|Born||c. 8th century BC|
Homer (//; Ancient Greek: Ὅμηρος [hómɛːros], Hómēros; born c. 8th century BC) was a Greek poet who is credited as the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are foundational works of ancient Greek literature. Homer is considered one of the most revered and influential authors in history.
Homer's Iliad centers on a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles during the last year of the Trojan War. The Odyssey chronicles the ten-year journey of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, back to his home after the fall of Troy. The poems are in Homeric Greek, also known as Epic Greek, a literary language which shows a mixture of features of the Ionic and Aeolic dialects from different centuries; the predominant influence is Eastern Ionic. Most researchers believe that the poems were originally transmitted orally. Despite being predominantly known for its tragic and serious themes, the Homeric poems also contains instances of comedy and laughter.
Homer's epic poems shaped aspects of ancient Greek culture and education, fostering ideals of heroism, glory, and honor. To Plato, Homer was simply the one who "has taught Greece" (τὴν Ἑλλάδα πεπαίδευκεν, tēn Helláda pepaídeuken). In Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, Virgil refers to Homer as "Poet sovereign", king of all poets; in the preface to his translation of the Iliad, Alexander Pope acknowledges that Homer has always been considered the "greatest of poets". From antiquity to the present day, Homeric epics have inspired many famous works of literature, music, art, and film.
The question of by whom, when, where and under what circumstances the Iliad and Odyssey were composed continues to be debated. Scholars remain divided as to whether the two works are the product of a single author. It is thought that the poems were composed at some point around the late eighth or early seventh century BC. Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity; the most widespread account was that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey. Modern scholars consider these accounts legendary.
Works attributed to Homer
Today, only the Iliad and the Odyssey are associated with the name 'Homer'. In antiquity, a large number of other works were sometimes attributed to him, including the Homeric Hymns, the Contest of Homer and Hesiod, several epigrams, the Little Iliad, the Nostoi, the Thebaid, the Cypria, the Epigoni, the comic mini-epic Batrachomyomachia ("The Frog–Mouse War"), the Margites, the Capture of Oechalia, and the Phocais. These claims are not considered authentic today and were by no means universally accepted in the ancient world. As with the multitude of legends surrounding Homer's life, they indicate little more than the centrality of Homer to ancient Greek culture.
Ancient biographical traditions
Some ancient claims about Homer were established early and repeated often. They include that Homer was blind (taking as self-referential a passage describing the blind bard Demodocus), that he resided at Chios, that he was the son of the river Meles and the nymph Critheïs, that he was a wandering bard, that he composed a varying list of other works (the "Homerica"), that he died either in Ios or after failing to solve a riddle set by fishermen, and various explanations for the name "Homer" (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros). Another tradition from the days of the Roman emperor Hadrian says Epicaste (daughter of Nestor) and Telemachus (son of Odysseus) were the parents of Homer.
In the early fourth century BC Alcidamas composed a fictional account of a poetry contest at Chalcis with both Homer and Hesiod. Homer was expected to win, and answered all of Hesiod's questions and puzzles with ease. Then, each of the poets was invited to recite the best passage from their work. Hesiod selected the beginning of Works and Days: "When the Pleiades born of Atlas ... all in due season". Homer chose a description of Greek warriors in formation, facing the foe, taken from the Iliad. Though the crowd acclaimed Homer victor, the judge awarded Hesiod the prize; the poet who praised husbandry, he said, was greater than the one who told tales of battles and slaughter.
