Indiana County, Pennsylvania

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Indiana County
Indiana County Courthouse
Indiana County Courthouse
Map of Pennsylvania highlighting Indiana County
Location within the U.S. state of Pennsylvania
Map of the United States highlighting Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 40°39′N 79°05′W / 40.65°N 79.09°W / 40.65; -79.09
Country United States
State Pennsylvania
FoundedNovember 3, 1806
SeatIndiana
Largest boroughIndiana
Area
 • Total834 sq mi (2,160 km2)
 • Land827 sq mi (2,140 km2)
 • Water7.3 sq mi (19 km2)  0.9%
Population
 • Estimate 
(2018)
84,503
 • Density105/sq mi (41/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district15th
Websitewww.indianacountypa.gov

Indiana County is a county in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It is located in the west central part of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 88,880.[1] Its county seat is Indiana.[2] Indiana County comprises the Indiana, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-WV-OH Combined Statistical Area.

Prior to the Revolutionary War, some settlers proposed this as part of a larger, separate colony to be known as Vandalia, but opposing interests and the war intervened. Afterward, claims to the territory by both the states of Virginia and Pennsylvania had to be reconciled. After this land was assigned to Pennsylvania by the federal government according to the placement of the Mason–Dixon line, Indiana County was created on March 30, 1803, from parts of Westmoreland and Clearfield counties and was formally organized in 1806.[3]

History[edit]

Indiana County (Indiana meaning "land of the Indians") derives its name from the so-called "Indiana Grant of 1768" that the Iroquois Six Nations were forced to make to "suffering traders" under the Fort Stanwix Treaty of 1768. The Iroquois had controlled much of the Ohio River valley as their hunting grounds since the 17th century, and Anglo-American colonists were moving into the area and wanted to develop it. Traders arranged to force the Iroquois to grant land under the treaty in relations to losses due to Pontiac's Rebellion.[4]

Some of the grantees joined forces with the Ohio Company, forming a larger development company based on enlarging their grant of land. They proposed that the entire large area would become a new British colony, possibly to be called Pittsylvania or Vandalia. It was to be bordered on the north and west by the Ohio River, and made up of what are now parts of eastern Kentucky, northern West Virginia (then part of the Virginia Colony), and western Pennsylvania. Anglo-European colonists from Virginia and Pennsylvania had already started to move into the area, which was identified by these various names as Indiana and the other above names on some maps of the late 1700s.[5][4]

Opposition from other interest groups[6] and the American Revolutionary War intervened before Britain approved such a colony. Afterward, some United States speculators proposed setting up a state in this area to be called Vandalia, or Westsylvania, as appears on some maps of the period.

But both the states of Virginia and Pennsylvania claimed the land based on their colonial charters. In establishing the Mason–Dixon line, the federal government assigned the Indiana Grant to Pennsylvania.[5] As population increased after the war, this county was made up in 1803 of territory from Westmoreland and Clearfield counties; it was formally organized in 1806.[3]

Kentucky and West Virginia continued to be associated with Virginia for some time, being separately admitted as states in the early 19th century and during the American Civil War, respectively. The area in Pennsylvania was unrelated to and was physically separated from the later named Indiana Territory established north of the Ohio River in 1800 by the new United States; that territory was eventually admitted to the Union as the State of Indiana.

Indiana County was known as a "hotbed of abolition", and was home to at least two African Methodist Episcopal Zion churches as well as other anti-slavery Protestants such as Wesleyan Methodists and Baptists.[7] It was also in Indiana, local abolitionist leader James Moorhead published several anti-slavery newspapers.[8] The first of these was The Clarion of Freedom, founded in 1843. Moorhead eventually sold the Clarion and founded a new anti-slavery paper, the Indiana Independent, which he published until his death in 1857. The Independent was published by his son J. W. Moorhead after his death. Blairsville was home to another abolitionist newspaper, The Appalachian, which was pro-Free Soil from 1848.

