18
Socket(s)
Products, models, variants
Brand name(s)
History
PredecessorPentium

Intel Core is a line of streamlined midrange consumer, workstation and enthusiast computer central processing units (CPUs) marketed by Intel Corporation. These processors displaced the existing mid- to high-end Pentium processors at the time of their introduction, moving the Pentium to the entry level. Identical or more capable versions of Core processors are also sold as Xeon processors for the server and workstation markets.

The lineup of Core processors includes the Intel Core i3, Intel Core i5, Intel Core i7, and Intel Core i9 lines, along with the X-series of Intel Core CPUs.[1][2]

Outline[edit]

Although Intel Core is a brand that promises no internal consistency or continuity, the processors within this family have been, for the most part, broadly similar.

The first products receiving this designation were the Core Solo and Core Duo Yonah processors for mobile from the Pentium M design tree, fabricated at 65 nm and brought to market in January 2006. These are substantially different in design than the rest of the Intel Core product group, having derived from the Pentium Pro lineage that predated Pentium 4.

The first Intel Core desktop processor—and typical family member—came from the Conroe iteration, a 65 nm dual-core design brought to market in July 2006, based on the Intel Core microarchitecture with substantial enhancements in micro-architectural efficiency and performance, outperforming Pentium 4 across the board (or near to it), while operating at drastically lower clock rates. Maintaining high instructions per cycle (IPC) on a deeply pipelined and resourced out-of-order execution engine has remained a constant fixture of the Intel Core product group ever since.

The new substantial bump in microarchitecture came with the introduction of the 45 nm Bloomfield desktop processor in November 2008 on the Nehalem architecture, whose main advantage came from redesigned I/O and memory systems featuring the new Intel QuickPath Interconnect and an integrated memory controller supporting up to three channels of DDR3 memory.

Subsequent performance improvements have tended toward making additions rather than profound changes, such as adding the Advanced Vector Extensions instruction set extensions to Sandy Bridge, first released on 32 nm in January 2011. Time has also brought improved support for virtualization and a trend toward higher levels of system integration and management functionality (and along with that, increased performance) through the ongoing evolution of facilities such as Intel Active Management Technology.

Since 2019, the Core brand has been based on four product lines, consisting of the entry level i3, the mainstream i5, the high-end i7, and the "enthusiast" i9.

Comparison[edit]

Comparison of Intel Core micro-architectures
Microarchitecture Core Nehalem Sandy Bridge Haswell Broadwell Skylake Sunny Cove[a] Willow Cove Golden Cove
Microarchitecture variants Merom Penryn Westmere Ivy Bridge Tiger Lake
Fabrication process (nm) 65 45 32/22 22 14 14+/14++/14+++ 10 10SF 10
Cache μop 1.5K μops[3] 2.25K μops 4K μops
L1 Data Size 32 KB/core 48 KB/core
Ways 8 way 12 way
Latency 3 4 3/5 ? 5
Instruction Size 32 KB/core
ways 8 way[4] 4 way 8 way ? ? 8 way
Latency 3 ? ? ? 4 5 ? ?
TLB ? ? 142 144[5] ? ? ? ? ? ?
L2 Size 2-3 MB/core 256 KB 512 KB 1.25 MB 2 MB[b]
ways 8 way ? 8 way 4 way 8 way 20 way 10 way
Latency ? ? ? 12 13 ? 14
TLB ? ? ? ? 1024 ? 1536 2048 ? ?
L3 Size 2 MB 3 MB
ways 16 way 12 way[6]
Latency ? ? ? ? 26-37[3] 30-36[3] 43[7] 74
L4 Size None 0–128 MB None ? ?
ways ? 16[8] ? ? ?
Latency ? ? ? ? ?
Type GPU Memory only cache ? ?
Hyper-threading No Yes
OoO window 96[9] 128[10] 168 192 224[11] 352 ? ?
In-flight Load ? ? 48 64 72 128 ? 192
Store ? ? 32 36 42 56 72 ? 114
Scheduler Entries 32 36 54 60 64 97 160[12] ? ?
Dispatch ? ? ? ? ? ? 8 way 10 way ? ?
Register file Integer ? ? ? 160 168 ? ? ? ?
Floating-point ? ? ? 144 168 ? ? ? ?
Queue Instruction ? ? 18/thread 20/thread 20/thread 25/thread ? ? ? ?
Allocation ? ? 28/thread[c] 56 64/thread ? ? ?
Decode ? ? ? ? ? ? 4 + 1 ? 6
Execution Ports Numbers ? ? 6[13] 8[14] 8[15] 10 ? 12
Port 0 Integer
FP Mul
Branch
Integer
FP Mul
Branch
? ? ? ? ? ?
Port 1 ? ? Integer
FP Mul
Integer
FP Mul
? ? ? ? ? ?
Port 2 ? ? Load
Address
Load
Store
Address
? ? ? ? ? ?
Port 3 ? ? Store Address Store
Load
Address
? ? ? ? ? ?
Port 4 ? ? Store Data Store Data ? ? ? ? ? ?
Port 5 ? ? Integer ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Port 6 [14] Integer
Branch
? ? ? ?
Port 7 Store Address ? ? ? ?
AGUs ? ? ? ? ? ? 2 + 1 2 + 2 ? ?
Instructions SSE2 Yes
SSE3 Yes
SSE4 Yes
AVX Yes
AVX2 Yes
FMA Yes
AVX512 Yes/No Yes Yes/No
μArchitecture Merom Penryn Nehalem Sandy Bridge Haswell Broadwell Skylake Ice Lake Tiger Lake Alder Lake
  1. ^ Rocket Lake based on Cypress Cove is a CPU microarchitecture, a variant of Sunny Cove microarchitecture designed for 10 nm, backported to 14 nm.
  2. ^ 1.25 MB in client
  3. ^ 56 unified in Ivy Bridge

Vulnerabilities[edit]

In early 2018, news reports indicated that security flaws, referred to as "Meltdown" and "Spectre", were found "in virtually all Intel processors [made in the past two decades] that will require fixes within Windows, macOS and Linux". The flaw also affected cloud servers. At the time, Intel was not commenting on this issue.[16][17] According to a New York Times report, "There is no easy fix for Spectre ... as for Meltdown, the software patch needed to fix the issue could slow down computers by as much as 30 percent".[18]

In mid 2018, the majority of Intel Core processors were found to possess a defect (the Foreshadow vulnerability), which undermines the Software Guard Extensions (SGX) feature of the processor.[19][20][21] In March 2020, computer security experts reported another Intel chip security flaw, besides the Meltdown and Spectre flaws, with the systematic name CVE-2019-0090 (or, "Intel CSME Bug", referencing the Converged Security and Management Engine). This newly found flaw is not fixable with a firmware update, and affects nearly "all Intel chips released in the past five years".[22][23][24]

Overview[edit]

Brand Desktop Mobile
Codename Cores Fab Date released Codename Cores Fab Date released
Core Solo Desktop version not available Yonah 1 65 nm January 2006
Core Duo Desktop version not available Yonah 2 65 nm January 2006
Core 2 Solo Desktop version not available Merom-L
Penryn-L
1
1
65 nm
45 nm
September 2007
May 2008
Core 2 Duo Conroe
Allendale
Wolfdale
2
2
2
65 nm
65 nm
45 nm
August 2006
January 2007
January 2008
Merom
Penryn
2
2
65 nm
45 nm
July 2006
January 2008
Core 2 Quad Kentsfield
Yorkfield
4
4
65 nm
45 nm
January 2007
March 2008
Penryn 4 45 nm August 2008
Core 2 Extreme Conroe XE
Kentsfield XE
Yorkfield XE
2
4
4
65 nm
65 nm
45 nm
July 2006
November 2006
November 2007
Merom XE
Penryn XE
Penryn XE
2
2
4
65 nm
45 nm
45 nm
July 2007
January 2008
August 2008
Core M Desktop version not available Broadwell 2 14 nm September 2014[25]
Core m3 Desktop version not available Skylake
Kaby Lake
Kaby Lake
Amber Lake
2
2
2
2
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
August 2015
September 2016
April 2017
August 2018
Core m5 Desktop version not available Skylake 2 14 nm August 2015
Core m7 Desktop version not available Skylake 2 14 nm August 2015
Core i3 Clarkdale
Sandy Bridge
Ivy Bridge
Haswell
Skylake
Kaby Lake
Coffee Lake
Coffee Lake
Comet Lake
Alder Lake
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
4
32 nm
32 nm
22 nm
22 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
10 nm
January 2010
February 2011
September 2012
September 2013
September 2015
January 2017
October 2017
Jan. & April 2019
April 2020
January 2022
Arrandale
Sandy Bridge
Ivy Bridge
Haswell
Broadwell
Skylake
Kaby Lake
Skylake
Kaby Lake
Coffee Lake
Cannon Lake
Coffee Lake
Whiskey Lake
Ice Lake
Comet Lake
Tiger Lake (initial and B)
Alder Lake
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2-4
6-10
32 nm
32 nm
22 nm
22 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
10 nm
14 nm
14 nm
10 nm
14 nm
10 nm
10 nm
January 2010
February 2011
June 2012
June 2013
January 2015
Sept. 2015 & June 2016
August 2016
November 2016
Jan. & June 2017
April 2018
May 2018
July 2018
August 2018
May & Aug. 2019
September 2019
Sept. 2020, Jan. - May 2021
January 2022
Core i5 Lynnfield
Clarkdale
Sandy Bridge
Sandy Bridge
Ivy Bridge
Haswell
Broadwell
Skylake
Kaby Lake
Coffee Lake
Coffee Lake
Comet Lake
Rocket Lake
Alder Lake
Raptor Lake
4
2
4
2
2-4
2-4
4
4
4
6
6
6
6
6-10
14
45 nm
32 nm
32 nm
32 nm
22 nm
22 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
10 nm
10 nm
September 2009
January 2010
January 2011
February 2011
April 2012
June 2013
June 2015
September 2015
January 2017
October 2017
Oct. 2018 & Jan. 2019
April 2020
March 2021
Nov. 2021 & Jan. 2022
Oct. 2022
Arrandale
Sandy Bridge
Ivy Bridge
Haswell
Broadwell
Skylake
Kaby Lake
Kaby Lake
Kaby Lake-R
Coffee Lake
Amber Lake
Whiskey Lake
Ice Lake
Comet Lake
Comet Lake-H
Tiger Lake
Tiger Lake-H/B
Alder Lake
Alder Lake-H/HX
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4-6
10-12
8-12
32 nm
32 nm
22 nm
22 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
10 nm
14 nm
14 nm
10 nm
10 nm
10 nm
10 nm
10 nm
January 2010
February 2011
May 2012
June 2013
January 2015
September 2015
August 2016
January 2017
October 2017
April 2018
Aug. 2018 & Oct. 2018
Aug. 2018 & April 2019
May & Aug. 2019
September 2019
April 2020
Sept. 2020 - May 2021
January - September 2021
January 2022
January & May 2022
Core i7 Bloomfield
Lynnfield
Gulftown
Sandy Bridge
Sandy Bridge-E
Sandy Bridge-E
Ivy Bridge
Haswell
Ivy Bridge-E
Broadwell
Skylake
Kaby Lake
Coffee Lake
Coffee Lake
Comet Lake
Rocket Lake
Alder Lake
Raptor Lake
4
4
6
4
6
4
4
4
4-6
4
4
4
6
8
8
8
12
16
45 nm
45 nm
32 nm
32 nm
32 nm
32 nm
22 nm
22 nm
22 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
10 nm
10 nm
November 2008
September 2009
July 2010
January 2011
November 2011
February 2012
April 2012
June 2013
September 2013
June 2015
August 2015
January 2017
October 2017
October 2018
April 2020
March 2021
Nov. 2021 & Jan. 2022
Oct. 2022
Clarksfield
Arrandale
Sandy Bridge
Sandy Bridge
Ivy Bridge
Haswell
Broadwell
Broadwell
Skylake
Kaby Lake
Kaby Lake
Coffee Lake
Amber Lake
Whiskey Lake
Ice Lake
Comet Lake
Comet Lake-H
Tiger Lake
Tiger Lake-H/B
Alder Lake
Alder Lake-H/HX
4
2
4
2
2-4
2-4
2
4
2-4
2
4
4-6
2
4
4
4-6
6-8
4
4-8
10-14
10-16
45 nm
32 nm
32 nm
32 nm
22 nm
22 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
10 nm
14 nm
14 nm
10 nm
10 nm
10 nm
10 nm
September 2009
January 2010
January 2011
February 2011
May 2012
June 2013
January 2015
June 2015
September 2015
August 2016
January 2017
April 2018
August 2018
Aug. 2018 & April 2019
May & Aug. 2019
September 2019
April 2020
September 2020
January - September 2021
January 2022
January & May 2022
Core i7
Extreme
Bloomfield
Gulftown
Sandy Bridge-E
Ivy Bridge-E
Haswell-E
Broadwell-E
Skylake-X
Kaby Lake-X
4
6
6
6
8
10
6-8
4
45 nm
32 nm
32 nm
22 nm
22 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
November 2008
March 2010
November 2011
September 2013
August 2014
May 2016
June 2017
June 2017
Clarksfield
Sandy Bridge
Ivy Bridge
Haswell
4
4
4
4
45 nm
32 nm
22 nm
22 nm
September 2009
January 2011
May 2012
June 2013
Core i9 Skylake-X
Skylake-X
Cascade Lake-X
Coffee Lake
Comet Lake
Rocket Lake
Alder Lake
Raptor Lake
10
12
14-18
8
10
8
16
24
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
14 nm
10 nm
10 nm
June 2017
August 2017
September 2017
October 2018
April 2020
March 2021
Nov. 2021 & Jan. 2022
Oct. 2022
Coffee Lake-H
Comet Lake-H
Tiger Lake-H
Alder Lake-H/HX
6
8
8
14-16
14 nm
14 nm
10 nm
10 nm
April 2018
April 2020
May 2021
January & May 2022
List of Intel Core processors • List of Intel Core 2 processors • List of Intel Core M processors • List of Intel Core i3 processors • List of Intel Core i5 processors • List of Intel Core i7 processors • List of Intel Core i9 processors

Origins[edit]

Core[edit]

The original Core brand refers to Intel's 32-bit mobile dual-core x86 CPUs, which derived from the Pentium M branded processors. The processor family used an enhanced version of the Intel P6 microarchitecture. It emerged in parallel with the NetBurst microarchitecture (Intel P68) of the Pentium 4 brand, and was a precursor of the 64-bit Core microarchitecture of Core 2 branded CPUs. The Core brand had two branches: the Duo (dual-core) and Solo (Duo with one disabled core, which replaced the Pentium M brand of single-core mobile processor).