History of Homeric scholarship
The study of Homer is one of the oldest topics in scholarship, dating back to antiquity. Nonetheless, the aims of Homeric studies have changed over the course of the millennia. The earliest preserved comments on Homer concern his treatment of the gods, which hostile critics such as the poet Xenophanes of Colophon denounced as immoral. The allegorist Theagenes of Rhegium is said to have defended Homer by arguing that the Homeric poems are allegories. The Iliad and the Odyssey were widely used as school texts in ancient Greek and Hellenistic cultures. They were the first literary works taught to all students. The Iliad, particularly its first few books, was far more intently studied than the Odyssey during the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
As a result of the poems' prominence in classical Greek education, extensive commentaries on them developed to explain parts that were culturally or linguistically difficult. During the Hellenistic and Roman periods, many interpreters, especially the Stoics, who believed that Homeric poems conveyed Stoic doctrines, regarded them as allegories, containing hidden wisdom. Perhaps partially because of the Homeric poems' extensive use in education, many authors believed that Homer's original purpose had been to educate. Homer's wisdom became so widely praised that he began to acquire the image of almost a prototypical philosopher. Byzantine scholars such as Eustathius of Thessalonica and John Tzetzes produced commentaries, extensions and scholia to Homer, especially in the twelfth century. Eustathius's commentary on the Iliad alone is massive, sprawling over nearly 4,000 oversized pages in a twenty-first century printed version and his commentary on the Odyssey an additional nearly 2,000.
In 1488, the Greek scholar Demetrios Chalkokondyles published the editio princeps of the Homeric poems. The earliest modern Homeric scholars started with the same basic approaches towards the Homeric poems as scholars in antiquity. The allegorical interpretation of the Homeric poems that had been so prevalent in antiquity returned to become the prevailing view of the Renaissance. Renaissance humanists praised Homer as the archetypically wise poet, whose writings contain hidden wisdom, disguised through allegory. In western Europe during the Renaissance, Virgil was more widely read than Homer and Homer was often seen through a Virgilian lens.
In 1664, contradicting the widespread praise of Homer as the epitome of wisdom, François Hédelin, abbé d'Aubignac wrote a scathing attack on the Homeric poems, declaring that they were incoherent, immoral, tasteless, and without style, that Homer never existed, and that the poems were hastily cobbled together by incompetent editors from unrelated oral songs. Fifty years later, the English scholar Richard Bentley concluded that Homer did exist, but that he was an obscure, prehistoric oral poet whose compositions bear little relation to the Iliad and the Odyssey as they have been passed down. According to Bentley, Homer "wrote a Sequel of Songs and Rhapsodies, to be sung by himself for small Earnings and good Cheer at Festivals and other Days of Merriment; the Ilias he wrote for men, and the Odysseis for the other Sex. These loose songs were not collected together in the Form of an epic Poem till Pisistratus' time, about 500 Years after."
Friedrich August Wolf's Prolegomena ad Homerum, published in 1795, argued that much of the material later incorporated into the Iliad and the Odyssey was originally composed in the tenth century BC in the form of short, separate oral songs, which passed through oral tradition for roughly four hundred years before being assembled into prototypical versions of the Iliad and the Odyssey in the sixth century BC by literate authors. After being written down, Wolf maintained that the two poems were extensively edited, modernized, and eventually shaped into their present state as artistic unities. Wolf and the "Analyst" school, which led the field in the nineteenth century, sought to recover the original, authentic poems which were thought to be concealed by later excrescences.
Within the Analyst school were two camps: proponents of the "lay theory", which held that the Iliad and the Odyssey were put together from a large number of short, independent songs, and proponents of the "nucleus theory", which held that Homer had originally composed shorter versions of the Iliad and the Odyssey, which later poets expanded and revised. A small group of scholars opposed to the Analysts, dubbed "Unitarians", saw the later additions as superior, the work of a single inspired poet. By around 1830, the central preoccupations of Homeric scholars, dealing with whether or not "Homer" actually existed, when and how the Homeric poems originated, how they were transmitted, when and how they were finally written down, and their overall unity, had been dubbed "the Homeric Question".
Following World War I, the Analyst school began to fall out of favor among Homeric scholars. It did not die out entirely, but it came to be increasingly seen as a discredited dead end. Starting in around 1928, Milman Parry and Albert Lord, after their studies of folk bards in the Balkans, developed the "Oral-Formulaic Theory" that the Homeric poems were originally composed through improvised oral performances, which relied on traditional epithets and poetic formulas. This theory found very wide scholarly acceptance and explained many previously puzzling features of the Homeric poems, including their unusually archaic language, their extensive use of stock epithets, and their other "repetitive" features. Many scholars concluded that the "Homeric Question" had finally been answered.
