Iftikhar Hussain Khan Mamdot

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Nawab Iftikhar Hussain Mamdot
Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Nawab Iftikhar Hussain Khan Mamdot (cropped).png
Mamdot in 1940
1st Chief Minister of West Punjab
In office
15 August 1947 – 25 January 1949
GovernorSir Francis Mudie
Preceded byPosition Established
Succeeded byGovernor's rule
Leader of Opposition of Punjab
In office
Preceded byBhim Sen Sachar
Succeeded byHimself (1951) (in West Punjab
Gopal Singh Khalsa (1952) (in East Punjab)
6th Governor of Sindh
In office
24 June 1954 – 14 October 1955
Preceded byHabib Rahimtoola
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Succeeded by West Pakistan
Personal details
Iftikhar Hussain Khan

31 December 1906
Lahore, Punjab, British India (Now, Punjab, Pakistan)
Died16 October 1969(1969-10-16) (aged 62)
Lahore, West Pakistan, Pakistan (Now, Punjab, Pakistan)
Cause of deathInfluenza
RelationsAsma Mamdot (niece)
Alma materGovernment College, Lahore

Nawab Iftikhar Hussain Khan of Mamdot (31 December 1906 – 16 October 1969) was a Pakistani politician and a key supporter of the Pakistan Movement in British India. After Pakistan's Independence, He served as the 1st Chief Minister of West Punjab and later as the Governor of Sindh. [1][2]

Early life[edit]

Mamdot was born at Lahore in 1906 as the son of Shahnawaz Khan Mamdot.[3][4][5][6] He was educated at Government College, Lahore, and thereafter joined the police service of Hyderabad State in the Deccan.[1]

On the death of his father in 1942, he succeeded him as the Nawab of Mamdot and on inheriting his lands became the largest landowner in the Punjab.[4][7] He also succeeded his father in politics as President of the Punjab Muslim League between 1942 and 1944. He actively worked to encourage the wealthy landowners of the Punjab to drop their support for the Unionist Party and support the Pakistan Movement.[2] In 1946, he was elected to the Punjab Legislative Assembly and became leader of opposition.[8] Later that year, he was the only Muslim League leader in the Punjab who supported Muhammad Ali Jinnah's call for the voluntary exchange of the populations within the Punjab.[9] During the Partition of India in 1947, he migrated to Pakistan, abandoning his vast landholdings in eastern Punjab which became part of the Republic of India.[4]

Chief Minister of West Punjab[edit]

On 15 August 1947, he was appointed as the first Chief Minister of West Punjab in Pakistan.[4][1][10] Having foregone his constituency in Firozepur district and extensive estates in East Punjab, Mamdot sought to rebuild his powerbase in Pakistan. Without official sanction, he created the Allotment Revising Committee to cultivate new followers amongst refugees, and allegedly siphoned off properties and cars to his followers and former tenants.[7] He became the largest claimant for agricultural land amongst the refugees.[2] He opposed his minister for refugee rehabilitation Mian Iftikharuddin, whose reformist proposals advocated permanently settling refugees on evacuee property and excess land belonging to bigger landlords.[2] His stance, together with his refusal to cooperate with the centrally appointed Pakistan and West Punjab Refugee and Rehabilitation Council led to the resignation of Mian Iftikharuddin, and provided a free hand to Mamdot to allocate evacuee properties as he wished.[2]

Factionalism plagued Mamdot's ministry. Aside from conflict with Mian Iftikharuddin and Ghazanfar Ali Khan, head of the Refugee and Rehabilitation Council, he clashed with Mumtaz Daultana and Sir Francis Mudie. He labelled Mudie, the first Governor of West Punjab, a "foreigner", "pro-unionist" and "pro-Indian" and in turn, Mudie criticised him alleging that he remained in power to get his hands on more property.[11][1]