Intel launched the Core brand on January 6, 2006, with the release of the 32-bit Yonah CPU – Intel's first dual-core mobile (low-power) processor. Its dual-core layout closely resembled two interconnected Pentium M branded CPUs packaged as a single die (piece) silicon chip (IC). Hence, the 32-bit microarchitecture of Core branded CPUs – contrary to its name – had more in common with Pentium M branded CPUs than with the subsequent 64-bit Core microarchitecture of Core 2 branded CPUs. Despite a major rebranding effort by Intel starting January 2006, some companies continued to market computers with the Yonah core marked as Pentium M.

The Core series is also the first Intel processor used as the main CPU in an Apple Macintosh computer. The Core Duo was the CPU for the first generation MacBook Pro, while the Core Solo appeared in Apple's Mac Mini line. Core Duo signified the beginning of Apple's shift to Intel processors across the entire Mac line.

In 2007, Intel began branding the Yonah core CPUs intended for mainstream mobile computers as Pentium Dual-Core, not to be confused with the desktop 64-bit Core microarchitecture CPUs also branded as Pentium Dual-Core.

September 2007 and January 4, 2008, marked the discontinuation of a number of Core branded CPUs including several Core Solo, Core Duo, Celeron and one Core 2 Quad chip.[26][27]

Core Solo[edit]

Intel Core Solo[28] (product code 80538) uses the same two-core die as the Core Duo, but features only one active core. Depending on demand, Intel may also simply disable one of the cores to sell the chip at the Core Solo price—this requires less effort than launching and maintaining a separate line of CPUs that physically only have one core. Intel had used the same strategy previously with the 486 CPU in which early 486SX CPUs were in fact manufactured as 486DX CPUs but with the FPU disabled.

Codename Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP
Yonah Core Solo T1xxx 2 MB Socket M 27–31 W
Core Solo U1xxx 5.5–6 W

Core Duo[edit]

Intel Core Duo[29] (product code 80539) consists of two cores on one die, a 2 MB L2 cache shared by both cores, and an arbiter bus that controls both L2 cache and FSB (front-side bus) access.

Codename Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP
Yonah Core Duo T2xxx 2 MB Socket M 31 W
Core Duo L2xxx 15 W
Core Duo U2xxx 9 W

Core 2[edit]

The successor to Core is the mobile version of the Intel Core 2 line of processors using cores based upon the Intel Core microarchitecture,[30] released on July 27, 2006. The release of the mobile version of Intel Core 2 marks the reunification of Intel's desktop and mobile product lines as Core 2 processors were released for desktops and notebooks, unlike the first Intel Core CPUs that were targeted only for notebooks (although some small form factor and all-in-one desktops, like the iMac and the Mac Mini, also used Core processors).

Unlike the Intel Core, Intel Core 2 is a 64-bit processor, supporting Intel 64. Another difference between the original Core Duo and the new Core 2 Duo is an increase in the amount of Level 2 cache. The new Core 2 Duo has tripled the amount of on-board cache to 6 MB. Core 2 also introduced a quad-core performance variant to the single- and dual-core chips, branded Core 2 Quad, as well as an enthusiast variant, Core 2 Extreme. All three chips are manufactured at a 65 nm lithography, and in 2008, a 45 nm lithography and support Front Side Bus speeds ranging from 533 MHz to 1600 MHz. In addition, the 45 nm die shrink of the Core microarchitecture adds SSE4.1 support to all Core 2 microprocessors manufactured at a 45 nm lithography, therefore increasing the calculation rate of the processors.

Core 2 Solo[edit]

The Core 2 Solo,[31] introduced in September 2007, is the successor to the Core Solo and is available only as an ultra-low-power mobile processor with 5.5 Watt thermal design power. The original U2xxx series "Merom-L" used a special version of the Merom chip with CPUID number 10661 (model 22, stepping A1) that only had a single core and was also used in some Celeron processors. The later SU3xxx are part of Intel's CULV range of processors in a smaller μFC-BGA 956 package but contain the same Penryn chip as the dual-core variants, with one of the cores disabled during manufacturing.

Codename Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP
Merom-L Mobile Core 2 Solo U2xxx 1 MB FCBGA 5.5 W
Penryn-L Mobile Core 2 Solo SU3xxx 3 MB BGA956 5.5 W

Core 2 Duo[edit]

Inside of a Sony VAIO laptop (VGN-C140G)

The majority of the desktop and mobile Core 2 processor variants are Core 2 Duo[32][33] with two processor cores on a single Merom, Conroe, Allendale, Penryn, or Wolfdale chip. These come in a wide range of performance and power consumption, starting with the relatively slow ultra-low-power Uxxxx (10 W) and low-power Lxxxx (17 W) versions, to the more performance oriented Pxxxx (25 W) and Txxxx (35 W) mobile versions and the Exxxx (65 W) desktop models. The mobile Core 2 Duo processors with an 'S' prefix in the name are produced in a smaller μFC-BGA 956 package, which allows building more compact laptops.

Within each line, a higher number usually refers to a better performance, which depends largely on core and front-side bus clock frequency and amount of second level cache, which are model-specific. Core 2 Duo processors typically use the full L2 cache of 2, 3, 4, or 6 MB available in the specific stepping of the chip, while versions with the amount of cache reduced during manufacturing are sold for the low-end consumer market as Celeron or Pentium Dual-Core processors. Like those processors, some low-end Core 2 Duo models disable features such as Intel Virtualization Technology.

Codename Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP
Merom Mobile Core 2 Duo U7xxx 2 MB BGA479 10 W
Mobile Core 2 Duo L7xxx 4 MB 17 W
Mobile Core 2 Duo T5xxx 2 MB Socket M
Socket P
BGA479
35 W
Mobile Core 2 Duo T7xxx 2–4 MB
Conroe and
Allendale
Core 2 Duo E4xxx 2 MB LGA 775 65 W
Core 2 Duo E6xxx 2–4 MB
Penryn Mobile Core 2 Duo SU7xxx 3 MB BGA956 10 W
Mobile Core 2 Duo SU9xxx
Mobile Core 2 Duo SL9xxx 6 MB 17 W
Mobile Core 2 Duo SP9xxx 25 W
Mobile Core 2 Duo P7xxx 3 MB Socket P
FCBGA6
25 W
Mobile Core 2 Duo P8xxx
Mobile Core 2 Duo P9xxx 6 MB
Mobile Core 2 Duo T6xxx 2 MB 35 W
Mobile Core 2 Duo T8xxx 3 MB
Mobile Core 2 Duo T9xxx 6 MB
Mobile Core 2 Duo E8xxx 6 MB Socket P 35–55 W
Wolfdale Core 2 Duo E7xxx 3 MB LGA 775 65 W
Core 2 Duo E8xxx 6 MB

Core 2 Quad[edit]

Core 2 Quad[34][35] processors are multi-chip modules consisting of two dies similar to those used in Core 2 Duo, forming a quad-core processor. This allows twice the performance of a dual-core processors at the same clock frequency in ideal conditions.

Initially, all Core 2 Quad models were versions of Core 2 Duo desktop processors, Kentsfield derived from Conroe and Yorkfield from Wolfdale, but later Penryn-QC was added as a high-end version of the mobile dual-core Penryn.

The Xeon 32xx and 33xx processors are mostly identical versions of the desktop Core 2 Quad processors and can be used interchangeably.

Codename Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP
Kentsfield Core 2 Quad Q6xxx 2×4 MB LGA 775 95–105 W
Yorkfield Core 2 Quad Q8xxx 2×2 MB 65–95 W
Core 2 Quad Q9xxx 2×3–2×6 MB
Penryn-QC Mobile Core 2 Quad Q9xxx 2×3–2×6 MB Socket P 45 W

Core 2 Extreme[edit]

Core 2 Extreme processors[36][37] are enthusiast versions of Core 2 Duo and Core 2 Quad processors, usually with a higher clock frequency and an unlocked clock multiplier, which makes them especially attractive for overclocking. This is similar to earlier Pentium processors labeled as Extreme Edition. Core 2 Extreme processors were released at a much higher price than their regular version, often $999 or more.

Codename Brand name (list) L2 Cache Socket TDP
Merom Mobile Core 2 Extreme X7xxx 4 MB Socket P 44 W
Conroe Core 2 Extreme X6xxx 4 MB LGA 775 75 W
Kentsfield Core 2 Extreme QX6xxx 2×4 MB LGA 775 130 W
Penryn Mobile Core 2 Extreme X9xxx 6 MB Socket P 44 W
Penryn-QC Mobile Core 2 Extreme QX9xxx 2×6 MB Socket P 45 W
Yorkfield Core 2 Extreme QX9xxx 2×6 MB LGA 775 / LGA 771 130–150 W

1st generation[edit]

With the release of the Nehalem microarchitecture in November 2008,[38] Intel introduced a new naming scheme for its Core processors. There are three variants, Core i3, Core i5 and Core i7, but the names no longer correspond to specific technical features like the number of cores. Instead, the brand is now divided from low-level (i3), through mid-range (i5) to high-end performance (i7),[39] which correspond to three, four and five stars in Intel's Intel Processor Rating[40] following on from the entry-level Celeron (one star) and Pentium (two stars) processors.[41] Common features of all Nehalem based processors include an integrated DDR3 memory controller as well as QuickPath Interconnect or PCI Express and Direct Media Interface on the processor replacing the aging quad-pumped Front Side Bus used in all earlier Core processors. All these processors have 256 KB L2 cache per core, plus up to 12 MB shared L3 cache. Because of the new I/O interconnect, chipsets and mainboards from previous generations can no longer be used with Nehalem-based processors.

Core i3 Intel intended the Core i3 as the new low end of the performance processor line from Intel, following the retirement of the Core 2 brand.[42][43]

The first Core i3 processors were launched on January 7, 2010.[44]

The first Nehalem based Core i3 was Clarkdale-based, with an integrated GPU and two cores.[45] The same processor is also available as Core i5 and Pentium, with slightly different configurations.

The Core i3-3xxM processors are based on Arrandale, the mobile version of the Clarkdale desktop processor. They are similar to the Core i5-4xx series but running at lower clock speeds and without Turbo Boost.[46] According to an Intel FAQ they do not support Error Correction Code (ECC) memory.[47] According to motherboard manufacturer Supermicro, if a Core i3 processor is used with a server chipset platform such as Intel 3400/3420/3450, the CPU supports ECC with UDIMM.[48] When asked, Intel confirmed that, although the Intel 5 series chipset supports non-ECC memory only with the Core i5 or i3 processors, using those processors on a motherboard with 3400 series chipsets it supports the ECC function of ECC memory.[49] A limited number of motherboards by other companies also support ECC with Intel Core ix processors; the Asus P8B WS is an example, but it does not support ECC memory under Windows non-server operating systems.[50]

Codename Brand name (list) Cores L3 Cache Socket TDP I/O Bus
Clarkdale Core i3 2 4 MB LGA 1156 73 W Direct Media Interface,
Integrated GPU
Arrandale Core i3-3xxM 3 MB rPGA-988A 35 W
Core i3-3xxUM 3 MB BGA-1288 18 W

Core i5

Lynnfield was the first Core i5 processors using the Nehalem microarchitecture, introduced on September 8, 2009, as a mainstream variant of the earlier Core i7.[51][52] Lynnfield Core i5 processors have an 8 MB L3 cache, a DMI bus running at 2.5 GT/s and support for dual-channel DDR3-800/1066/1333 memory and have Hyper-threading disabled. The same processors with different sets of features (Hyper-threading and other clock frequencies) enabled are sold as Core i7-8xx and Xeon 3400-series processors, which should not be confused with high-end Core i7-9xx and Xeon 3500-series processors based on Bloomfield. A new feature called Turbo Boost Technology was introduced which maximizes speed for demanding applications, dynamically accelerating performance to match the workload.

After Nehalem received a 32 nm Westmere die shrink, Arrandale, the dual-core mobile Core i5 processors and its desktop counterpart Clarkdale was introduced in January 2010, together with Core i7-6xx and Core i3-3xx processors based on the same architecture. Arrandale processors have integrated graphics capability. Core i3-3xx does not support for Turbo Boost, L3 cache in Core i5-5xx processors is reduced to 3 MB, while the Core i5-6xx uses the full cache,[53] Clarkdale is sold as Core i5-6xx, along with related Core i3 and Pentium processors. It has Hyper-Threading enabled and the full 4 MB L3 cache.[54]

According to Intel "Core i5 desktop processors and desktop boards typically do not support ECC memory",[55] but information on limited ECC support in the Core i3 section also applies to Core i5 and i7.[citation needed]

Codename Brand name (list) Cores L3 Cache Socket TDP I/O Bus
Lynnfield Core i5-7xx 4 8 MB LGA 1156 95 W Direct Media Interface
Core i5-7xxS 82 W
Clarkdale Core i5-6xx 2 4 MB 73–87 W Direct Media Interface,
Integrated GPU
Arrandale Core i5-5xxM 3 MB rPGA-988A 35 W
Core i5-4xxM
Core i5-5xxUM BGA-1288 18 W
Core i5-4xxUM[56]

Core i7

Intel Core i7 as an Intel brand name applies to several families of desktop and laptop 64-bit x86-64 processors using the Nehalem, Westmere, Sandy Bridge, Ivy Bridge, Haswell, Broadwell, Skylake, and Kaby Lake microarchitectures. The Core i7 brand targets the business and high-end consumer markets for both desktop and laptop computers,[57] and is distinguished from the Core i3 (entry-level consumer), Core i5 (mainstream consumer), and Xeon (server and workstation) brands.