Meanwhile, the 'Neoanalysts' sought to bridge the gap between the 'Analysts' and 'Unitarians'. The Neoanalysts sought to trace the relationships between the Homeric poems and other epic poems, which have now been lost, but of which modern scholars do possess some patchy knowledge. Neoanalysts hold that knowledge of earlier versions of the epics can be derived from anomalies of structure and detail in the surviving versions of the Iliad and Odyssey. These anomalies point to earlier versions of the Iliad in which Ajax played a more prominent role, in which the Achaean embassy to Achilles comprised different characters, and in which Patroclus was actually mistaken for Achilles by the Trojans. They point to earlier versions of the Odyssey in which Telemachus went in search of news of his father not to Menelaus in Sparta but to Idomeneus in Crete, in which Telemachus met up with his father in Crete and conspired with him to return to Ithaca disguised as the soothsayer Theoclymenus, and in which Penelope recognized Odysseus much earlier in the narrative and conspired with him in the destruction of the suitors.
Most contemporary scholars, although they disagree on other questions about the genesis of the poems, agree that the Iliad and the Odyssey were not produced by the same author, based on "the many differences of narrative manner, theology, ethics, vocabulary, and geographical perspective, and by the apparently imitative character of certain passages of the Odyssey in relation to the Iliad." Nearly all scholars agree that the Iliad and the Odyssey are unified poems, in that each poem shows a clear overall design, and that they are not merely strung together from unrelated songs. It is also generally agreed that each poem was composed mostly by a single author, who probably relied heavily on older oral traditions. Nearly all scholars agree that the Doloneia in Book X of the Iliad is not part of the original poem, but rather a later insertion by a different poet.
Some ancient scholars believed Homer to have been an eyewitness to the Trojan War; others thought he had lived up to 500 years afterwards. Contemporary scholars continue to debate the date of the poems. A long history of oral transmission lies behind the composition of the poems, complicating the search for a precise date. At one extreme, Richard Janko has proposed a date for both poems to the eighth century BC based on linguistic analysis and statistics. Barry B. Powell dates the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey to sometime between 800 and 750 BC, based on the statement from Herodotus, who lived in the late fifth century BC, that Homer lived four hundred years before his own time "and not more" (καὶ οὐ πλέοσι), and on the fact that the poems do not mention hoplite battle tactics, inhumation, or literacy.
Martin Litchfield West has argued that the Iliad echoes the poetry of Hesiod, and that it must have been composed around 660–650 BC at the earliest, with the Odyssey up to a generation later. He also interprets passages in the Iliad as showing knowledge of historical events that occurred in the ancient Near East during the middle of the seventh century BC, including the destruction of Babylon by Sennacherib in 689 BC and the Sack of Thebes by Ashurbanipal in 663/4 BC. At the other extreme, a few American scholars such as Gregory Nagy see "Homer" as a continually evolving tradition, which grew much more stable as the tradition progressed, but which did not fully cease to continue changing and evolving until as late as the middle of the second century BC.
"'Homer" is a name of unknown etymological origin, around which many theories were erected in antiquity. One such linkage was to the Greek ὅμηρος (hómēros 'hostage' or 'surety'). The explanations suggested by modern scholars tend to mirror their position on the overall Homeric Question. Nagy interprets it as "he who fits (the song) together". West has advanced both possible Greek and Phoenician etymologies.
Historicity of the Homeric epics and Homeric society
Scholars continue to debate questions such as whether the Trojan War actually took place – and if so when and where – and to what extent the society depicted by Homer is based on his own or one which was, even at the time of the poems' composition, known only as legends. The Homeric epics are largely set in the east and center of the Mediterranean, with some scattered references to Egypt, Ethiopia and other distant lands, in a warlike society that resembles that of the Greek world slightly before the hypothesized date of the poems' composition.