Mamdot's ministry endured widespread accusations of corruption, and was labelled "unbelievably corrupt" by one British official.[12] It was alleged he used public funds to personally acquire about 2,000 acres of prime agricultural land at nominal rates in Montgomery District, that he awarded to his brother several hundred acres of land in the same district that belonged to Sir Khizar Hayat Tiwana and that he secretly deposited over 100,000 rupees from the Kashmir fund to his brother's account.[11] Rival politicians alleged that he diluted their power bases by relocating their supporters randomly across the province.[11] A spokesman for the Rajput refugee community criticised Mamdot for not settling refugees together in accordance with the districts they came from, and noted that one village had refugees from between 13/14 different East Punjab districts which resulted in clashes on a daily basis.[11] Mamdot resigned as Chief Minister in 1949 and an official enquiry was launched against him in relation to maladministration.[13] As no-one was able to form a new ministry, the Governor of West Punjab assumed direct control of the province.[14]

In 1950, he left the Muslim League to form a new party, the Jinnah Muslim League, which contested the 1951 elections against the Muslim League led by his arch-rival Mumtaz Daultana.[14] One consequence of the claims against Mamdot appeared following the result of the election, as representatives of refugees constituted just 5 per cent of the Punjab Assembly, despite refugees constituting about one-third of the total Punjabi population.[15]

Later life and death[edit]

He rejoined the Muslim League in 1953 and was appointed Governor of Sind by Malik Ghulam Muhammad in 1954.[1][16] He resigned his post in 1955 following the departure of Malik Ghulam Muhammad from the political scene, and thereafter remained in the political wilderness.[16]

Mamdot died in Lahore on 16 October 1969.[1][4][17]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Nawab Iftikhar Hussain of Mamdot Story Of Pakistan website, Retrieved 30 August 2021
  2. ^ a b c d e Ayesha Jalal, The Struggle for Pakistan: A Muslim Homeland and Global Politics, Harvard University Press, 16 Sep 2014, p.76
  3. ^ "Asma Mamdoot - Punjab Assembly". Provincial Assembly of the Punjab website. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Remembering vets (of Pakistan Movement - Iftikhar Hussain Khan Mamdot)". The Nation (newspaper), Published 27 Oct 2013, Retrieved 30 August 2021
  5. ^ India, National Archives of (1952). The Panjab in 1839-40: Selections from the Punjab Akhbars, Punjab Intelligence, Etc., Preserved in the National Archives of India, New Delhi. Sikh History Society. p. 7.
  6. ^ Manglik, Rohit (2020-07-04). Punjab Patwari Recruitment Exam 2020 -10 Full-length Mock Test For Complete Preparation. EduGorilla. p. 73.
  7. ^ a b Yasmin Khan, The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan, New Edition, Yale University Press
  8. ^ Devendra Panigrahi, India's Partition: The Story of Imperialism in Retreat, Routledge, 19 Aug 2004, p.347
  9. ^ S. Padmavathi, D.G. Hariprasath, Mahatma Gandhi Assassination: J.L. Kapur Commission Report - Part - 1, Notion Press, 17 Jan 2017,
  10. ^ "List of Ex Chief Ministers of Punjab". Pakinformation.com website. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  11. ^ a b c d Roger D. Long, Gurharpal Singh, Yunas Samad, Ian Talbot, State and Nation-Building in Pakistan: Beyond Islam and Security, Routledge, 8 Oct 2015, p.24
  12. ^ Roger D. Long, Gurharpal Singh, Yunas Samad, Ian Talbot, State and Nation-Building in Pakistan: Beyond Islam and Security, Routledge, 8 Oct 2015, p.25
  13. ^ Safdar Mahmood, Pakistan: rule of Muslim League & inception of democracy 1947-54, Jang Publishers, 1997
  14. ^ a b J. Henry Korson, Contemporary Problems of Pakistan, Brill Archive, 1974, p.20
  15. ^ Roger D. Long, Gurharpal Singh, Yunas Samad, Ian Talbot, State and Nation-Building in Pakistan: Beyond Islam and Security, Routledge, 8 Oct 2015, p.26
  16. ^ a b Shahid Javed Burki, Historical Dictionary of Pakistan, Rowman & Littlefield, 19 Mar 2015, p356
  17. ^ Aḥmad Saʻīd, Institute of Pakistan Historical Research (Lahore, Pakistan), Muslim India, 1857-1947: a biographical dictionary, 1997, p.216

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Position Established
Chief Minister of Punjab
15 August 1947 – 25 January 1949
Succeeded by
Governor's rule