Introduced in late 2008, Bloomfield was the first Core i7 processors based on the Nehalem architecture.[58][59][60][61] The following year, Lynnfield desktop processors and Clarksfield mobile processors brought new quad-core Core i7 models based on the said architecture.[62]

After Nehalem received a 32 nm Westmere die shrink, Arrandale dual-core mobile processors were introduced in January 2010, followed by Core i7's first six-core desktop processor Gulftown on March 16, 2010. Both the regular Core i7 and the Extreme Edition are advertised as five stars in the Intel Processor Rating.

The first-generation Core i7 uses two different sockets; LGA 1366 designed for high-end desktops and servers, and LGA 1156 used in low- and mid-end desktops and servers. In each generation, the highest-performing Core i7 processors use the same socket and QPI-based architecture as the medium-end Xeon processors of that generation, while lower-performing Core i7 processors use the same socket and PCIe/DMI/FDI architecture as the Core i5.

"Core i7" is a successor to the Intel Core 2 brand.[63][64][65][66] Intel representatives stated that they intended the moniker Core i7 to help consumers decide which processor to purchase as Intel releases newer Nehalem-based products in the future.[67]

Code name Brand name Cores L3 Cache Socket TDP Process Busses Release
Date
Gulftown Core i7-9xxX Extreme Edition 6 12 MB LGA 1366 130 W 32 nm QPI,
3 × DDR3
Mar 2010
Core i7-970 Jul 2010
Bloomfield Core i7-9xx Extreme Edition 4 8 MB 45 nm style="background:#FFC7C7;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center;" class="table-no"|Nov 2008
Core i7-9xx (except Core i7-970/980)
Lynnfield Core i7-8xx LGA 1156 95 W DMI,
PCI-e,
2 × DDR3
Sep 2009
Core i7-8xxS 82 W Jan 2010
Clarksfield Core i7-9xxXM Extreme Edition rPGA-988A 55 W Sep 2009
Core i7-8xxQM 45 W
Core i7-7xxQM 6 MB
Arrandale Core i7-6xxM 2 4 MB 35 W 32 nm DMI,
PCI-e,
FDI,
2 × DDR3
Jan 2010
Core i7-6xxLM BGA-1288 25 W
Core i7-6xxUM 18 W
Model Code name Release date Price[a] Cores
(Threads)
Clock rate
(GHz)
Cache GPU Lithography Socket Memory support TDP
Base Turbo L3 Name Clock rate DDR3 ECC
Core i3
530 Clarkdale Q1 2010 $117 2 (4) 2.93 4 MB HD Graphics 733 MHz 32 nm LGA 1156 DDR3-1333
dual-channel
No 73 W
Core i5
750 Lynnfield Q3 2009 $193 4 (4) 2.6 3.2 8 MB 45 nm LGA 1156 DDR3-1333
dual-channel
No 95 W
Core i7
920 Bloomfield Q4 2008 $305 4 (8) 2.66 2.93 8 MB 45 nm LGA 1366 DDR3-1066
triple-channel
No 130 W
920XM Clarksfield Q3 2009 2.0 3.2 PGA 988 DDR3-1333
triple-channel
55 W
930 Bloomfield Q1 2010 $305 2.8 3.06 LGA 1366 DDR3-1066
triple-channel
130 W
940 Q4 2008 $555 2.93 3.2 130 W
940XM Clarksfield Q3 2010 2.13 3.33 PGA 988 DDR3-1333
triple-channel
55 W
950 Bloomfield Q2 2009 $305 3.06 3.33 LGA 1366 DDR3-1066
triple-channel
130 W
960 Q4 2009 $305 3.2 3.46
965 Q4 2008 $990
970 Gulftown Q3'10 $594 6 (12) 12 MB 32 nm
975 Bloomfield Q2 2009 $1059 4 (8) 3.33 3.6 8 MB 45 nm
980 Gulftown Q2 2011 $594 6 (12) 12 MB 32 nm
980X Q1 2010 $1059
990X Q1 2011 $1059 3.46 3.73
  1. ^ Price reflects Recommended Customer Price (RCP) rather than MSRP. RCP is the cost per unit, in bulk sales of 1000 units or more, to OEMs, ODMs, and retail outlets when purchasing from Intel. Actual MSRP is higher than RCP

2nd generation (Sandy Bridge)[edit]

In early 2011, Intel introduced a new microarchitecture named Sandy Bridge. This is the second generation of the Core processor microarchitecture. It kept all the existing brands from Nehalem, including Core i3/i5/i7, and introduced new model numbers. The initial set of Sandy Bridge processors includes dual- and quad-core variants, all of which use a single 32 nm die for both the CPU and integrated GPU cores, unlike the earlier microarchitectures. All Core i3/i5/i7 processors with the Sandy Bridge microarchitecture have a four-digit model number. With the mobile version, the thermal design power can no longer be determined from a one- or two-letter suffix but is encoded into the CPU number. Starting with Sandy Bridge, Intel no longer distinguishes the code names of the processor based on number of cores, socket or intended usage; they all use the same code name as the microarchitecture itself.

Ivy Bridge is the codename for Intel's 22 nm die shrink of the Sandy Bridge microarchitecture based on tri-gate ("3D") transistors, introduced in April 2012.

Core i3

Released on January 20, 2011, the Core i3-2xxx line of desktop and mobile processors is a direct replacement of the 2010 "Clarkdale" Core i3-5xx and "Arrandale" Core i3-3xxM models, based on the new microarchitecture. While they require new sockets and chipsets, the user-visible features of the Core i3 are largely unchanged, including the lack of support for Turbo Boost and AES-NI. Unlike the Sandy Bridge-based Celeron and Pentium processors, the Core i3 line does support the new Advanced Vector Extensions. This particular processor is the entry-level processor of this new series of Intel processors.

Codename Brand name (list) Cores L3 Cache Socket TDP I/O Bus
Sandy Bridge (Desktop) Core i3-21xx 2 3 MB LGA 1155 65 W Direct Media Interface,
Integrated GPU
Core i3-21xxT 35 W
Sandy Bridge (Mobile) Core i3-2xx0M rPGA-988B
BGA-1023
Core i3-2xx7M BGA-1023 17 W

Core i5

A Core i5-2500K. The K suffix indicates an unlocked clock multiplier, which allows for easier overclocking.

In January 2011, Intel released new quad-core Core i5 processors based on the "Sandy Bridge" microarchitecture at CES 2011. New dual-core mobile processors and desktop processors arrived in February 2011.

The Core i5-2xxx line of desktop processors are mostly quad-core chips, with the exception of the dual-core Core i5-2390T, and include integrated graphics, combining the key features of the earlier Core i5-6xx and Core i5-7xx lines. The suffix after the four-digit model number designates unlocked multiplier (K), low-power (S) and ultra-low-power (T).

The desktop CPUs now all have four non-SMT cores (like the i5-750), with the exception of the i5-2390T. The DMI bus runs at 5 GT/s.

The mobile Core i5-2xxxM processors are all dual-core and hyper-threaded chips like the previous Core i5-5xxM series, and share most of the features with that product line.

Codename Brand name (list) Cores L3 Cache Socket TDP I/O Bus
Sandy Bridge (Desktop) Core i5-2xxx
Core i5-2xxxK
4 6 MB LGA 1155 95 W Direct Media Interface,
Integrated GPU
Core i5-2xxxS 65 W
Core i5-25xxT 45 W
Core i5-23xxT 2 3 MB 35 W
Sandy Bridge (Mobile) Core i5-2xxxM rPGA-988B
BGA-1023
Core i5-2xx7M BGA-1023 17 W

Core i7

The Core i7 brand was the high-end for Intel's desktop and mobile processors, until the announcement of the i9 in 2017. Its Sandy Bridge models feature the largest amount of L3 cache and the highest clock frequency. Most of these models are very similar to their smaller Core i5 siblings. The quad-core mobile Core i7-2xxxQM/XM processors follow the previous "Clarksfield" Core i7-xxxQM/XM processors, but now also include integrated graphics.

Codename Brand name (list) Cores L3 Cache Socket TDP Process I/O Bus Release
Date
Sandy Bridge-E (Desktop) Core i7-39xxX 6 15 MB LGA 2011 130 W 32 nm Direct Media Interface November 2011
Core i7-39xxK 12 MB
Core i7-38xx 4 10 MB
Sandy Bridge (Desktop) Core i7-2xxxK, i7-2xxx 8 MB LGA 1155 95 W Direct Media Interface,
Integrated GPU
January 2011
Core i7-2xxxS 65 W
Sandy Bridge (Mobile) Core i7-2xxxXM rPGA-988B
BGA-1023
55 W
Core i7-28xxQM 45 W
Core i7-2xxxQE, i7-26xxQM, i7-27xxQM 6 MB
Core i7-2xx0M 2 4 MB 35 W February 2011
Core i7-2xx9M BGA-1023 25 W
Core i7-2xx7M 17 W

3rd generation (Ivy Bridge)[edit]

Ivy Bridge is the codename for a "third generation" line of processors based on the 22 nm manufacturing process developed by Intel. Mobile versions of the CPU were released in April 2012 following with desktop versions in September 2012.

Ivy Bridge relevant improvement was the introduction of support to the USB 3.0 standard.

Core i3

The Ivy Bridge-based Core-i3-3xxx line is a minor upgrade to 22 nm process technology and better graphics.

Codename Brand name (list) Cores L3
Cache
Socket TDP I/O Bus
Ivy Bridge (Desktop) Core i3-32xx 2 3 MB LGA 1155 55 W Direct Media Interface,
Integrated GPU
Core i3-32xxT 35 W
Ivy Bridge (Mobile) Core i3-3xx0M rPGA-988B
BGA-1023
Core i3-3xx7U BGA-1023 17 W
Core i3-3xx9Y 13 W

Core i5

Codename Brand name (list) Cores L3
Cache
Socket TDP I/O Bus
Ivy Bridge (Desktop) Core i5-3xxx
Core i5-3xxxK
4 6 MB LGA 1155 77 W Direct Media Interface,
Integrated GPU
Core i5-3xxxS 65 W
Core i5-35xxT 45 W
Core i5-34xxT 2 3 MB 35 W
Ivy Bridge (Mobile) Core i5-3xx0M rPGA-988B
BGA-1023
Core i5-3xx7U BGA-1023 17 W
Core i5-3xx9Y 13 W

Core i7

Codename Brand name (list) Cores L3 Cache Socket TDP Process I/O Bus Release
Date
Ivy Bridge-E (Desktop) Core i7-4960X 6 15 MB LGA 2011 130 W 22 nm Direct Media Interface September 2013
Core i7-4930K 12 MB
Core i7-4820K 4 10 MB
Ivy Bridge (Desktop) Core i7-37xx, i7-37xxK 8 MB LGA 1155 77 W Direct Media Interface,
Integrated GPU
April 2012
Core i7-37xxS 65 W
Core i7-37xxT 45 W
Ivy Bridge (Mobile) Core i7-3xxxXM 55 W
Core i7-38xxQM 45 W
Core i7-36x0QM, i7-3xx0QE, i7-36x5QM,
i7-3xx5QE, i7-37xxQM
6 MB
Core i7-3xx2QM, i7-3xx2QE 35 W
Core i7-3xxxM 2 4 MB
Core i7-3xxxLE 25 W
Core i7-3xx7U, i7-3xx7UE 17 W
Core i7-3xx9Y 13 W January 2013

4th generation (Haswell)[edit]

Haswell is the fourth generation Core processor microarchitecture, and was released in 2013.

Core i3

Codename Brand name (list) Cores L3 Cache GPU Model Socket TDP Process I/O Bus Release
Date
Haswell-DT (Desktop) Core i3-43xx 2 4 MB HD 4600 LGA 1150 54 W 22 nm Direct Media Interface,
Integrated GPU
September 2013
Core i3-43xxT, Core i3-4xxxTE 35 W
Core i3-41xx 3 MB HD 4400 54 W
Core i3-41xxT 35 W
Haswell-MB (Mobile) Core i3-4xx2E HD 4600 BGA 1364 25 W
Core i3-4xx0E 37 W
Core i3-4xxxM Socket G3
Core i3-4xx8U Iris 5100 BGA 1168 28 W June 2013
Core i3-4xx0U, Core i3-4xx5U HD 4400 15 W
Core i3-4xxxY HD 4200 11.5 W

Core i5

Codename Brand name (list) Cores L3 Cache GPU Model Socket TDP Process I/O Bus Release Date
Haswell-DT (Desktop) Core i5-4xxx, i5-46xxK 4 6 MB HD 4600 LGA 1150 84 W 22 nm Direct Media Interface,
Integrated GPU
June 2013
Core i5-4xxxS 65 W
Core i5-46xxT 45 W
Core i5-45xxT, Core i5-45xxTE 2 4 MB 35 W
65 W
Haswell-H (MCP) Core i5-4xxxR 4 4 MB Iris Pro 5200 BGA 1364 65 W
Haswell-MB (Mobile) Core i5-4xxxH 2 3 MB HD 4600 47 W September 2013
Core i5-4xx2E 25 W
Core i5-4xx0E 37 W
Core i5-4xxxM Socket G3
Core i5-4xx8U Iris 5100 BGA1168 28 W June 2013
Core i5-4x50U HD 5000 15 W
Core i5-4x00U HD 4400
Core i5-4xxxY HD 4200 11.5 W

Core i7

Codename Brand name (list) Cores L3 Cache GPU Model Socket TDP Process I/O Bus Release
Date
Haswell-E (Desktop)[68] Core i7-5960X 8 20 MB No LGA 2011-3 140 W 22 nm Direct Media Interface September 2014
Core i7-5930K 6 15 MB
Core i7-5820K
Haswell-DT (Desktop) Core i7-47xx, i7-47xxK 4 8 MB HD 4600 LGA 1150 84 W Direct Media Interface,
Integrated GPU
June 2013
Core i7-47xxS 65 W
Core i7-47x0T 45 W
Core i7-47x5T 35 W
Core i7-47xxR 6 MB Iris Pro 5200 BGA 1364 65 W
Haswell-MB (Mobile) Core i7-4x50HQ, Core i7-4x60HQ
Core i7-4x50EQ, Core i7-4x60EQ
47 W
Core i7-47x2HQ, Core i7-47x2EQ
Core i7-470xHQ, Core i7-470xEQ
HD 4600 37 W
47 W
Core i7-47x2MQ
Core i7-470xMQ
Socket G3 37 W
47 W
Core i7-49xxMQ, Core i7-4xxxXM 8 MB 57 W
Core i7-4xxxM 2 4 MB 35 W September 2013
Core i7-4xx8U Iris 5100 BGA 1168 28 W June 2013
Core i7-4x50U HD 5000 15 W
Core i7-4x00U HD 4400
Core i7-4xxxY HD 4200 11.5 W