In ancient Greek chronology, the sack of Troy was dated to 1184 BC. By the nineteenth century, there was widespread scholarly skepticism that the Trojan War had ever happened and that Troy had even existed, but in 1873 Heinrich Schliemann announced to the world that he had discovered the ruins of Homer's Troy at Hissarlik in modern Turkey. Some contemporary scholars think the destruction of Troy VIIa c. 1220 BC was the origin of the myth of the Trojan War, others that the poem was inspired by multiple similar sieges that took place over the centuries.
Most scholars now agree that the Homeric poems depict customs and elements of the material world that are derived from different periods of Greek history. For instance, the heroes in the poems use bronze weapons, characteristic of the Bronze Age in which the poems are set, rather than the later Iron Age during which they were composed; yet the same heroes are cremated (an Iron Age practice) rather than buried (as they were in the Bronze Age). In some parts of the Homeric poems, heroes are described as carrying large shields like those used by warriors during the Mycenaean period, but, in other places, they are instead described carrying the smaller shields that were commonly used during the time when the poems were written in the early Iron Age. In the Iliad 10.260–265, Odysseus is described as wearing a helmet made of boar's tusks. Such helmets were not worn in Homer's time, but were commonly worn by aristocratic warriors between 1600 and 1150 BC.
The decipherment of Linear B in the 1950s by Michael Ventris and continued archaeological investigation has increased modern scholars' understanding of Aegean civilisation, which in many ways resembles the ancient Near East more than the society described by Homer. Some aspects of the Homeric world are simply made up; for instance, the Iliad 22.145–56 describes there being two springs that run near the city of Troy, one that runs steaming hot and the other that runs icy cold. It is here that Hector takes his final stand against Achilles. Archaeologists, however, have uncovered no evidence that springs of this description ever actually existed.
Style and language
The Homeric epics are written in an artificial literary language or 'Kunstsprache' only used in epic hexameter poetry. Homeric Greek shows features of multiple regional Greek dialects and periods, but is fundamentally based on Ionic Greek, in keeping with the tradition that Homer was from Ionia. Linguistic analysis suggests that the Iliad was composed slightly before the Odyssey, and that Homeric formulae preserve older features than other parts of the poems.
The poems were composed in unrhymed dactylic hexameter; ancient Greek metre was quantity-based rather than stress-based. Homer frequently uses set phrases such as epithets ('crafty Odysseus', 'rosy-fingered Dawn', 'owl-eyed Athena', etc.), Homeric formulae ('and then answered [him/her], Agamemnon, king of men', 'when the early-born rose-fingered Dawn came to light', 'thus he/she spoke'), simile, type scenes, ring composition and repetition. These habits aid the extemporizing bard, and are characteristic of oral poetry. For instance, the main words of a Homeric sentence are generally placed towards the beginning, whereas literate poets like Virgil or Milton use longer and more complicated syntactical structures. Homer then expands on these ideas in subsequent clauses; this technique is called parataxis.
The so-called 'type scenes' (typische Szenen), were named by Walter Arend in 1933. He noted that Homer often, when describing frequently recurring activities such as eating, praying, fighting and dressing, used blocks of set phrases in sequence that were then elaborated by the poet. The 'Analyst' school had considered these repetitions as un-Homeric, whereas Arend interpreted them philosophically. Parry and Lord noted that these conventions are found in many other cultures.
'Ring composition' or chiastic structure (when a phrase or idea is repeated at both the beginning and end of a story, or a series of such ideas first appears in the order A, B, C ... before being reversed as ... C, B, A) has been observed in the Homeric epics. Opinion differs as to whether these occurrences are a conscious artistic device, a mnemonic aid or a spontaneous feature of human storytelling.
Both of the Homeric poems begin with an invocation to the Muse. In the Iliad, the poet beseeches her to sing of "the anger of Achilles", and, in the Odyssey, he asks her to tell of "the man of many ways". A similar opening was later employed by Virgil in his Aeneid.
The orally transmitted Homeric poems were put into written form at some point between the eighth and sixth centuries BC. Some scholars believe that they were dictated to a scribe by the poet and that our inherited versions of the Iliad and Odyssey were in origin orally-dictated texts. Albert Lord noted that the Balkan bards that he was studying revised and expanded their songs in their process of dictating. Some scholars hypothesize that a similar process of revision and expansion occurred when the Homeric poems were first written down.