Indiana County was an active hub of the Underground Railroad.[7] At least 90 county residents are known to have been conductors or agents, guiding fugitive slaves between hiding places on their way to freedom in Canada.[9]

In the 21st century, Indiana County comprises the Indiana, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area. This is included in the Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-WV-OH Combined Statistical Area.[10] It is in the defined region of the Pittsburgh media market. Indiana County is served by three different area codes: 724, 814, and 582.

The county proclaims itself the "Christmas Tree Capital of the World", shipping over one million trees annually.[11] Agriculture is a major part of its economy.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 834 square miles (2,160 km2), of which 827 square miles (2,140 km2) is land and 7.3 square miles (19 km2) (0.9%) is water.[12] Located in the county is the Buttermilk Falls Natural Area.[13] The county has a humid continental climate which is warm-summer (Dfb) except along the Conemaugh from below Strangford and the Kiskiminetas River where it is hot-summer (Dfa). Average monthly temperatures in the borough of Indiana range from 27.2 °F in January to 70.9 °F in July. [1]

Adjacent counties[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18106,214
18208,88242.9%
183014,25260.5%
184020,78245.8%
185027,17030.7%
186033,68724.0%
187036,1387.3%
188040,52712.1%
189042,1754.1%
190042,5560.9%
191066,21055.6%
192080,91022.2%
193075,395−6.8%
194079,8545.9%
195077,106−3.4%
196075,366−2.3%
197079,4515.4%
198092,28116.1%
199089,994−2.5%
200089,605−0.4%
201088,880−0.8%
202083,246−6.3%
[14]

Demographics[edit]

As of the census[15] of 2000, there were 89,605 people, 34,123 households, and 22,521 families residing in the county. The population density was 108 people per square mile (42/km2). There were 37,250 housing units at an average density of 45 per square mile (17/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 96.87% White, 1.57% Black or African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, and 0.58% from two or more races. 0.51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.9% were of German, 11.6% Italian, 10.7% Irish, 8.6% American, 7.1% English and 6.8% Polish ancestry.

There were 34,123 households, out of which 27.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.30% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.00% were non-families. 26.50% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 21.10% under the age of 18, 16.60% from 18 to 24, 24.80% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, and 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.60 males.

2020 Census[edit]

Indiana County Racial Composition[16]
Race Num. Perc.
White (NH) 75,718 91%
Black or African American (NH) 2,409 2.9%
Native American (NH) 116 0.14%
Asian (NH) 816 1%
Pacific Islander (NH) 7 0.01%
Other/Mixed (NH) 2,704 3.25%
Hispanic or Latino 1,476 1.77%

Micropolitan Statistical Area[edit]

Map of the Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-OH-WV Combined Statistical Area (CSA)

The United States Office of Management and Budget[17] has designated Indiana County as the Indiana, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area (µSA). As of the 2010 U.S. Census[18] the micropolitan area ranked 4th most populous in the State of Pennsylvania and the 50th most populous in the United States with a population of 88,880. Indiana County is also a part of the Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-OH-WV Combined Statistical Area (CSA), which combines the population of Indiana, as well as the Allegheny, Armstrong, Beaver, Butler, Fayette, Lawrence, Washington and Westmoreland county areas in Pennsylvania. In West Virginia the counties included are Brooke and Hancock. And in Ohio, Jefferson County. The Combined Statistical Area ranked 4th in the State of Pennsylvania and 20th most populous in the United States with a population of 2,660,727.

Government and politics[edit]

Indiana County has been strongly Republican in presidential elections for most of its history, only backing Democratic party candidates four times in presidential elections from 1880 to the present day.