5th generation (Broadwell)[edit]

Broadwell is the fifth generation Core processor microarchitecture, and was released by Intel on September 6, 2014, and began shipping in late 2014. It is the first to use a 14 nm chip.[69] Additionally, mobile processors were launched in January 2015[70] and Desktop Core i5 and i7 processors were released in June 2015.[71]

Broadwell-DT (Desktop processors)

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores

(Threads)

Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo
clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
Cache
Socket Memory
support
TDP cTDP
Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR3 ECC Down
Core i5
5575R June 2, 2015 $244 4 (4) 2.8 3.3 Iris
6200
1.05 4 MB LGA 1150 DDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 65W
5675C $276 3.1 3.6 1.10 37W
5675R $265 3.1 3.6 BGA 1364
Core i7
5775C June 2, 2015 $366 4 (8) 3.3 3.7 Iris
6200
1.15 6 MB LGA 1150 DDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 65W 37W
5775R $348 3.3 3.8 BGA 1364

Broadwell-U (Mobile processors)

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores
(Threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo
clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
Cache
Socket Memory
support
TDP cTDP
Model Max GPU
clock rate

(GHz)

DDR3 ECC Down Up
Core i3
5005U January 5, 2015 $275 2 (2) 2.0 HD
5500
0.85 3 MB BGA 1168 LPDDR-1866
dual-channel
No 15W 10W
5010U $281 2.1 0.90
5157U $315 2.5 Iris
6100
1.00 28W 23W
Core i5
5200U January 5, 2015 $281 2 (2) 2.2 2.7 HD
5500
0.90 3 MB BGA 1168 LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 15W 7.5W
5250U $315 1.6 2.7 HD
6000
0.95 9.5W
5257U $315 2.7 3.1 Iris
6100
1.05 28W 23W
5287U $315 2.9 3.3 1.10
5300U $281 2.3 2.9 HD
5500
0.90 15W 7.5W
5350U $315 1.8 2.9 HD
6000
1.00 9.5W
Core i7
5500U January 5, 2015 $393 2 (4) 2.4 3.0 HD
5500
0.95 4 MB BGA 1168 LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 15W 7.5W
5550U $426 2.0 3.0 HD
6000
1.00 9.5W
5557U $426 3.1 3.4 Iris
6100
1.10 28W 23W
5600U $393 2.6 3.2 HD
5500
0.95 15W 7.5W
5650U $426 2.2 3.1 HD
6000
1.00 9.5W

Broadwell-Y (Mobile Processors)

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores
(Threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo
clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
Cache
Socket Memory
support
TDP cTDP
Model Max GPU
clock rate

(GHz)

DDR3 ECC Down Up
Core M
5Y10 September 2014 $281 2 (4) 0.8 2.0 HD
5300
0.8 4 MB BGA 1234 LPDDR3-1333
dual-channel
No 4.5 W
5Y10a
5Y10c October 2014 3.5 W 6 W
5Y31 0.9 2.4 0.85
5Y51 1.1 2.6 0.9
5Y70 September 2014 0.85
5Y71 October 2014 1.2 2.9 0.9 3.5 W 6 W

6th generation[edit]

Broadwell microarchitecture[edit]

Broadwell-E (High-end Desktop Processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores
(threads)
Base
Clock
(GHz)
Turbo Clock GPU Smart
Cache
Socket PCIe
lanes
Memory
support
Power
Single
core
(GHz)
Turbo Boost
Max 3.0
(GHz)
Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC TDP Turbo
Core i7
6800K May 31, 2016 $434 6 (12) 3.4 3.6 3.8 15 MB LGA 2011-3 28
PCIe 3.0
DDR4-2400
quad-channel [a]
No 140W
6850K $617 3.6 3.8 4.0 40
PCIe 3.0
6900K $1089 8 (16) 3.2 3.7 4.0 20 MB
6950X $1723 10 (20) 3.0 3.5 4.0 25 MB
  1. ^ Up to 128GB RAM

Skylake microarchitecture[edit]

Skylake is the sixth generation Core processor microarchitecture, and was launched in August 2015. Being the successor to the Broadwell line, it is a redesign using the same 14 nm manufacturing process technology; however the redesign has better CPU and GPU performance and reduced power consumption. Intel also disabled overclocking non -K processors.

Desktop processors (DT-Series)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores

(Threads)

Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo
clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
Cache
Socket Memory
support
Power
Model Max GPU
clock rate

(GHz)

DDR4 ECC TDP Turbo
Core i3
6089P December 2015 2 (4) 3.6 UHD
510
1.05 3 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2133
dual-channel
Yes 58W
6100 September 27, 2015 $117 3.7 UHD
530
51W
6100T 3.2 0.95 35W
6300 $147 3.8 1.15 4 MB 51W
6300T 3.3 0.95 35W
6320 $149 3.9 1.15 51W
Core i5
6xx0R June 2016 4 (4) UHD
530
6 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2133
dual-channel
No 35W
6xx0T September 27, 2015
6400 $182 2.7 3.3 1.05 65W
6402P December 2015 $182 2.8 3.4 UHD
510
0.95
6500 September 27, 2015 $192 3.2 3.6 UHD
530
1.05
6600 $213 3.3 3.9 1.15
6600K $242 3.5 3.9 91W
Core i7
6700 September 27, 2015 $303 4 (8) 3.4 4.0 UHD
530
1.15 8 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2133
dual-channel
No 65W
6700K $350 4.0 4.2 91W 130W
6700T $303 2.8 3.6 1.10 35W
6785R April 22, 2016 $370 3.3 3.9 Iris
Pro
580
1.15 65W

Mobile processors (H-Series)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores

(Threads)

Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo
clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
Cache
Socket Memory
support
Power
Model Max GPU
clock rate

(GHz)

DDR4 ECC TDP Turbo
Core i3
6100H September 27, 2015 $225 2 (4) 2.7 HD
530
0.90 3 MB BGA 1356 DDR4-2133
dual-channel
Yes 35W

Mobile processors (U-series)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores

(Threads)

Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo
clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
Cache
Socket Memory
support
TDP Configurable TDP
Model Max GPU
clock rate

(GHz)

DDR4 ECC Down Up
Core i3
6006U November 10, 2016 $281 2 (4) 2.0 HD
510
0.90 3 MB BGA 1356 DDR4-2133
LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 15W
6100U September 27, 2015 $281 3.7 1.00 7.5W
6167U $304 2.7 HD
550
28W 23W
Core i5
6200U September 27, 2015 $281 2 (4) 2.3 2.8 HD
520
1.00 3 MB BGA 1356 DDR4-2133
LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 15W 7.5W 25W
6260U $304 1.8 2.9 Iris
540
0.95 4 MB 9.5W
6267U $304 2.9 3.3 Iris
550
1.05 28W 23W
6300U $281 2.4 3.0 HD
520
1.00 15W 7.5W 25W
6360U $304 2.0 3.1 Iris
540
9.5W
Core i7
6500U September 27, 2015 $393 2 (4) 2.5 3.1 UHD
520
1.05 8 MB BGA 1356 DDR4-2133
LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 15W 7.5W 25W
6560U 2.2 3.2 Iris
540
9.5W
6567U 3.3 3.6 Iris
550
1.10 28W 23W
6600U $393 2.6 3.4 UHD
520
1.05 15W 7.5W 25W
6650U $415 2.2 3.4 Iris
540
9.5W
6660U March 20, 2016 2.4 3.4

7th generation[edit]

Skylake microarchitecture[edit]

High-end Desktop processors (X-Series)[edit]

Model Release date Price Cores
(Threads)
Base Clock
(GHz)
Turbo Clock GPU L3 Cache Socket Memory
support
Power
Single Core
(GHz)
Turbo Boost
Max 3.0
(GHz)
Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC TDP Turbo
Core i7
7800X June 26, 2017 $389 6 (12) 3.6 4.3 4.5 8.25 MB LGA 2066 DDR4-2666
quad-channel
No 140W
7820X $599 8 (16) 3.5 4.0 4.0 11 MB
Core i9
7900X June 26, 2017 $999 10 (20) 3.3 4.3 4.5 13.75 MB LGA 2066 DDR4-2666
quad-channel
No 140W
7920X August 28, 2017 $1199 12 (24) 2.9 4.3 4.4 16.5 MB
7940X September 25, 2017 $1399 14 (28) 3.1 4.3 4.4 19.25 MB 165W
7960X $1699 16 (32) 2.8 4.2 4.4 22 MB
7980XE $1999 18 (36) 2.6 4.2 4.4 24.75 MB 230W

Kaby Lake[edit]

Kaby Lake is the codename for the seventh generation Core processor, and was launched in October 2016 (mobile chips)[72] and January 2017 (desktop chips).[73] With the latest generation of microarchitecture, Intel decided to produce Kaby Lake processors without using their "tick–tock" manufacturing and design model.[74] Kaby Lake features the same Skylake microarchitecture and is fabricated using Intel's 14 nanometer manufacturing process technology.[74]

Features[edit]

Built on an improved 14 nm process (14FF+), Kaby Lake features faster CPU clock speeds and Turbo frequencies. Beyond these process and clock speed changes, little of the CPU architecture has changed from Skylake, resulting in identical IPC.

Kaby Lake features a new graphics architecture to improve performance in 3D graphics and 4K video playback. It adds native High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection 2.2 support, along with fixed function decode of H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, High Efficiency Video Coding Main and Main10/10-bit, and VP9 10-bit and 8-bit video. Hardware encode is supported for H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, HEVC Main10/10-bit, and VP9 8-bit video. VP9 10-bit encode is not supported in hardware. OpenCL 2.1 is now supported.

Kaby Lake is the first Core architecture to support hyper-threading for the Pentium-branded desktop CPU SKU. Kaby Lake also features the first overclocking-enabled i3-branded CPU.

Features common to desktop Kaby Lake CPUs:

  • LGA 1151 socket
  • DMI 3.0 and PCIe 3.0 interfaces
  • Dual channel memory support in the following configurations: DDR3L-1600 1.35 V (32 GiB maximum) or DDR4-2400 1.2 V (64 GiB maximum)
  • A total of 16 PCIe lanes
  • The Core-branded processors support the AVX2 instruction set. The Celeron and Pentium-branded ones support only SSE4.1/4.2
  • 350 MHz base graphics clock rate
  • No L4 cache (eDRAM).
  • A release date of January 3, 2017

Kaby Lake-S (Desktop processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores

(Threads)

Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo clock rate[75] GPU L3
Cache
Socket Memory
support
Power
Number of cores used Model Max GPU
clock rate

(GHz)

1 2 4 DDR4 ECC TDP Turbo
Core i3
7100 January 3, 2017 $117 2 (4) 3.9 HD
630
1.10 3 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2133
dual-channel
Yes 51W
7100T 3.4 35W
7101E 3.9 54W
7101TE 3.4 35W
7300 $147 4.0 1.15 4 MB 51W
7300T 3.5 1.10 35W
7320 $157 4.1 1.15 51W
7350K $179 4.2 60W
Core i5
7400 January 3, 2017 $182 4 (4) 3.0 3.5 3.4 3.3 HD
630
1.00 6 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2133
dual-channel
No 65W
7400T $187 2.4 3.0 2.9 2.7 35W
7500 $202 3.4 3.8 3.7 3.6 1.10 65W
7500T 2.7 3.3 3.2 3.1 35W
7600 $224 3.5 4.1 4.0 3.9 1.15 65W
7600K $243 3.8 4.2 4.1 4.0 91W
7600T $224 2.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 1.10 51W
Core i7
7700 January 3, 2017 $312 4 (8) 3.6 4.2 4.1 4.0 HD
630
1.15 8 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2133
dual-channel
No 65W
7700K $350 4.2 4.5 4.4 4.4 91W
7700T $313 2.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 35W

Kaby Lake-H (Mobile processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores

(Threads)

Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo clock rate[75] GPU L3
Cache
Socket Memory
support
TDP Configurable TDP
Number of cores used Model Max GPU
clock rate

(GHz)

1 2 4 DDR4 ECC Down Up
Core i3
7100H January 3, 2017 $225 2 (4) 3.9 HD
630
0.95 3 MB BGA 1440 DDR4-2400
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 35W
Core i5
7300HQ January 3, 2017 $250 4 (4) 2.5 3.5 3.3 3.1 HD
630
1.00 6 MB BGA 1440 DDR4-2400
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 45W 35W
7440HQ 2.8 3.8 3.6 3.4
Core i7
7700HQ January 3, 2017 $378 4 (8) 2.8 3.8 3.6 3.4 HD
630
1.10 6 MB BGA 1440 DDR4-2400
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 45W 35W
7820HK 2.9 3.9 3.7 3.5 8 MB
7820HQ
7920H $568 3.1 4.1 3.9 3.7