Other scholars hold that, after the poems were created in the eighth century, they continued to be orally transmitted with considerable revision until they were written down in the sixth century. After textualisation, the poems were each divided into 24 rhapsodes, today referred to as books, and labelled by the letters of the Greek alphabet. Most scholars attribute the book divisions to the Hellenistic scholars of Alexandria, in Egypt. Some trace the divisions back further to the Classical period. Very few credit Homer himself with the divisions.
In antiquity, it was widely held that the Homeric poems were collected and organised in Athens in the late sixth century BC by Peisistratos (died 528/7 BC), in what subsequent scholars have dubbed the "Peisistratean recension". The idea that the Homeric poems were originally transmitted orally and first written down during the reign of Peisistratos is referenced by the first-century BC Roman orator Cicero and is also referenced in a number of other surviving sources, including two ancient Lives of Homer. From around 150 BC, the texts of the Homeric poems seem to have become relatively established. After the establishment of the Library of Alexandria, Homeric scholars such as Zenodotus of Ephesus, Aristophanes of Byzantium and in particular Aristarchus of Samothrace helped establish a canonical text.
The first printed edition of Homer was produced in 1488 in Milan, Italy. Today scholars use medieval manuscripts, papyri and other sources; some argue for a "multi-text" view, rather than seeking a single definitive text. The nineteenth-century edition of Arthur Ludwich mainly follows Aristarchus's work, whereas van Thiel's (1991, 1996) follows the medieval vulgate.[clarification needed] Others, such as Martin West (1998–2000) or T. W. Allen, fall somewhere between these two extremes.
- Achaeans (Homer)
- Catalogue of Ships
- Creophylus of Samos
- Cyclic Poets
- Deception of Zeus
- Epithets in Homer
- Geography of the Odyssey
- Greek mythology
- Homeric psychology
- Homeric scholarship
- Homer's Ithaca
- List of Homeric characters
- Sortes Homericae
- Tabulae Iliacae
- The Golden Bough
- Trojan Battle Order
- Trojan War in literature and the arts
- Venetus A Manuscript
- Lefkowitz, Mary R. (2013). The Lives of the Greek Poets. A&C Black. pp. 14–30. ISBN 978-1472503077.
- "Learn about Homer's The Iliad and The Odyssey". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
- Hose, Martin; Schenker, David (2015). A Companion to Greek Literature. John Wiley & Sons. p. 445. ISBN 978-1118885956.
- Miller, D. Gary (2013). Ancient Greek Dialects and Early Authors: Introduction to the Dialect Mixture in Homer, with Notes on Lyric and Herodotus. Walter de Gruyter. p. 351. ISBN 978-1614512950. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- Ahl, Frederick; Roisman, Hanna (1996). The Odyssey Re-formed. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0801483356. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- Bell, Robert H. "Homer’s humor: laughter in the Iliad." hand 1 (2007): 596.
- Rutherford, R. B. (2010). Homer: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide. Oxford University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-19-980510-5.
- Too, Yun Lee (2010). The Idea of the Library in the Ancient World. OUP Oxford. p. 86. ISBN 978-0199577804. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- MacDonald, Dennis R. (1994). Christianizing Homer: The Odyssey, Plato, and the Acts of Andrew. Oxford University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0195358629. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- Divine Comedy, Inferno, Canto IV, 86–88 (Longfellow's translation):
Him with that falchion in his hand behold,
Who comes before the three, even as their lord.
That one is Homer, Poet sovereign;
- Alexander Pope's Preface to his translation of the Iliad:
"Homer is universally allowed to have had the greatest invention of any writer whatever. The praise of judgment Virgil has justly contested with him, and others may have their pretensions as to particular excellencies; but his invention remains yet unrivalled. Nor is it a wonder if he has ever been acknowledged the greatest of poets, who most excelled in that which is the very foundation of poetry."
