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|Islam and Iman|
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Iman (Arabic: إِيمَان, romanized: ʾīmān, lit. 'faith' or 'belief', also 'recognition') in Islamic theology denotes a believer's recognition of faith and deeds in the religious aspects of Islam. Its most simple definition is the belief in the six articles of faith, known as arkān al-īmān.
The term iman has been delineated in both the Quran and hadith. According to the Quran, iman must be accompanied by righteous deeds and the two together are necessary for entry into Paradise. In the hadith, iman in addition to Islam and ihsan form the three dimensions of the Islamic religion.
There exists a debate both within and outside Islam on the link between faith and reason in religion, and the relative importance of either. Some scholars contend that faith and reason spring from the same source and must be harmonious.[page needed]
Definition and meaning
In a hadith, the Islamic prophet Muhammad defined iman as "an acknowledgement in the heart, a voicing with the tongue, and an activity with the limbs." Faith is confidence in a real truth. When people have confidence, they submit themselves to that truth. It is not sufficient just to know the truth, but the recognition of the heart should be expressed by the tongue which is the manifestation of intelligence and at last to reflect this confidence in their activities.
Hamiduddin Farahi, while explaining the meaning of iman in his exegesis, wrote:
The root of imān isinn. It is used in various shades of meaning. One of its derivatives is mu'min, which is among the noble names of Allah because He gives peace to those who seek His refuge. This word is also an ancient religious term. Hence the certitude which exists with humility, trust and all the conditions and corollaries of adherence to a view is called imān and he who professes faith in Allah, in His signs and His directives and submits himself to Him and is pleased with all His decisions is a mu'min.
The definition of iman according to Ahl al-Sunnah wa'l-Jama'ah is:
Giving recognition with the heart, saying with the tongue, and doing with the limbs; it increases with obedience and decreases with sins.
- Ibn 'Abd al-Barr said:
The people of jurisprudence and hadith are unanimous that Iman is speech and action, and there is no action except with the intention.
- Al-Shafi'i said in Kitab al-Umm:
- Muhammad bin Ismail bin Muhammad bin Al-Fadl Al-Taymi Al-Asbhani said:
And Iman in the language of the law is ratification with the heart, and action with the limbs.
- Sufyan ibn 'Uyaynah said:
Iman is saying and deed, it increases and decreases.
- Al-Ash'ari said:
They are unanimously agreed that Iman (recognition) increases with obedience and decreases with sins, and its deficiency does not mean that we doubt about what we are commanded to believe in, nor our ignorance of it, because that is Kufr or rejection from the religion, instead it is a decrease in the rank of knowledge or mind and an increase in our sayings, similar to that, the weight of our obedience and the obedience of the Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace) differs, even if we are all performing our duty.
The Six Articles of Faith
Faith (iman) includes six primary beliefs:
- Belief in the existence and oneness of God.
- Belief in the existence of angels.
- Belief in the existence of the books of which God is the author: the Quran (revealed to Muhammad), the Injeel (revealed to Jesus), the Torah (revealed to prophets and messengers amongst the Children of Israel), Psalms (revealed to David), the Scrolls of Moses, and the Scrolls of Abraham.
- Belief in the existence of prophets: Muhammad being the last of them, Jesus the penultimate, and others sent before them [like Moses, Abraham, David, Joseph, Jacob].
- Belief in the existence of the Day of Judgment: in that day, humanity will be divided into two groups: that of paradise and that of hell. These groups are composed of subgroups.
- Belief in the existence of God's predestination (qadar, 'Divine Decree') due to God's omniscience, whether it involves good or bad.
Of these, the first four are mentioned and the fifth implied in ayah 2:285 of the Quran. All six appear in the first hadith of the collection Sahih Muslim, where the angel Gabriel asks to be told of iman and Muhammad replies:
That you affirm your faith in Allah, in His angels, in His Books, in His Apostles, in the Day of Judgment, and you affirm your faith in the Divine Decree about good and evil.
Another similar narration ascribed to Muhammad is:
Ibn Abbas narrates that the Angel Jibril once asked the Prophet: "Tell me what is Islam?" The Prophet replied: "Iman is to believe in Allah, the Day of Judgment, His (Allah's) Angels, Books and Prophets and to believe in life after death; and to believe in Paradise and the Fire, and the setting up of the Mizan (scales) to weigh the deeds; and to believe in the Divine Decree, the good and the bad of it (all). Jibril then asked him: "If I do all this will I be with Iman?" The Prophet said: "When you have done all of this, you will be having Iman."[page needed]
Delineation in the Qur'an and hadith
In the Qur'an, iman is one of the 10 qualities which cause one to be the recipient of God's mercy and reward. The Qur'an states that faith can grow with the remembrance of God. The Qur'an also states that nothing in this world should be dearer to a true believer than faith.