Kaby Lake-U (Mobile Processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores (Threads) Base
clock rate
Turbo clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
cache
L4
cache
(eDRAM)
Socket Memory
support
TDP Configurable TDP
Single
core
Dual
core
Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC Down Up
Core i3
7100U August 30, 2016 $281 2 (4) 3.0 UHD
620
1.00 3 MB BGA 1440 DDR4-2133
LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 15W 7.5W
7167U January 3, 2017 3.0 Iris
Plus
650
64 MB 28W 23W
Core i5
7200U August 30, 2016 $281 2 (4) 2.5 3.1 3.1 HD
Plus
620
1.00 3 MB BGA 1440 DDR4-2133
LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 15W 7.5W 25W
7260U January 3, 2017 2.2 3.4 3.4 Iris
Plus
640
0.95 4 MB 64 MB 9.5W
7267U 3.1 3.5 3.5 Iris
Plus
650
1.05 28W 23W
7287U 3.3 3.7 3.7 1.10
7300U $281 2.6 3.5 3.5 HD
620
1.10 3 MB 15W 7.5W 25W
7360U $304 2.3 3.6 3.6 Iris
Plus
640
1.00 4 MB 64 MB 9.5W
Core i7
7500U August 30, 2016 $393 2 (4) 2.7 3.5 3.5 HD
620
1.05 4 MB BGA 1440 DDR4-2133
LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 15W 7.5W 25W
7560U January 3, 2017 $415 2.4 3.8 3.8 Iris
Plus
640
1.05 64 MB 9.5W
7567U 3.5 4.0 4.0 Iris
Plus
650
1.15 28W 23W
7600U $393 2.8 3.9 3.9 HD
620
1.15 15W 7.5W 25W
7660U $415 2.5 4.0 4.0 Iris
Plus
640
1.15 64 MB 9.5W

Kaby Lake-Y (Mobile Processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores
(Threads)
Base
clock rate
Turbo clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
cache
Max.
PCIe
lanes
Socket Memory
support
TDP Configurable TDP
Single
core
Dual
core
Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC Down Up
Core i3
7Y30 August 30, 2016 $281 2 (4) 1.0 2.6 UHD
615
0.90 4 MB 10 BGA 1440 DDR4-2133
LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 4.5W 3.5W 7W
7Y32 April 21, 2017 1.1 3.0
Core i5
7Y54 August 30, 2016 $281 2 (4) 1.2 3.2 2.8 UHD
615
0.95 4 MB 10 BGA 1440 DDR4-2133
LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 4.5W 3.5W 7W
7Y57 February 2, 2017 3.3 2.9
Core i7
7Y75 August 30, 2016 $393 2 (4) 1.3 3.6 3.4 HD
615
1.05 4 MB 10 BGA 1440 DDR4-2133
LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 4.5W 7.5W 25W

Kaby Lake-X (High-end Desktop processors)[edit]

Kaby Lake-X processors are modified versions of Kaby Lake-S processors that fit into the LGA 2066 socket. However, they can't take advantage of the unique features of the platform.

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores
(Threads)
Base Clock
(GHz)
Turbo Clock
(GHz)
GPU L3
Cache
Socket Memory
support
Power
Single
core
Dual
core
Quad
core
Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC TDP Turbo
Core i5
7640X June 26, 2017 $242 4 (4) 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.0 6 MB LGA 2066 DDR4-2666
dual-channel
No 112W
Core i7
7740X June 26, 2017 $339 4 (8) 4.3 4.5 4.4 4.4 8 MB LGA 2066 DDR4-2666
dual-channel
No 112W

8th generation[edit]

Kaby Lake Refresh[edit]

Mobile processors (U-Series)[edit]

Model Release
date
Price
(USD)
Cores
(Threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
cache
L4
cache
Max.
PCIe
lanes
Socket Memory
support
TDP Configurable TDP
Single
core
Dual
core
Quad
core
Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC Down Up
Core i5
8250U August 21, 2017 $297 4 (8) 1.6 3.4 3.4 3.4 UHD
620
1.10 6 MB 12 BGA 1356 DDR4-2400
LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 15 W 10 W 25 W
8350U 1.7 3.6 3.6 3.6
Core i7
8550U August 21, 2017 $409 4 (8) 1.8 4.0 4.0 3.7 UHD
620
1.15 8 MB 12 BGA 1356 DDR4-2400
LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 15 W 10 W 25 W
8650U 1.9 4.2 4.2 3.9

Coffee Lake microarchitecture[edit]

Coffee Lake is a codename for the eighth generation Intel Core family and was launched in October 2017. For the first time in the ten-year history of Intel Core processors, the Coffee Lake generation features an increase in core counts across the desktop lineup of processors, a significant driver of improved performance versus previous generations despite similar per-clock performance.

Increase in number of CPU cores in desktop Coffee Lake processors
7th Generation
Kaby Lake
8th Generation
Coffee Lake
Cores (Threads) Cores (Threads)
Core i3 2 (4) 4 (4)
Core i5 4 (4) 6 (6)
Core i7 4 (8) 6 (12)

* Intel Hyper-threading capabilities allow an enabled processor to execute two threads per physical core

Features[edit]

Coffee Lake features largely the same CPU core and performance per MHz as Skylake/Kaby Lake.[76][77] Features specific to Coffee Lake include:

  • Following similar refinements to the 14 nm process in Skylake and Kaby Lake, Coffee Lake is the third 14 nm process refinement ("14nm++") and features increased transistor gate pitch for a lower current density and higher leakage transistors which allows higher peak power and higher frequency at the expense of die area and idle power.
  • Coffee Lake will be used in conjunction with the 300-series chipset and is incompatible with the older 100- and 200-series chipsets.[78][79]
  • Increased L3 cache in accordance to the number of cores
  • Increased turbo clock speeds across i5 and i7 CPUs models (increased by up to 200 MHz)
  • Increased iGPU clock speeds by 50 MHz
  • DDR4 memory support updated for 2666 MHz (for i5 and i7 parts) and 2400 MHz (for i3 parts); DDR3 memory is no longer supported

Coffee Lake-S (Desktop processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores

(Threads)

Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo clock rate
(GHz)[75]
GPU L3
Cache
Socket Memory
support
Power
Number of cores used Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
1 2 3 4 5 6 DDR4 ECC TDP Turbo
Celeron
G4900 April 23, 2019 $42 2 (2) 3.1 UHD
610
1.05 2 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2400
dual-channel

[a]

Yes 54W
G4900T 2.9 35W
G4920 $52 3.2 54W
G4930 $42
Pentium Gold
G5400 April 2, 2018 $64 2 (4) 3.7 UHD
610
1.05 4 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2400
dual-channel[a]
Yes 58W 65W
G5400T 3.1 35W
G5500 $75 3.8 UHD
630
1.10 54W
G5500T 3.2 35W
G5600 $54 3.9 86W
Core i3
8100 October 2017 $117 4 (4) 3.6 UHD
630
1.10 6 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2400
dual-channel[b]
Yes 65W 87W
8100F January 7, 2019 ?
8100T April 2, 2018 $117 3.1 UHD
630
1.10 35W
8300 February 2018 $138 3.7 1.15 8 MB 62W
8300T April 2, 2018 3.2 35W
8350K October 2017 $168 4.0 91W
Core i5
8400 October 2017 $182 6 (6) 2.8 4.0 3.9 3.8 UHD
630
1.05 9 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2666
dual-channel[b]
No 65W 131W
8400T April 2, 2018 1.7 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0 35W
8500 February 2018 $192 3.0 4.1 4.0 3.9 1.10 65W
8500T April 2, 2018 2.1 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 35W 104W
8600 April 2, 2018 $213 3.1 4.3 4.2 4.1 1.15 65W
8600K October 2017 $257 3.6 95W 145W
8600T April 2, 2018 $213 2.3 3.7 3.6 3.5 35W 104W
Core i7
8086K June 8, 2018 $425 6 (12) 4.0 5.0 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 UHD
630
1.20 12 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2666
dual-channel[b]
No 95W
8700 January 2018 $303 3.2 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 65W
8700K October 2017 $359 3.7 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 95W 188W
8700T April 2, 2018 $303 2.4 4.0 4.0[80] 3.9 3.8 35W 159W
  1. ^ a b Up to 64 GB RAM supported
  2. ^ a b c Up to 128 GB RAM supported

Coffee Lake-H (Mobile processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores (Threads) Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Max Turbo
clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
cache
Socket Memory
support
TDP Configurable TDP
Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC Down Up
Core i3
8100H July 2018 $225 4 (4) 3.0 HD 630 1.00 6 MB BGA 1440 DDR4-2666
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 45W 35W
Core i5
8300H April 2018 $250 4 (8) 2.3 4.0 HD 630 1.00 8 MB BGA 1440 DDR4-2666
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 45W 35W
8400H 2.5 4.2 1.10
8400B $182 6 (6) 2.8 4.0 1.05 9 MB 65W
8500B $192 3.0 4.1 1.10
Core i7
8700B April 2018 $303 6 (12) 3.2 4.6 HD 630 1.20 9 MB BGA 1440 DDR4-2666
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 65W 35W
8750H $395 2.2 4.1 1.10 12 MB 45W
8850H 2.6 4.3 1.15


Coffee Lake-U (Mobile processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores
(Threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Max Turbo
clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
cache
L4
cache
(eDRAM)
Socket Memory
support
TDP Configurable TDP
Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC Down Up
Core i3
8109U April 2018 2 (4) 3.0 3.6 UHD
630
1.10 4 MB BGA 1440 DDR4-2666
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 28W 20W
Core i5
8259U April 2018 $320 4 (8) 2.3 3.8 Iris Plus
655
1.05 6 MB BGA 1440 DDR4-2666
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 28W 20W
8269U 2.6 4.2 1.10 128 MB
Core i7
8559U April 2018 $421 4 (8) 2.7 4.5 Iris Plus
655
1.20 8 MB 128 MB BGA 1440 DDR4-2666
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 28W 20W

Amber Lake microarchitecture[edit]

Amber Lake is a refinement over the low power Mobile Kaby Lake CPUs.

Amber Lake-Y (Mobile Processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores (Threads) Clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
cache
Socket Memory
support
TDP Configurable TDP
Base Turbo Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC Down Up
Core m3
8100Y August 28, 2018 $281 2 (4) 1.1 3.4 UHD
620
0.9 4 MB BGA 1515 LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 5W 8W 4.5W
Core i5
8200Y August 28, 2018 $291 2 (4) 1.3 3.9 UHD
615
0.95 4 MB BGA 1515 LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 5W 7W 3.5W
8210Y March 7, 2019 $281 1.6 3.6 UHD
617
1.05 7W
8310Y April 4, 2019 3.9
Core i7
8500Y March 7, 2019 $393 4 (8) 1.5 4.2 UHD
615
1.05 4 MB BGA 1515 LPDDR3-1866
dual-channel
No 5W 7W 3.5W
8510Y April 4, 2019 $393 1.8 3.9 UHD
617
7W

Whiskey Lake microarchitecture[edit]

Whiskey Lake is Intel's codename for the third 14 nm Skylake process-refinement, following Kaby Lake Refresh and Coffee Lake. Intel announced low power mobile Whiskey Lake CPUs availability on August 28, 2018.[81][82] It has not yet been advertised whether this CPU architecture contains hardware mitigations for Meltdown/Spectre class vulnerabilities—various sources contain conflicting information.[83][84][82][85] Unofficially it was announced that Whiskey Lake has hardware mitigations against Meltdown and L1TF while Spectre V2 requires software mitigations as well as microcode/firmware update.[86][87][88][89]

Architecture changes compared to Kaby Lake Refresh[edit]

  • 14++ nm process, same as Coffee Lake
  • Increased turbo clocks (300–600 MHz)
  • 14 nm PCH
  • Native USB 3.1 gen 2 support (10 Gbit/s)
  • Integrated 802.11ac 160 MHz Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 5.0
  • Intel Optane Memory support

Whiskey Lake-U (Mobile processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores (Threads) Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Max Turbo
clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
cache
Socket Memory
support
TDP Configurable TDP
1 2 4 Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC Down Up
Core i3
8145U August 28, 2018 $281 2 (4) 2.1 3.9 3.7 UHD
620
1.00 4 MB BGA 1528 DDR4-2400
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 15W 25W 10W
Core i5
8265U August 28, 2018 $297 4 (8) 1.6 3.9 3.9 3.7 UHD
620
1.10 6 MB BGA 1528 DDR4-2400
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 15W 25W 10W
8365U April 16, 2019 4.1
Core i7
8565U August 28, 2018 $409 4 (8) 1.8 4.6 4.5 4.1 UHD
620
1.15 8 MB BGA 1528 DDR4-2400
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 15W 25W 10W
8665U April 16, 2019 1.9 4.8

Cannon Lake microarchitecture[edit]

Cannon Lake (formerly Skymont) is Intel's codename for the 10-nanometer die shrink of the Kaby Lake microarchitecture. As a die shrink, Cannon Lake is a new process in Intel's "process–architecture–optimization" execution plan as the next step in semiconductor fabrication.[90] Cannon Lake are the first mainstream CPUs to include the AVX-512 instruction set. In comparison to the previous generation AVX2 (AVX-256), the new generation AVX-512 most notably provides double the width of data registers and double the number of registers. These enhancements would allow for twice the number of floating point operations per register due to the increased width in addition to doubling the overall number of registers, resulting in theoretical performance improvements of up to four times the performance of AVX2.[91][92]

At CES 2018, Intel announced that they had started shipping mobile Cannon Lake CPUs at the end of 2017 and that they would ramp up production in 2018.[93][94][95] No further details were disclosed.

Architecture changes compared to Coffee Lake[edit]

  • AVX-512 instruction set extension
  • Intel's first 10 nm process technology

Mobile processors (U-Series)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores
(Threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Max Turbo
clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
cache
Max.
PCIe
lanes
Socket Memory
support
TDP cTDP
Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC Down Up
Core i3
8121U May 15, 2018 $290 2 (4) 2.2 3.2 4 MB 16 BGA 1440 DDR4-2400
LPDDR4-2400
dual-channel
No 15 W

9th generation[edit]

Skylake microarchitecture[edit]

Skylake-X (High-end Desktop processors)[edit]

The 9th generation Skylake CPUs are updated versions of previous Skylake X-Series CPUs with clockspeed improvements.