- Latacz, Joachim (1996). Homer, His Art and His World. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0472083534. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- Croally, Neil; Hyde, Roy (2011). Classical Literature: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 26. ISBN 978-1136736629. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- Wilson, Nigel (2013). Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. Routledge. p. 366. ISBN 978-1136788000. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
Romilly, Jacqueline de (1985). A Short History of Greek Literature. University of Chicago Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0226143125. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
Graziosi 2002, p. 15
- Kelly, Adrian D. "Homerica". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe0606
- Graziosi, Barbara; Haubold, Johannes (2005). Homer: The Resonance of Epic. A&C Black. pp. 24–26. ISBN 978-0715632826.
- Graziosi 2002, pp. 165–168.
- Graziosi 2002, p. 138
- Odyssey, 8:64ff.
- "Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns, and Homerica" (Contest of Homer and Hesiod)
- Parke, Herbert William (1967). Greek Oracles. pp. 136–137 citing the Certamen, 12.
- Kelly, Adrian D. "Biographies of Homer". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe0243
- West, M. L. Theogony & Works and Days. Oxford University Press. p. xx.
- Dickey, Eleanor. "Scholarship, Ancient". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe1307
- West, M. L. (December 2011). "The Homeric Question Today". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 155 (4): 383–393. JSTOR 23208780.
- Lamberton, Robert (2010). "Homer". In Grafton, Anthony; Most, Glenn W.; Settis, Salvatore (eds.). The Classical Tradition. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. pp. 449–452. ISBN 978-0-674-03572-0.
- Hunter, Richard L. (2018). The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad and the Odyssey. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 4–7. ISBN 978-1-108-42831-6.
- Kaldellis, Anthony. "Scholarship, Byzantine". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe1308
- Heiden, Bruce. "Scholarship, Renaissance through 17th Century". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe1310
- Heiden, Bruce. "Scholarship, 18th Century". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe1311
- Heiden, Bruce. "Scholarship, 19th Century". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe1312
- Taplin, Oliver (1986). "2: Homer". In Boardman, John; Griffin, Jasper; Murray, Oswyn (eds.). The Oxford History of the Classical World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 50–77. ISBN 978-0198721123.
- Foley, John Miles (1988). The Theory of Oral Composition: History and Methodology. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253342607.
- Heiden, Bruce. "Scholarship, 20th Century". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe1313
- Edwards, Mark W. "Neoanalysis". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe0968
- Reece, Steve. "The Cretan Odyssey: A Lie Truer than Truth". American Journal of Philology 115 (1994) 157–173. The_Cretan_Odyssey
- West, M. L. (1999). "The Invention of Homer". Classical Quarterly. 49 (2): 364–382. doi:10.1093/cq/49.2.364. JSTOR 639863.
- West, Martin L. "Homeric Question". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe0605
- Latacz, Joachim; Bierl, Anton; Olson, S. Douglas (2015). "New Trends in Homeric Scholarship" in Homer's Iliad: The Basel Commentary. De Gruyter. ISBN 978-1614517375.
- Saïd, Suzanne (2011). Homer and the Odyssey. OUP Oxford. pp. 14–17. ISBN 978-0199542840.
- Graziosi 2002, pp. 90–92
- Fowler, Robert; Fowler, Robert Louis (2004). The Cambridge Companion to Homer. Cambridge University Press. pp. 220–232. ISBN 978-0521012461.
- Burgess, Jonathan S. (2003). The Tradition of the Trojan War in Homer and the Epic Cycle. JHU Press. pp. 49–53. ISBN 978-0801874819.
- Powell, Barry B. (1996). Homer and the Origins of the Greek Alphabet. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 217–222. ISBN 978-0-521-58907-9.
- Hall, Jonathan M. (2002). Hellenicity: Between Ethnicity and Culture. University of Chicago Press. pp. 235–236. ISBN 978-0226313290.
- West, Martin L. "Date of Homer". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe0330
- Graziosi 2002, pp. 51–89.
- West, M. L. (1997). The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 622.
- Raaflaub, Kurt A. "Historicity of Homer". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe0601
- Finley, Moses I. (1991). The World of Odysseus. Penguin. ISBN 978-0140136869.