Muhammad is reported to have said that he gained sweetness of faith and was pleased to accept God as Lord, Islam as religion and Muhammad as a prophet. He also said that no one can be a true believer unless he loves Muhammad more than his children, parents and relatives. At another instance, he remarked that it is this love with Allah and Muhammad after which a person can be aware of the real taste of faith.
Amin Ahsan Islahi, a notable exegete of the Qur'an has clarified the nature of this love:
[I]t does not merely imply the passionate love one naturally has for one's wife, children, and other relatives, but it also refers to the love based on intellect and principles for some viewpoints and stances. It is because of this love that a person, in every sphere of life, gives priority to this viewpoint and direction... So much so, if the demands of his wife, children and relatives clash with the demands of this viewpoint, he adheres to it and without any hesitation turns down the desires of his wife and children and the demands of his family and clan.
Islahi and Abul A'la Maududi both have inferred that the Quranic comparison of a good word and a bad word in chapter 14 is a comparison of faith and disbelief. Thus, the Quran is effectively comparing faith to a tree whose roots are deep in the soil and branches spread in the vastness of the sky.
Iman is also the subject of a supplication uttered by Muhammad to God:
O God! I have resigned myself to You and I have consigned my matter to you and have taken support from You fearing Your grandeur and moving towards You in anticipation. There is no refuge and shelter after running away from You, and if there is, it is with You. Lord! I have professed faith in your Book which You have revealed and have professed faith in the Prophet you have sent as a Messenger.
The Seventy-Seven Branches of Faith
"The Seventy-Seven Branches of Faith" is a collection compiled by the Shafi'i imam al-Bayhaqi in his work Shu'ab al-Iman. In it, he explains the essential virtues that reflect true iman (faith and recognition) through related Quranic verses and prophetic sayings.
This is based on the following Hadith ascribed to Muhammad:
Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said: "Iman has more than 70 branches. The most excellent among these branches is the saying "Laa ilaaha ill Allah" (there is no God but Allah), and the smallest branch is to remove an obstacle from the wayside. And "Haya" (modesty) is an important branch of Iman."
These 77 branches described by Bayhaqi are:
Thirty actions connected with the heart:
- Belief in Allah (Testimony of Acknowledgment: La ilaha illallah' (there is no true god but Allah)
- Acknowledging that first, nothing but Allah existed; then, Allah created everything which subsequently came into existence
- Acknowledging the existence of angels (malaikah).
- Acknowledging that all the sacred books (qutub) sent down to the various Prophets are true. However, all books other than the Quran are no longer valid.
- Acknowledging that all prophets are true. However, Muslims are commanded to follow only the Islamic prophet, Muhammad
- Believing that Allah already knows everything and that whatever he permits or wills will happen.
- Believing that the Doomsday will happen.
- Acknowledging the existence of Jannat (Paradise).
- Acknowledging the existence of Hell
- Having a love for Allah.
- Acknowledging Muhammad's love for Allah
- To love or hate someone only for the sake of Allah.
- Performing all good deeds with sincerity (purpose of deen; only to please Allah).
- To repent and show remorse when a sin is committed.
- To fear Allah.
- Hoping for God's mercy.
- Being humble.
- Expressing gratitude (shukr) for favour or favour.
- Fulfilling promises.
- Having patience (sabar).
- Feeling inferior to others.
- Be kind to God's creations.[clarification needed]
- To be satisfied with whatever prescribed orders come from Allah
- Trusting in Allah.
- Not to boast or brag about any quality one possesses
- Not to hate or hate anyone.
- Not to be jealous of anyone.
- Not to get angry.
- Not to wish anyone harm.
- To have no love for the world.
The seven works attached to the tongue:
- Reciting the Kalema with the tongue.
- Reciting the Quran.
- Gaining knowledge.
- Giving knowledge
- Making dua.
- Zikr of Allah.
- Abstaining from the following: lying, backbiting (blasphemy in one's absence), obscenity, cursing, and singing (obscene) songs that are against Shariah.