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores
(Threads)
Base Clock
(GHz)
Turbo Clock GPU L3 Cache Socket Memory
support
Power
Single
core
(GHz)
Turbo
Boost
Max 3.0
(GHz)
Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC TDP Turbo
Core i7
9800X November 8, 2018 $589 8 (16) 3.8 4.4 4.5 16.5 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2666
quad-channel
No 165W
Core i9
9820X November 8, 2018 $889 10 (20) 3.3 4.1 4.2 16.5 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2666
quad-channel
No 165W
9900X $989 3.5 4.4 4.5 19.25 MB
9920X $1189 12 (24) 3.5
9940X $1387 14 (28) 3.3
9960X $1684 16 (32) 3.1 22 MB
9980XE $1979 18 (36) 3.0 24.75 MB

Coffee Lake Refresh microarchitecture[edit]

Coffee Lake-S (Desktop processors)[edit]

The 9th generation Coffee Lake CPUs were released in the fourth quarter of 2018. They include hardware mitigations against certain Meltdown/Spectre vulnerabilities.[96][97]

For the first time in Intel consumer CPU history, these CPUs support up to 128 GB RAM.[98]

Increase in number of CPU cores in desktop 9th Generation processors
8th Generation
Coffee Lake
9th Generation
Coffee Lake
Cores (Threads) Cores (Threads)
Core i3 4 (4) 4 (4)
Core i5 6 (6) 6 (6)
Core i7 6 (12) 8 (8)
Core i9 8 (16)

* Intel Hyper-threading capabilities allow an enabled processor to execute two threads per physical core

Even though the F suffix CPUs lack an integrated GPU, Intel set the same price for these CPUs as their featureful counterparts.[99]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores

(Threads)

Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo clock rate[75] GPU L3
Cache
Socket Memory
support
Power
Number of cores used Model Max GPU
clock rate

(GHz)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DDR4 ECC TDP Turbo
Celeron
G4930 April 23, 2019 $42 2 (2) 3.2 UHD
610
1.00 2 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2400
dual-channel[a]
Yes 54W
G4930T 3.0 1.05 35W
G4950 $52 3.3 54W
Pentium Gold
G5420 April 23, 2019 $64 2 (4) 3.8 UHD
610
1.05 4 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2400
dual-channel[a]
Yes 58W
G5420T 3.2 35W
G5600T $75 3.3 UHD
630
54W
G5620 $86 4.0 1.10 35W
Core i3
9100 April 23, 2019 $122 4 (4) 3.6 4.2 UHD
630
1.10 6 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2400
dual-channel[a]
Yes 65W
9100F $97
9100T $122 3.1 3.7 UHD
630
1.10 35W
9300 $143 3.7 4.3 1.15 8 MB 62W
9300T 3.2 3.8 35W
9320 $154 3.7 4.4 62W
9350K $173 4.0 4.6 91W
9350KF January 7, 2019
Core i5
9400 January 7, 2019 $182 6 (6) 2.9 4.1 4.0 3.9 UHD
630
1.05 9 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2666
dual-channel[b]
No 65W
9400F $157
9400T April 23, 2019 $182 1.8 3.4 UHD
630
1.05 35W
9500 $192 3.0 4.4 1.10 65W
9500F $167
9500T $192 2.2 3.7 UHD
630
1.10 35W
9600 $213 3.1 4.6 1.15 65W
9600K October 19, 2018 $262 4.5 4.4 4.3 95W 150W
9600KF January 7, 2019 $237
9600T April 1, 2019 $213 2.3 3.9 UHD
630
1.15 35W
Core i7
9700 April 23, 2019 $323 8 (8) 3.0 4.7 4.6 4.5 UHD
630
1.20 12 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2666
dual-channel[b]
No 95W
9700F 65W
9700K October 19, 2018 $374 3.6 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 UHD
630
1.20 95W 124W
9700KF January 7, 2019
9700T April 23, 2019 $323 2.0 4.3 UHD
630
1.20 35W
Core i9
9900 April 23, 2019 $423 8 (16) 3.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 UHD
630
1.20 16 MB LGA 1151 DDR4-2666
dual-channel[b]
No 95W
9900K October 19, 2018 $488 3.6 4.7 95W 250W
9900KF January 7, 2019
9900KS October 30, 2019 $513 4.0 5.0 UHD
630
1.20 127W 266W
9900T April 23, 2019 $423 2.1 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.6 35W
  1. ^ a b c Up to 64 GB RAM supported
  2. ^ a b c Up to 128 GB RAM supported

* various reviews show that the Core i9 9900K CPU may consume over 140 W under load. The Core i9 9900KS may consume even more.[100][101][102][103]

Coffee Lake-H (Mobile processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores (Threads) Base
clock rate
Single Core Turbo
clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
cache
Memory
support
Power
Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC TDP Turbo
Core i5
9300H April 1, 2019 $250 4 (8) 2.4 4.1 HD 630 1.05 8 MB DDR4-2666
LPDDR3-2133
quad-channel
No 45W
9400H 2.5 4.3 1.10
Core i7
9750H April 23, 2019 $395 6 (12) 2.6 4.5 HD 630 1.15 12 MB DDR4-2666
LPDDR3-2133
quad-channel
No 45W
9850H 4.6
Core i9
9880H April 23, 2019 $556 8 (16) 2.3 4.8 HD 630 1.20 16 MB DDR4-2666
LPDDR3-2133
quad-channel
No 45W
9980HK $583 2.4 5.0 1.25

10th generation[edit]

Cascade Lake microarchitecture[edit]

Cascade Lake-X (High-end desktop processors)[edit]

Cascade Lake X-Series CPUs are the 10th generation versions of the previous Skylake X-Series CPUs. They offer minor clockspeed improvements and a highly reduced price.

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores
(threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Single Core
Turbo Clock
(GHz)
All Core
Turbo Clock
(GHz)
GPU Smart
Cache
Memory support TDP
Model Max.
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC
Core i9
10900X October 19, 2019 $590 10 (20) 3.7 4.7 4.3 19.25 MB DDR4-2933
quad-channel
No 165W
10920X $689 12 (24) 3.5 4.8 4.3
10940X $784 14 (28) 3.3 4.8 4.1
10980XE $979 18 (36) 3.0 4.8 3.8 24.75 MB

Ice Lake microarchitecture[edit]

Ice Lake is codename for Intel's 10th generation Intel Core processors, representing an enhancement of the 'Architecture' of the preceding generation Kaby Lake/Cannon Lake processors (as specified in Intel's process–architecture–optimization execution plan). As the successor to Cannon Lake, Ice Lake uses Intel's newer 10 nm+ fabrication process, and is powered by the Sunny Cove microarchitecture.

Ice Lake are the first Intel CPUs to feature in-silicon mitigations for the hardware vulnerabilities discovered in 2017, Meltdown and Spectre. These side-channel attacks exploit branch prediction's use of speculative execution. These exploits may cause the CPU to reveal cached private information which the exploiting process is not intended to be able to access as a form of timing attack.[citation needed]

Features[edit]

CPU[edit]
GPU[edit]
Package[edit]
  • 10 nm+ transistors
  • New memory controller with DDR4 3200 and LPDDR4X 3733 support
  • Integrated support for Wi-Fi 6 (802.11ax)
  • Thunderbolt 3 support[114]

Mobile processors (U-Series)[edit]

Processor
branding
Model Cores
(threads)
Base CPU
clock rate
Turbo clock GHz

Num of cores

GPU L3
cache
TDP cTDP Price
1 2 4 Series EUs Max clock
rate
Up Down
Core i7 1065G7 4 (8) 1.3 GHz 3.9 3.5 Iris Plus 64 1.1 GHz 8 MiB 15 W 25 W 12 W $426
Core i5 1035G7 1.2 GHz 3.7 3.3 1.05 GHz 6 MiB 15 W 25 W 12 W $320
1035G4 1.1 GHz 48 $309
1035G1 1.0 GHz 3.6 UHD 32 13 W $297
Core i3 1005G1 2 (4) 1.2 GHz 3.4 UHD 32 0.9 GHz 4 MiB 15 W 25 W 13 W $281

Mobile processors (Y-Series)[edit]

Processor
branding
Model Cores
(threads)
Base CPU
clock rate
Turbo clock GHz

Num of cores

GPU L3
cache
TDP cTDP Price
1 2 4 Series EUs Max clock
rate
Up Down
Core i7 1060G7 4 (8) 1.0 GHz 3.8 3.4 Iris Plus 64 1.1 GHz 8 MiB 9 W 12 W
Core i5 1030G7 0.8 GHz 3.5 3.2 Iris Plus 64 6 MiB 9 W 12 W
1030G4 0.7 GHz 48
Core i3 1000NG4 2 (4) 1.1 GHz 3.2 Iris Plus 48 0.9 GHz 4 MiB 9 W

1000G4

12 W
1000G1 UHD 32

Comet Lake[edit]

Comet Lake is Intel's codename for the fourth 14 nm Skylake process-refinement, following Whiskey Lake. Intel announced low power mobile Comet Lake CPUs availability on August 21, 2019.[115]

Architecture changes in Comet Lake-U compared to Whiskey Lake[edit]

  • Up to six CPU cores; L3 cache up to 12 MiB
  • Higher turbo frequencies
  • LPDDR4x 2933 memory support
  • Wi-Fi 6 AX201 support (Depends on PCH chipset)[116]
Increase in number of CPU cores in desktop 10th Generation processors
9th Generation
Coffee Lake
10th Generation
Comet Lake
Cores (Threads) Cores (Threads)
Core i3 4 (4) 4 (8)
Core i5 6 (6) 6 (12)
Core i7 8 (8) 8 (16)
Core i9 8 (16) 10 (20)

Comet Lake-S (Desktop Processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores
(threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
All-core
Turbo
(GHz)
Turbo
Boost
2.0
(GHz)
Turbo
Max 3.0
(GHz)
GPU Smart
cache
Memory support Power
Model Max.
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC TDP Turbo
Celeron
G5900 May 27, 2020 $42 2 (2) 3.4 UHD 610 1.15 2 MB DDR4-2666
dual-channel
No 58W
G5900T $42 3.2 35W 42W
G5905 $42 3.5 1.10 4 MB 58W
G5905T $42 3.3 1.05 35W 42W
G5920 $52 3.5 1.10 2 MB 58W
G5925 $52 3.6 1.10 4 MB
Pentium Gold
G6400 May 27, 2020 $64 2 (4) 4.0 UHD 610 1.15 4 MB DDR4-2666
dual-channel
No 58W
G6400T $64 3.4 35W 42W
G6500 $75 4.1 UHD 630 1.10 58W
G6500T $75 3.5 1.05 35W 42W
G6600 $86 4.2 1.10 58W
Core i3
10100 June 2, 2020 $122 4 (8) 3.6 4.1 4.3 UHD 630 1.3 6 MB DDR4-2666
dual-channel
No 65W 90W
10100F $79
10100T April 1, 2020 $122 3.0 3.5 3.8 UHD 630 1.10 35W 55W
10300 June 2, 2020 $143 3.7 4.2 4.4 1.15 8 MB 65W 90W
10300T April 1, 2020 $143 3.0 3.6 3.9 1.10 35W 92W
10320 May 20, 2020 OEM
$154
3.8 4.4 4.6 1.15 65W 90W
Core i5
10400 June 2, 2020 $182 6 (12) 2.9 4.0 4.3 UHD 630 1.3 12 MB DDR4-2666
dual-channel
No 65W 134W
10400F $157
10400T April 1, 2020 $182 2.0 3.2 3.6 UHD 630 1.10 35W 92W
10500 June 2, 2020 $192 3.1 4.2 4.5 1.15 65W 134W
10500T April 1, 2020 $192 2.3 3.5 3.8 35W 92W
10600 June 2, 2020 $213 3.3 4.4 4.8 1.20 65W 134W
10600K May 27, 2020 $262 4.1 4.5 4.8 125W 229W
10600KF $237
10600T April 1, 2020 $213 2.4 3.7 4.0 UHD 630 1.20 35W 92W
Core i7
10700 June 2, 2020 $323 8 (16) 2.9 4.6 4.7 4.8 UHD 630 1.20 16 MB DDR4-2933
dual-channel
No 65W 224W
10700F $298
10700K May 27, 2020 $374 3.8 4.7 5.0 5.1 UHD 630 1.20 125W 229W
10700KF $349
10700T April 1, 2020 $325 2.0 3.7 4.4 4.5 UHD 630 1.20 35W 123W
Core i9
10850K July 27, 2020 $453 10 (20) 3.6 4.8 5.0 5.1 UHD 630 1.20 20 MB DDR4-2933
dual-channel
No 125W 265W
10900 June 2, 2020 $438 2.8 4.5 5.0 5.1 65W 224W
10900F $422
10900K May 27, 2020 $488 3.7 4.8 5.1 5.2 UHD 630 1.20 125W 250W
10900KF $472
10900T April 1, 2020 $438 1.9 3.7 4.5 4.6 UHD 630 1.20 35W 123W
10910 May 20, 2020 OEM
$488
3.6 4.7 5.0 65W 250W

Mobile processors (H-Series)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores

(Threads)

CPU clock speed (GHz) GPU Smart
cache
Memory support TDP
Base Max Turbo Model Max freq.
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC Base Down Up
Core i5
10200H September 17, 2020 $250 4 (8) 2.4 4.1 UHD 610 1.05 8 MB DDR4-2933
dual-channel
No 45W 35W
10300H April 2020 2.5 4.5 UHD 630
10400H 2.6 4.6 1.10
10500H Q4 2020 6 (12) 2.5 4.5 1.05 12 MB
Core i7
10750H April 2020 $117 6 (12) 2.6 5.0 UHD 630 1.15 12 MB DDR4-2933
dual-channel
No 45W 35W
10850H $395 2.7 5.1
10870H September 2020 $417 8 (16) 2.2 5.0 1.20 16 MB
10875H April 2020 $450 2.3 5.1
Core i9
10885H April 2020 $556 8 (16) 2.4 5.3 UHD 630 1.25 16 MB DDR4-2933
dual-channel
No 45W 35W
10980HK $583 65W
Xeon W
10855M April 2020 $450 6 (12) 2.8 5.1 UHD 630 1.25 12 MB DDR4-2933
dual-channel
No 45W 35W
10885M $623 8 (16) 2.4 5.3 16 MB

Comet Lake-U (Mobile processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores

(Threads)