- Wees, Hans van (2009). War and Violence in Ancient Greece. ISD LLC. ISBN 978-1910589298.
- Morris, Ian (1986). "The Use and Abuse of Homer". Classical Antiquity. 5 (1): 81–138. doi:10.2307/25010840. JSTOR 25010840.
- Dowden, Ken; Livingstone, Niall (2011). A Companion to Greek Mythology. John Wiley & Sons. p. 440. ISBN 978-1444396935.
- Sacks, David; Murray, Oswyn; Brody, Lisa R. (2014). Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World. Infobase Publishing. p. 356. ISBN 978-1438110202.
- Morris & Powell 1997, pp. 434–435
- Wood, Michael (1996). In Search of the Trojan War. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-520-21599-3. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
- Schofield, Louise (2007). The Mycenaeans. Los Angeles, California: The J. Paul Getty Museum. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-89236-867-9. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
- Everson, Tim (2004). Warfare in Ancient Greece: Arms and Armour from the Heroes of Homer to Alexander the Great. Brimscombe Port: The History Press. pp. 9–10. ISBN 978-0-7524-9506-4. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
- Morris & Powell 1997, p. 625.
- Willi, Andreas. "Language, Homeric". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe0792
- Bakker, Egbert J. (2010). A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language. John Wiley & Sons. p. 401. ISBN 978-1444317404.
- Edwards, Mark W. "Meter". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe0913
- Nussbaum, G.B. (1986). Homer's Metre: A Practical Guide for Reading Greek Hexameter Poetry. Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 978-0862921729.
- Edwards, Mark W. "Style". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe1377
- Reece, Steve T. "Type-Scenes". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe1488
- Edwards, MW (1992). "Homer and Oral Tradition: The Type-Scene". Oral Tradition. 7: 284–330.
- Stanley, Keith (2014). The Shield of Homer: Narrative Structure in the Illiad. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1400863372.
- Minchin, Elizabeth. "Ring Composition". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe1287
- Adler, Eve (2003). Vergil's Empire: Political Thought in the Aeneid. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7425-2167-4.
- Steve Reece, "Homer's Iliad and Odyssey: From Oral Performance to Written Text", in Mark Amodio (ed.), New Directions in Oral Theory (Tempe: Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2005) 43–89.
- Albert B. Lord, The Singer of Tales (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1960).
- Kirk, G. S. (1976). Homer and the Oral Tradition. Cambridge University Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0521213097.
- Foley, John Miles. "Oral Dictated Texts". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe1029
- Nagy, Gregory (1996). Poetry as Performance: Homer and Beyond. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521558488.
- U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Homerische Untersuchungen (Berlin, 1884) 369; R. Pfeiffer, History of Classical Scholarship (Oxford, 1968) 116–117.
- West, Martin L. "Book Division". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe0253; S. West, The Ptolemaic Papyri of Homer (Cologne, 1967) 18–25.
- P. Mazon, Introduction à l'Iliade (Paris, 1912) 137–140; C. H. Whitman, Homer and the Heroic Tradition (Cambridge [Massachusetts], 1958) 282–283; G. P. Goold, "Homer and the Alphabet", TAPA 96 (1960) 272–291; K. Stanley, The Shield of Homer (Princeton, 1993) 37, 249ff.
- Jensen, Minna Skafte (1980). The Homeric Question and the Oral-formulaic Theory. Museum Tusculanum Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-8772890968.
- Haslam, Michael. "Text and Transmission". In Finkelberg (2012). doi:10.1002/9781444350302.wbhe1413
- Finkelberg, Margalit, ed. (2012). The Homer Encyclopedia. Wiley. doi:10.1002/9781444350302. ISBN 9781405177689.
- Graziosi, Barbara (2002). Inventing Homer: The Early Perception of Epic. Cambridge Classical Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521809665.
- Morris, Ian; Powell, Barry B., eds. (1997). A New Companion to Homer. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-09989-0.
- Texts in Homeric Greek
- Demetrius Chalcondyles editio princeps, Florence, 1488
- the Aldine editions (1504 and 1517)
- 1st ed. with comments, Micyllus and Camerarius, Basel, 1535, 1541 (improved text), 1551 (incl. the Batrachomyomachia)
- Th. Ridel, Strasbourg, c. 1572, 1588 and 1592.