United States presidential election results for Indiana County, Pennsylvania[19]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 28,089 68.03% 12,634 30.60% 566 1.37%
2016 24,888 65.29% 11,528 30.24% 1,706 4.48%
2012 21,257 58.33% 14,473 39.71% 714 1.96%
2008 19,727 52.88% 17,065 45.75% 510 1.37%
2004 20,254 55.88% 15,831 43.67% 163 0.45%
2000 16,799 53.50% 13,667 43.52% 935 2.98%
1996 12,874 42.10% 13,868 45.35% 3,841 12.56%
1992 10,966 32.92% 15,194 45.61% 7,154 21.47%
1988 14,983 47.21% 16,514 52.03% 242 0.76%
1984 18,845 54.22% 15,791 45.43% 123 0.35%
1980 15,607 49.62% 13,828 43.97% 2,016 6.41%
1976 15,786 51.01% 14,650 47.34% 513 1.66%
1972 18,122 61.90% 10,833 37.01% 319 1.09%
1968 14,899 51.03% 12,175 41.70% 2,122 7.27%
1964 11,706 39.92% 17,568 59.92% 46 0.16%
1960 18,756 58.59% 13,174 41.15% 83 0.26%
1956 18,593 62.27% 11,268 37.73% 0 0.00%
1952 16,673 58.63% 11,620 40.86% 147 0.52%
1948 12,640 59.67% 8,543 40.33% 0 0.00%
1944 14,388 61.42% 8,863 37.83% 175 0.75%
1940 15,547 56.23% 12,035 43.53% 68 0.25%
1936 16,530 51.37% 15,353 47.71% 294 0.91%
1932 12,727 57.24% 8,606 38.70% 902 4.06%
1928 16,706 76.75% 4,810 22.10% 252 1.16%
1924 12,748 69.75% 2,067 11.31% 3,462 18.94%
1920 8,616 71.84% 1,936 16.14% 1,441 12.02%
1916 4,887 57.65% 2,398 28.29% 1,192 14.06%
1912 1,720 20.21% 1,593 18.72% 5,197 61.07%
1908 6,416 67.44% 1,965 20.65% 1,133 11.91%
1904 6,878 77.25% 1,558 17.50% 468 5.26%
1900 5,687 72.25% 1,767 22.45% 417 5.30%
1896 5,818 66.11% 2,752 31.27% 231 2.62%
1892 4,559 61.18% 2,134 28.64% 759 10.19%
1888 5,084 62.83% 2,231 27.57% 777 9.60%

As of the 2016 primary election held April 26, 2016, there were 48,710 registered voters across Indiana County's 69 precincts: 20,089 Democrats (41.24%); 22,134 Republicans (45.44%); and 6,487 Independents (13.32%).[20] This represents a slight demographic shift since November 2008, when a total of 58,077 registered voters were 45.89% (26,653) Democrat, 41.60% (24,159) Republican, and 12.51% (7,265) Independent.[21]

County commissioners[edit]

  • Michael Keith, Chairman, Republican
  • Robin Gorman, Republican
  • Sherene Hess, Democrat

Other county offices[edit]

  • Coroner, Jerry L Overman Jr, Republican
  • District Attorney, Robert Manzi, Republican
  • Prothonotary, Randy Degenkolb, Republican
  • Recorder of Deeds and Register of Wills, Maria Jack, Republican
  • Sheriff, Robert Fyock, Republican
  • Treasurer, Kimberly McCullough, Republican
  • Board of Auditors, Donna Cupp, Republican; Bonni S. Dunlap, Ph.D., Republican; James P. Smith Jr., Democrat

State representatives[22][edit]

State senator[22][edit]

United States representative[edit]

United States senators[edit]

Education[edit]

Map of Indiana County, Pennsylvania Public School Districts

Public school districts[edit]

Post-secondary education[edit]

Environment[edit]

In 2003, the county was recommended for non-attainment under EPA ozone standards based upon mobile source contribution to smog-forming emissions.[23]

The county is the site of the Homer City Generating Station, a coal-burning power plant. In 2002 the plant was ranked as second in emissions in the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) in Pennsylvania.[24] In 2003, the plant ranked high in the emissions of both sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, ranking 4th and 28th, respectively, in the nation.[25] Such toxic emissions are injurious to people and other living things.

Communities[edit]

Map of Indiana County, Pennsylvania with Municipal Labels showing Boroughs (red), Townships (white), and Census-designated places (blue).

Under Pennsylvania law, there are four types of incorporated municipalities: cities, boroughs, townships, and, in at most two cases, towns. The following boroughs and townships are located in Indiana County:

Boroughs[edit]

Townships[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Census-designated places are geographical areas designated by the U.S. Census Bureau for the purposes of compiling demographic data. They are not actual jurisdictions under Pennsylvania law. Other unincorporated communities, such as villages, may be listed here as well.