CPU clock speed (GHz) GPU Smart
cache
Memory support TDP
Base Max Turbo Model Max freq.
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC Base Down Up
Celeron
5205U October 31, 2019 $107 2 (2) 1.9 UHD 610 0.90 2 MB DDR4-2400
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 15W 12.5W
5305U April 1, 2020 2.3
Pentium Gold
6405U October 31, 2019 $161 2 (4) 2.4 UHD 610 0.95 2 MB DDR4-2400
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 15W 12.5W
Core i3
10110U August 21, 2019 $281 2 (4) 2.1 4.1 UHD 620 1.0 4 MB DDR4-2666
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 15W 10W 25W
Core i5
10210U August 21, 2019 $297 4 (8) 1.6 4.2 UHD 620 1.10 8 MB DDR4-2666
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 15W 10W 25W
10310U May 13, 2020 1.7 4.4 1.15
Core i7
10510U August 21, 2019 $409 4 (8) 1.8 4.9 UHD 620 1.15 8 MB DDR4-2666
LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 15W 10W 25W
10610U April 1, 2020
10710U August 21, 2019 $443 6 (12) 1.1 4.7 12 MB 12.5W
10810U April 1, 2020 1.1 4.9

Comet Lake Refresh microarchitecture[edit]

Desktop processors[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores

(Threads)

CPU clock speed
(GHz)
GPU Smart
cache
Memory support TDP
Base All-Core
Turbo
Turbo Boost
2.0
Model Max freq.
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC Base Down
Pentium Gold
G6405 March 31, 2021 $64 2 (4) 4.1 UHD 610 1.05 4 MB DDR4-2666
dual-channel
No 58W
G6405T $64 3.3 35W 25W
G6505 $75 4.2 UHD 630 1.10 58W
G6505T $75 3.6 1.05 35W 25W
G6605 $86 4.3 1.10 58W
Core i3
10105 March 31, 2021 $122 4 (8) 3.7 4.2 4.4 UHD 630 1.0 6 MB DDR4-2666
dual-channel
No 65W
10105F $97
10105T $122 3.0 3.6 3.9 UHD 630 1.0 35W 25W
10305 $143 3.8 4.3 4.5 1.15 8 MB 65W
10305T $143 3.0 3.7 4.0 1.0 35W 25W
10325 $154 3.9 4.5 4.6 1.15 65W
Core i5
10505 March 31, 2021 $192 6 (12) 3.2 4.3 4.6 UHD 630 1.20 12 MB DDR4-2666
dual-channel
No 65W


Amber Lake Refresh microarchitecture[edit]

Amber Lake-Y (Mobile processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores
(Threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Max Turbo
clock rate
(GHz)
GPU L3
cache
Socket Memory
support
TDP Configurable TDP
1 2 4 Model Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
LPDDR3 ECC Down Up
Core i3
10110Y August 21, 2019 $316 2 (4) 1.0 4.0 3.7 UHD
617
1.00 4 MB BGA 1377 LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 7W 9W 5.5W
Core i5
10210Y August 21, 2019 $321 4 (8) 1.0 4.0 2.7 UHD
617
1.05 6 MB BGA 1377 LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 7W 9W 4.5W
10310Y $292 1.1 4.1 2.8 5.5W
Core i7
10510Y August 21, 2019 $403 4 (8) 1.2 4.5 3.2 UHD
617
1.15 8 MB BGA 1377 LPDDR3-2133
dual-channel
No 7W 9W 4.5W

11th generation[edit]

Tiger Lake[edit]

Launched on September 2, 2020.

Architecture changes compared to Ice Lake[edit]

CPU[edit]

  • Intel Willow Cove CPU cores[117]
  • Larger level two and level three (L2/L3) caches
  • A new AVX-512 instruction: Vector Pair Intersection to a Pair of Mask Registers, VP2INTERSECT[118][119]
  • Control Flow Enforcement Technology to prevent Return Oriented Programming and Jump Oriented Programming hacking techniques[120]
  • Full memory (RAM) encryption[121]
  • Indirect branch tracking and shadow stack[122]
  • Intel Key Locker[123][124]
  • AVX/AVX2 instructions support for Pentium Gold and Celeron processors has been unlocked

GPU[edit]

I/O[edit]

  • PCIe 4.0[134] (Pentium and Celeron CPUs are limited to PCI Express 3.0)
  • Thunderbolt 4 (includes USB4)
  • LPDDR4X-4267 memory support
  • LPDDR5-5400 "architecture capability" (Intel expects Tiger Lake products with LPDDR5 to be available around Q1 2021)[135][136][137] Designs with LPDDR5 memory are yet to be announced as of March 2022.
  • Miniaturization of CPU and motherboard into an M.2 SSD-sized small circuit board[126]

Tiger Lake-H (Mobile processors)[edit]

  • All models support DDR4-3200 memory
  • All models support 20 reconfigurable PCI Express 4.0 lanes, allowing x16 Gen 4 link for discrete GPU and x4 Gen 4 link for M.2 SSDs
Processor

branding

Model Cores

(threads)

Base freq at TDP Max Turbo freq, active cores UHD Graphics Smart

cache

TDP Price
@35 W @45 W @65 W 1 or 2 4 6 All EUs Max freq
Core i9 11980HK 8 (16) 2.6 GHz 3.3 GHz 5.0 GHz 4.9 GHz 4.7 GHz 4.5 GHz 32 1.45 GHz 24 MB 45-65 W $583
11950H vPro 2.1 GHz No 35-45 W $556
11900H 2.5 GHz 4.9 GHz 4.8 GHz 4.6 GHz 4.4 GHz $546
Core i7 11850H vPro 4.8 GHz 4.8 GHz 4.6 GHz 4.3 GHz $395
11800H 1.9 GHz 2.3 GHz 4.6 GHz 4.5 GHz 4.4 GHz 4.2 GHz
Core i5 11500H vPro 6 (12) 2.4 GHz 2.9 GHz 4.6 GHz 4.4 GHz 4.2 GHz 12 MB $250
11400H 2.2 GHz 2.7 GHz 4.5 GHz 4.3 GHz 4.1 GHz 16
11260H 2.1 GHz 2.6 GHz 4.4 GHz 4.2 GHz 4.0 GHz 1.40 GHz

Tiger Lake-H35 (Mobile processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores
(Threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Max Turbo
clock rate
(GHz)
Iris Xe Graphics G7 L3
cache
Socket Memory
support
TDP Configurable TDP
1 2 4 EUs Max GPU
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC Down Up
Core i5
11300H January 11, 2021 $340 4 (8) 3.1 4.4 4.4 4.0 80 1.3 8 MB BGA 1449 DDR4-3200
LPDDR4x-4267
dual-channel
No 35W 28W
11320H June 21, 2021 3.2 4.5 4.5 4.3 96 1.35
Core i7
11370H January 11, 2021 $469 4 (8) 3.3 4.8 4.8 4.3 96 1.35 12 MB BGA 1449 DDR4-3200
LPDDR4x-4267
dual-channel
No 35W 28W
11375H $530 5.0 4.8 4.3
11390H June 21, 2021 $469 3.4 5.0 5.0 4.6 1.4

Mobile processors (UP3-class)[edit]

Processor

branding

Model Cores

(threads)

Base freq at TDP Max Turbo freq GPU Smart

cache

TDP Memory

support

Price
@12 W @15 W @28 W 1 Core All Cores Series EUs Max freq
Core i7 1195G7 4 (8) 1.3 GHz 2.9 GHz 5.0 GHz 4.6 GHz Iris Xe 96 1.40 GHz 12 MB 12-28 W DDR4-3200

LPDDR4X-4267

$426
1185G7 vPro 1.2 GHz 1.8 GHz[136] 3.0 GHz 4.8 GHz 4.3 GHz 1.35 GHz
1165G7 1.2 GHz 1.7 GHz 2.8 GHz 4.7 GHz 4.1 GHz 1.30 GHz
Core i5 1155G7 1.0 GHz 2.5 GHz 4.5 GHz 4.3 GHz 80 1.35 GHz 8 MB $309
1145G7 vPro 1.1 GHz 1.5 GHz 2.6 GHz 4.4 GHz 3.8 GHz 1.30 GHz
1135G7 0.9 GHz 1.4 GHz 2.4 GHz 4.2 GHz 3.8 GHz
Core i3 1125G4 2.0 GHz 3.7 GHz 3.3 GHz UHD 48 1.25 GHz DDR4-3200

LPDDR4X-3733

$281
1115G4 2 (4) 1.7 GHz 2.2 GHz 3.0 GHz 4.1 GHz 6 MB

Embedded mobile processors (UP3-class)[edit]

Processor

branding

Model Cores

(threads)

Base freq at TDP Max

Turbo freq

GPU Smart

cache

TDP Memory support Price
@12 W @15 W @28 W Series EUs Max freq Type ECC
Core i7 1185GRE vPro 4 (8) 1.2 GHz 1.8 GHz 2.8 GHz 4.4 GHz Iris Xe 96 1.35 GHz 12 MB 15 W DDR4-3200

LPDDR4X-4267

Yes $490
1185G7E vPro No $431
Core i5 1145GRE vPro 1.1 GHz 1.5 GHz 2.6 GHz 4.1 GHz 80 1.30 GHz 8 MB Yes $362
1145G7E vPro No $312
Core i3 1115GRE 2 (4) 1.7 GHz 2.2 GHz 3.0 GHz 3.9 GHz UHD 48 1.25 GHz 6 MB DDR4-3200

LPDDR4X-3733

Yes $338
1115G4E No $285

Mobile processors (UP4-class)[edit]

Processor

branding

Model Cores

(threads)

Base freq at TDP Max Turbo freq GPU Smart

cache

TDP Memory

support

Price
@7 W @9 W @15 W 1 Core All Cores Series EUs Max freq
Core i7 1180G7 vPro 4 (8) 0.9 GHz 2.2 GHz 4.6 GHz Iris Xe 96 1.10 GHz 12 MB 7-15 W LPDDR4X-4267 $426
1160G7 1.2 GHz 2.1 GHz 4.4 GHz 3.6 GHz
Core i5 1140G7 vPro 0.8 GHz 1.8 GHz 4.2 GHz 80 8 MB $309
1130G7 1.1 GHz 4.0 GHz 3.4 GHz
Core i3 1120G4 1.5 GHz 3.5 GHz 3.0 GHz UHD 48 $281
1110G4 2 (4) 1.5 GHz 1.8 GHz 2.5 GHz 3.9 GHz 6 MB

Tiger Lake-B (Desktop/tablet processors)[edit]

  • Socket: FCBGA1787, a BGA socket, thus these CPUs are meant only for system integrators
  • Intel Xe UHD Graphics
  • Up to 128 GB DDR4-3200 memory
  • Was initially incorrectly listed as having a 5.3 GHz TVB boost frequency.[138]
Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate
(GHz)
GPU Socket Smart
cache
Memory support TDP cTDP
Base Boost EUs Max.
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC Up Down
Core i3
11100B May 28, 2021 4 (8) 3.6 4.4 16 1.4 BGA 1787 12 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
No 65W 65W
Core i5
11500B May 28, 2021 6 (12) 3.3 4.6 32 1.45 BGA 1787 12 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
No 65W 65W
Core i7
11700B May 28, 2021 8 (16) 3.2 4.8 32 1.45 BGA 1787 24 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
No 65W 65W 55W
Core i9
11900KB May 28, 2021 $539 8 (16) 3.3 4.9 32 1.45 BGA 1787 24 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
No 65W 65W 55W

Rocket Lake microarchitecture[edit]

Rocket Lake is a codename for Intel's desktop x86 chip family based on the new Cypress Cove microarchitecture, a variant of Sunny Cove (used by Intel's Ice Lake mobile processors) backported to the older 14 nm process.[139] The chips are marketed as "Intel 11th generation Core" and launched on March 30, 2021.

Architecture changes in comparison with Comet Lake[edit]

CPU[edit]

GPU[edit]

I/O[edit]


Comparison of core counts in Comet Lake and Rocket Lake
10th Generation
Comet Lake
11th Generation
Rocket Lake
Cores (Threads) Cores (Threads)
Core i3 4 (8)
Core i5 6 (12) 6 (12)
Core i7 8 (16) 8 (16)
Core i9 10 (20) 8 (16)

Rocket lake-S (Desktop processors)[edit]

  • All CPUs listed below support DDR4-3200 natively. The Core i9 K/KF processors enable a 1:1 ratio of DRAM to memory controller by default at DDR4-3200, whereas the Core i9 non K/KF and all other CPUs listed below enable a 2:1 ratio of DRAM to memory controller by default at DDR4-3200 and a 1:1 ratio by default at DDR4-2933.[152]
  • All CPUs support up to 128 GB of RAM in dual-channel mode
  • Core i9 CPUs (except 11900T) support Intel Thermal Velocity Boost technology
Model Release date Price
(USD)
Cores
(Threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
All-core
Turbo
(GHz)
Turbo
Boost
2.0
(GHz)
Turbo
Max 3.0
(GHz)
GPU Smart
cache
Memory support Power
Model Max.
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 ECC TDP Turbo
Core i5
11400 March 30, 2021 $182 6 (12) 2.6 4.2 4.4 UHD 730 1.3 12 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
No 65W 154W
11400F $157
11400T April 2021 $182 1.3 3.3 3.7 UHD 730 1.2 35W 84W
11500 March 30, 2021 $192 2.7 4.2 4.6 UHD 750 1.3 65W 154W
11500T April 2021 $192 1.5 3.4 3.9 1.2 35W 84W
11600 March 30, 2021 $213 2.8 4.3 4.8 1.3 65W 154W
11600K $262 3.9 4.6 4.9 125W 224W
11600KF $237
11600T April 2021 $213 1.7 3.5 4.1 UHD 750 1.3 35W 84W
Core i7
11700 March 30, 2021 $323 8 (16) 2.5 4.4 4.8 4.9 UHD 750 1.3 16 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
No 65W 224W
11700F $298
11700K $399 3.6 4.6 4.9 5.0 UHD 750 1.3 125W 251W
11700KF $374
11700T April 2021 $323 1.4 3.6 4.5 4.6 UHD 750 1.3 35W 115W
Core i9
11900 March 30, 2021 $439 8 (16) 2.5 4.7 5.0 5.1 UHD 750 1.30 16 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
No 65W 224W
11900F $464
11900K $539 3.5 4.8 5.1 5.2 UHD 750 1.30 125W 251W
11900KF $564
11900T April 2021 $439 1.5 3.7 4.5 4.6 UHD 750 1.30 35W 115W

12th generation[edit]

Alder Lake[edit]

Alder Lake is Intel's codename for the 12th generation of Intel Core processors based on a hybrid architecture utilizing Golden Cove high-performance cores and Gracemont power-efficient cores.[153]

It is fabricated using Intel's Intel 7 process.