Forty works are attached to the whole body:
- Performing ablution, bathing and keeping clothes clean.
- To be steadfast in prayer.
- Paying zakat and sadaqatul fitr.
- Performing Hajj.
- To perform itikaaf.
- Moving away or emigrating from a place harmful to religion
- To fulfil the promise made to Allah.[which?]
- Fulfilling vows that are not sins.
- Paying expiation for unfulfilled vows.
- To cover the body.
- Sacrificing for Allah
- The shrouding and burial of the deceased.
- Paying off one's debts
- Abstaining from prohibited things while doing financial transactions.
- Not to hide the truth while testifying.
- Marry when nafs wants to marry.
- Allowing those under oneself to fulfil their rights
- Providing comfort to parents.
- Bringing up children in the right way.
- Not cutting ties with friends or relatives.
- Obeying one's boss
- To be fair and righteous
- Not to initiate any path contrary to the generality of Muslims.
- To obey the ruler, if what they command is not contrary to the Shariah.
- Making peace between two warring factions or individuals.
- Helping the great cause.[which?]
- Enjoining good and forbidding wrong (Amr bil ma'ruf want nahi anil munkar).
- If it is the government, then it should provide punishment according to Shariah.[clarification needed]
- Struggling against the enemies of religion (if possible with the hand, if not with the tongue (by the pen), if not with the heart).
- Filling the deposit.[clarification needed]
- Giving loans to those in need
- Seeing to the needs of one's neighbours.
- Ensuring halal and purity of income earning.
- Expenditure according to Shariah.
- Replying to whoever greets oneself
- Yarhamukallah when someone says Alhamdulillah after sneezing.
- Not harming anyone unfairly.
- Abstaining from sports and pastimes that are against Shariah.
- Removal of gravel, stones, thorns, sticks etc. from the road.
Faith and deeds
In Islam, there must exist harmony and concord between faith and deeds. Farāhī has explained this aspect in his tafsīr in the following manner:
Righteous deeds are mentioned in the Qurān right after faith in the capacity of an explanation [...] In the case of faith, the need for its explanation is obvious: the place of faith is the heart and the intellect. In matters of intellect and heart, not only can a person deceive others but also at times he can remain in deception. He considers himself to be a mu'min (believer) whereas actually, he is not. For this reason, two testimonies needed to be required for it: a person's words and a person's deeds. Since words can be untrue, hence a person who only professes faith through words is not regarded as a mu'min and it was deemed essential that a person's deeds also testify to his faith.
Faith and reason in Islam
The relationship between reason and faith in Islam is a complex debate spanning centuries. Ismail Raji al-Faruqi states on this subject:
As for the non-Muslims, they may contest the principles of Islam. They must know, however, that Islam does not present its principles dogmatically, for those who believe or wish to believe, exclusively. It does so rationally, and critically. It comes to us armed with logical and coherent arguments, and expects our acquiescence on rational, and hence necessary, grounds. It is not legitimate for us to disagree on the relativist basis of personal taste, or that of subjective experience.
- Farāhī, Majmū'ah Tafāsīr, 2nd ed. (Faran Foundation, 1998), 347.
- Frederick M. Denny, An Introduction to Islam, 3rd ed., hp. 405
- Quran 2:285
- Quran 95:6
- Islahi, Amin Ahsan. Mabadi Tadabbur-i-Hadith (translated: Fundamentals of Hadith Interpretation)
- Murata & Chittick 1994, pp. 36–38.
- Quran 106:4
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- Musnad Ahmad
- Quran 33:35
- Quran 8:2
- Quran 9:24
- Muslim, Al-Jami' al-sahih, 38, (no. 151).
- Al-Bukhari, Al-Jami' al-sahih, 6, (no. 15)
- Muslim, Al-Jami' al-sahih, 41, (no. 169)
- Al-Bukhari, Al-Jami' al-sahih, 6–7, (nos. 16, 21)
- Muslim, Al-Jami' al-sahih, 40, (no. 165)
- Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tazkiyah-i nafs (translation: Self Purification), 119
- Quran 14:24-26
- Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tazkiyah-i nafs, 325.
- Al-Bukhari, Al-Jami' al-sahih, 45, (no. 247)
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- Farāhī, Majmū'ah Tafāsīr, 2nd ed. (Faran Foundation, 1998), 349.
- Isma'il Raji al Faruqi, Islam and Other Religions