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Population ranking[edit]

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Indiana County.[18]

* county seat

Rank City/Town/etc. Municipal type Population (2010 Census)
1 * Indiana Borough 13,975
2 Blairsville Borough 3,412
3 Homer City Borough 1,707
4 Chevy Chase Heights CDP 1,502
5 Black Lick CDP 1,462
6 Clymer Borough 1,357
7 Lucerne Mines CDP 937
8 Saltsburg Borough 873
9 Heilwood CDP 711
10 Rossiter CDP 646
11 Jacksonville CDP 637
12 Robinson CDP 614
13 Dixonville CDP 467
14 Ernest Borough 462
15 Marion Center Borough 451
16 Cherry Tree Borough 364
17 Commodore CDP 331
18 Coral CDP 325
19 Creekside Borough 309
20 Plumville Borough 307
21 Graceton CDP 257
22 Glen Campbell Borough 245
23 Shelocta Borough 130
24 Armagh Borough 122
25 Smicksburg Borough 46

Notable natives and residents[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ a b "Pennsylvania: Individual County Chronologies". Pennsylvania Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2008. Archived from the original on March 25, 2015. Retrieved March 12, 2015.
  4. ^ a b Anderson, James Donald, "Vandalia: The First West Virginia?" West Virginia History, Volume 40, No. 4 (Summer 1979), pp. 375-92 online
  5. ^ a b David W. Miller. The Taking of American Indian Lands in the Southeast: A History of Territorial Cessions and Forced Relocations, 1607-1840. McFarland, 2011. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7864-6277-3
  6. ^ Gipson, Lawrence Henry, The British Empire Before the American Revolution, 15 vols. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1946-1970, IX 457-88
  7. ^ a b Archives, Special Collections and University; Stapleton Library, Room 302 431 South Eleventh Street Indiana; Phone: 724-357-3039; Fax: 724-357-4891. "Indiana County and the Underground Railroad". Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
  8. ^ Archives, Special Collections and University; Stapleton Library, Room 302 431 South Eleventh Street Indiana; Phone: 724-357-3039; Fax: 724-357-4891. "Antislavery Newspapers". Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
  9. ^ "Our UGRR Conductors & Incidents". Blairsville Area Underground Railroad. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
  10. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Office of Management and Budget. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 21, 2017. Retrieved January 4, 2017 – via National Archives.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ "'Tis the season for tree farmers". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. December 20, 2004. Archived from the original on October 22, 2006. Retrieved May 16, 2006.
  12. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
  13. ^ "Buttermilk Falls Natural Area". Indiana County Parks and Trails.
  14. ^ "Census 2020".
  15. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  16. ^ "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE – 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) – Indiana County, Pennsylvania".
  17. ^ "Office of Management and Budget". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  18. ^ a b "2010 U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
  19. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  20. ^ 2016 Primary Election Results Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Official Website. 2016 Unofficial Election Results. Retrieved on September 5, 2016.
  21. ^ Running for Office Archived November 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Dos.state.pa.us. Retrieved on July 23, 2013.
  22. ^ a b Center, Legislativate Data Processing. "Find Your Legislator". The official website for the Pennsylvania General Assembly. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  23. ^ "Figure 3. Mobile Source Contribution to Smog-Forming Emissions in Counties Recommended for Nonattainment under New EPA Ozone Standards". Surface Transportation Policy Project. April 16, 2004. Archived from the original on September 27, 2006. Retrieved May 16, 2006.
  24. ^ "Pa. ranks among worst states for toxic emissions". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. November 18, 2002. Archived from the original on May 24, 2007. Retrieved May 16, 2006.
  25. ^ Environmental Integrity Project & Public Citizen’s Congress Watch (May 2004). "America's Dirtiest Power Plants: Plugged into the Bush Administration" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 13, 2006. Retrieved May 16, 2006. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 40°39′N 79°05′W / 40.65°N 79.09°W / 40.65; -79.09