Intel officially announced 12th Gen Intel Core CPUs on October 27, 2021, and was launched to the market on November 4, 2021.[154]

Architecture changes in comparison to Rocket Lake[edit]

CPU[edit]
  • Golden Cove high-performance "Performance-cores" (P-cores)
    • Dedicated floating-point adders[155]
    • New 6-wide instruction decoder (up from 4-wide in Rocket Lake/Tiger Lake) with the ability to fetch up to 32 bytes of instructions per cycle (up from 16)[155]
    • 12 execution ports (up from 10)
    • 512 reorder-buffer entries (up from 384)
    • 6-wide μOP allocations (up from 5)
    • μOP cache size increased to 4K entries (up from 2.25K)
    • AVX-VNNI, a VEX-coded variant of AVX512-VNNI for 256-bit vectors
    • AVX-512 (including FP16) is present but disabled by default to match E-cores. It still can be enabled on some motherboards by disabling the E-cores [155][156]
    • ~18% IPC uplift.[157]
  • Gracemont high-efficiency "Efficient-cores" (E-cores)
    • E-cores are organized in 4-core modules; L2 cache is shared between E-cores within a module
    • 256 reorder-buffer entries (up from 208 in Tremont)
    • 17 execution ports (up from 12)
    • AVX2, FMA and AVX-VNNI to catch up with P-cores
    • Skylake-like IPC.[157]
  • new instruction set extensions[158]
  • up to 1 TB/s interconnect between cores[155]
  • Intel Thread Director (Scalable Hybrid Arch Scheduling), a hardware technology to assist the OS thread scheduler with more efficient load distribution between heterogeneous CPU cores.[136] Enabling this new capability requires support in operating systems. Microsoft added support for Thread Director to Windows 11,[155][159] while support to Linux is expected to come with kernel 5.18.[160]
  • up to 30 MB L3 cache[155]
  • nomenclature:
    • up to 8 P-cores and 8 E-cores on desktop[157]
    • up to 6 P-cores and 8 E-cores on mobile (UP3 designs)[157]
    • up to 2 P-cores and 8 E-cores on ultra mobile (UP4 designs)[157]
  • only P-cores feature Hyper-threading
GPU[edit]
  • Intel Xe (Gen12.2) GPU
  • up to 96 EU on mobile and 32 EU on desktop[155]
I/O[edit]

Alder Lake-S (Desktop processors)[edit]

  • All the CPUs support up to 128 GB of DDR4-3200 or DDR5-4800 RAM in dual-channel mode.[164]
  • Some models feature integrated UHD Graphics 770, UHD Graphics 730 or UHD Graphics 710 GPU with 32/24/16 EUs and base frequency of 300 MHz.
  • By default, Alder Lake CPUs are configured to run at Turbo Power at all times and Base Power is only guaranteed when P-Cores/E-cores do not exceed the base clock rate.[155]
  • Max Turbo Power: the maximum sustained (> 1 s) power dissipation of the processor as limited by current and/or temperature controls. Instantaneous power may exceed Maximum Turbo Power for short durations (≤ 10 ms). Maximum Turbo Power is configurable by system vendor and can be system specific.

*By default, Core i9-12900KS achieves 5.5 GHz only when using Thermal Velocity Boost[165]

Model Release date Price
(USD)[a]
Cores
(threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo
Boost
2.0
(GHz)
Turbo
Max 3.0
(GHz)
GPU Smart
cache
Memory support[b] Power
P E P E P E P Model Max.
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 DDR5 ECC Base Turbo
Core i3
12100 January 4, 2022 $134 4 (8) 3.3 4.3 UHD 730 1.4 12 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
dual-channel
No 60W 89W
12100F $107 58W
12100T $134 2.1 4.6 UHD 730 1.45 35W 69W
12300 $157 3.5 4.4 60W 89W
12300T $157 2.3 4.2 35W 69W
Core i5
12400 January 4, 2022 $211 6 (12) 2.5 4.4 UHD 730 1.45 18 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
dual-channel
No 65W 117W
12400F $184
12400T $211 2.1 4.6 UHD 730 1.45 35W 74W
12490F China
exclusive
$207
2.1 4.6 20 MB 65W 117W
12500 $222 3.0 4.6 UHD 770 1.45 18 MB Yes
12500T $222 2.0 4.4 35W 74W
12600 $245 3.3 4.8 65W 117W
12600K November 4, 2021 $318 4 (4) 3.7 2.8 4.9 3.6 20 MB 125W 150W
12600KF $290 No
12600T January 4, 2022 $245 2.1 4.6 UHD 770 1.45 18 MB Yes 35W 74W
Core i7
12700 January 4, 2022 $373 8 (16) 4 (4) 2.1 1.6 4.8 3.6 4.9 UHD 770 1.5 30 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
dual-channel
Yes 65W 180W
12700F $345 No
12700K November 4, 2021 $450 3.6 2.7 4.9 3.8 5.0 UHD 770 1.5 Yes 125W 190W
12700KF $422 No
12700T February 4, 2022 $373 1.4 1.0 4.6 3.4 4.7 UHD 770 1.5 Yes 35W 99W
Core i9
12900 January 4, 2022 $538 8 (16) 8 (8) 2.4 1.8 5.0 3.8 5.5 UHD 770 1.55 30 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
dual-channel
Yes 65W 202W
12900F $510 No
12900K November 4, 2021 $648 3.2 2.4 5.1 3.9 5.1 UHD 770 1.55 Yes 125W 241W
12900KF $620 No
12900KS April 5, 2022 $813 3.4 2.5 5.2 4.0 5.3 UHD 770 1.55 Yes 150W
12900T February 4, 2022 $538 1.4 1.0 4.8 3.6 4.9 35W 106W
  1. ^ Price reflects Recommended Customer Price (RCP) rather than MSRP. RCP is the cost per unit, in bulk sales of 1000 units or more, to OEMs, ODMs, and retail outlets when purchasing from Intel. Actual MSRP is higher than RCP
  2. ^ Up to 128 GB RAM supported

Alder Lake-H (High-performance Mobile Processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)[a]
Cores
(threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo
Boost
2.0
(GHz)
Iris Xe Graphics Smart
cache
Memory support[b] Power
P E P E P E EUs Max.
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 DDR5 ECC Base Turbo
Core i5
12450H January 4, 2022 $342 4 (8) 4 (4) 2.0 1.5 4.4 3.3 48 1.20 12 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
dual-channel
No 45W 95W
12500H 8 (8) 2.5 1.8 4.5 80 1.30 18 MB
12600H $311 8 (8) 2.7 2.0 1.40
Core i7
12650H January 4, 2022 $502 6 (12) 4 (4) 2.3 1.7 4.7 3.5 64 1.40 24 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
dual-channel
No 45W 115W
12700H 8 (8) 96
12800H $457 2.4 1.8 4.8 3.7
Core i9
12900H January 4, 2022 $617 8 (16) 8 (8) 2.5 1.8 5.0 3.8 96 1.45 24 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
dual-channel
No 45W 115W
12900HK $697
  1. ^ Price reflects Recommended Customer Price (RCP) rather than MSRP. RCP is the cost per unit, in bulk sales of 1000 units or more, to OEMs, ODMs, and retail outlets when purchasing from Intel. Actual MSRP is higher than RCP
  2. ^ Up to 64 GB RAM supported


Alder Lake-HX (Extreme-Performance Mobile Processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)[a]
Cores
(threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo
Boost
2.0
(GHz)
UHD Graphics Smart
cache
Memory support[b] Power
P E P E P E EUs Max.
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 DDR5 ECC Base Turbo
Core i5
12450HX May 10, 2022 $312 4 (8) 4 (4) 2.4 1.8 4.4 3.1 16 1.30 12 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
dual-channel
No 55W 157W
12600HX $284 8 (8) 2.5 4.6 3.3 32 1.35 18 MB Yes
Core i7
12650HX May 10, 2022 $472 6 (12) 8 (8) 2.0 1.5 4.7 3.3 32 1.45 24 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
dual-channel
No 55W 157W
12800HX $502 8 (16) 4.8 3.4 25 MB
12850HK $428 2.1 Yes
Core i9
12900HX May 10, 2022 $668 8 (16) 8 (8) 2.3 1.7 5.0 3.6 32 1.55 30 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
dual-channel
No 55W 157W
12950HK $590 Yes
  1. ^ Price reflects Recommended Customer Price (RCP) rather than MSRP. RCP is the cost per unit, in bulk sales of 1000 units or more, to OEMs, ODMs, and retail outlets when purchasing from Intel. Actual MSRP is higher than RCP
  2. ^ Up to 64 GB RAM supported


Alder Lake-P (Low Power Performance Mobile Processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)[a]
Cores
(threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo
Boost
2.0
(GHz)
Iris Xe Graphics Smart
cache
Memory support[b] Power
P E P E P E EUs Max.
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 DDR5 ECC Base Turbo
Core i3
1220P February 23, 2022 $309 2 (4) 8 (8) 1.5 1.1 4.4 3.3 64 1.10 12 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
dual-channel
No 28W 64W
Core i5
1240P February 23, 2022 $353 4 (8) 8 (8) 1.7 1.2 4.4 3.3 80 1.30 12 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
dual-channel
No 28W 64W
1250P $320 1.40
Core i7
1260P February 23, 2022 $480 4 (8) 8 (8) 2.1 1.5 4.8 3.4 96 1.40 18 MB DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
dual-channel
No 28W 64W
1270P $438 2.2 1.6 3.5
1280P $482 6 (12) 1.8 1.3 3.6 1.45 24 MB
  1. ^ Price reflects Recommended Customer Price (RCP) rather than MSRP. RCP is the cost per unit, in bulk sales of 1000 units or more, to OEMs, ODMs, and retail outlets when purchasing from Intel. Actual MSRP is higher than RCP
  2. ^ Up to 64 GB RAM supported


Alder Lake-U (Ultra Low Power Mobile Processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)[a]
Cores
(threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo
Boost
2.0
(GHz)
Iris Xe Graphics Smart
cache
Memory support[b] Power
P E P E P E EUs Max.
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 DDR5 ECC Base Turbo
Core i3
1210U February 23, 2022 2 (4) 4 (4) 1.0 0.7 4.4 3.3 64 0.85 10 MB LPDDR4x-4267
dual-channel
LPDDR5-5200
dual-channel
No 9W 29W
1215U $309 1.2 0.9 1.1 DDR4-3200
LPDDR4x-4267
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
LPDDR5-5200
dual-channel
15W 55W
Core i5
1230U February 23, 2022 $340 2 (4) 8 (8) 1.0 0.7 4.4 3.3 80 0.9 12 MB LPDDR4x-4267
dual-channel
LPDDR5-5200
dual-channel
No 9W 29W
1235U $340 1.3 0.9 1.2 15W 55W
1240U 1.1 0.8 0.9 9W 29W
1245U $309 1.6 1.2 1.2 15W 55W
Core i7
1250U February 23, 2022 $469 2 (4) 8 (8) 1.1 0.8 4.4 3.3 96 0.9 12 MB LPDDR4x-4267
dual-channel
LPDDR5-5200
dual-channel
No 9W 29W
1255U $469 1.7 1.2 1.25 DDR4-3200
LPDDR4x-4267
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
LPDDR5-5200
dual-channel
15W 55W
1260U 1.1 0.8 0.9 LPDDR4x-4267
dual-channel
LPDDR5-5200
dual-channel
9W 29W
1265U $426 1.8 1.3 4.8 3.6 1.25 DDR4-3200
LPDDR4x-4267
dual-channel
DDR5-4800
LPDDR5-5200
dual-channel
15W 55W
  1. ^ Price reflects Recommended Customer Price (RCP) rather than MSRP. RCP is the cost per unit, in bulk sales of 1000 units or more, to OEMs, ODMs, and retail outlets when purchasing from Intel. Actual MSRP is higher than RCP
  2. ^ Up to 64 GB RAM supported

13th generation[edit]

Raptor Lake[edit]

Raptor Lake is Intel's codename for the 13th generation of Intel Core processors and the second generation based on a hybrid architecture.[166] It is fabricated using Intel's Intel 7 process.

Raptor Lake-S (Desktop processors)[edit]

Model Release date Price
(USD)[a]
Cores
(Threads)
Base
clock rate
(GHz)
Turbo
Boost
2.0
(GHz)
Turbo
Max 3.0
(GHz)
GPU Smart
cache

(L3)
Socket Memory support[b] Power
P E P E P E P Model Max.
clock rate
(GHz)
DDR4 DDR5 ECC Base Turbo
Core i5
13600K October 20, 2022 $319 6 (12) 8 (8) 3.5 2.6 5.1 3.9 UHD 770 1.55 24 MB LGA 1700 DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-5600
dual-channel
Yes 125W 181W
13600KF $294 No
Core i7
13700K October 20, 2022 $409 8 (16) 8 (8) 3.4 2.5 5.3 4.2 5.4 UHD 770 1.6 30 MB LGA 1700 DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-5600
dual-channel
Yes 125W 253W
13700KF $384 No
Core i9
13900K October 20, 2022 $589 8 (16) 16 (16) 3.0 2.2 5.7 4.3 5.8 UHD 770 1.65 36 MB LGA 1700 DDR4-3200
dual-channel
DDR5-5600
dual-channel
Yes 125W 253W
13900KF $564 No
  1. ^ Price reflects Recommended Customer Price (RCP) rather than MSRP. RCP is the cost per unit, in bulk sales of 1000 units or more, to OEMs, ODMs, and retail outlets when purchasing from Intel. Actual MSRP is higher than RCP
  2. ^ Up to 128 GB RAM supported

See also[edit]

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External links[edit]

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