- Wolf (Halle, 1794–1795; Leipzig, 1804 1807)
- Spitzner (Gotha, 1832–1836)
- Bekker (Berlin, 1843; Bonn, 1858)
- La Roche (Odyssey, 1867–1868; Iliad, 1873–1876, both at Leipzig)
- Ludwich (Odyssey, Leipzig, 1889–1891; Iliad, 2 vols., 1901 and 1907)
- W. Leaf (Iliad, London, 1886–1888; 2nd ed. 1900–1902)
- William Walter Merry and James Riddell (Odyssey i–xii., 2nd ed., Oxford, 1886)
- Monro, D. B. (Odyssey xiii–xxiv. with appendices, Oxford, 1901)
- Monro, D. B. and Allen, T. W. (Iliad), and Allen (Odyssey, 1908, Oxford).
- D. B. Monro and T. W. Allen 1917–1920, Homeri Opera (5 volumes: Iliad=3rd edition, Odyssey=2nd edition), Oxford. ISBN 0-19-814528-4, 0-19-814529-2, 0-19-814531-4, 0-19-814532-2, 0-19-814534-9
- H. van Thiel 1991, Homeri Odyssea, Hildesheim. ISBN 3-487-09458-4, 1996, Homeri Ilias, Hildesheim. ISBN 3-487-09459-2
- P. von der Mühll 1993, Homeri Odyssea, Munich/Leipzig. ISBN 3-598-71432-7
- M. L. West 1998–2000, Homeri Ilias (2 volumes), Munich/Leipzig. ISBN 3-598-71431-9, 3-598-71435-1
- M. L. West 2017, Homerus Odyssea, Berlin/Boston. ISBN 3-11-042539-4
This is a partial list of translations into English of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.
- Robert Fitzgerald (1910–1985)
- Robert Fagles (1933–2008)
- Stanley Lombardo (b. 1943)
- Iliad, Hackett Publishing Company (1997) ISBN 0-87220-352-2
- Odyssey, Hackett Publishing Company (2000) ISBN 0-87220-484-7
- Iliad, (Audiobook) Parmenides (2006) ISBN 1-930972-08-3
- Odyssey, (Audiobook) Parmenides (2006) ISBN 1-930972-06-7
- The Essential Homer, (Audiobook) Parmenides (2006) ISBN 1-930972-12-1
- The Essential Iliad, (Audiobook) Parmenides (2006) ISBN 1-930972-10-5
- Barry B. Powell (b. 1942)
- Samuel Butler (1835–1902)
- Emily Wilson (b. 1971)
General works on Homer
- Carlier, Pierre (1999). Homère (in French). Paris: Les éditions Fayard. ISBN 978-2-213-60381-0.
- de Romilly, Jacqueline (2005). Homère (5th ed.). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2-13-054830-0.
- Fowler, Robert, ed. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to Homer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-01246-1.
- Latacz, J. (2004). Troy and Homer: Towards a Solution of an Old Mystery. Translated by Windle, Kevin; Ireland, Rosh. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926308-0. In German, 5th updated and expanded edition, Leipzig, 2005. In Spanish, 2003, ISBN 84-233-3487-2. In modern Greek, 2005, ISBN 960-16-1557-1.
- Monro, David Binning (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 12 (11th ed.). pp. 626–39.
- Powell, Barry B. (2007). Homer (2nd ed.). Malden, Massachusetts; Oxford, UK; Carlton, Victoria: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-5325-6.
- Vidal-Naquet, Pierre (2000). Le monde d'Homère (in French). Paris: Perrin. ISBN 978-2-262-01181-9.
- Wace, A. J. B.; F. H. Stubbings (1962). A Companion to Homer. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-07113-7.
Influential readings and interpretations
- Auerbach, Erich (1953). "Chapter 1". Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11336-4. (orig. publ. in German, 1946, Bern)
- de Jong, Irene J. F. (2004). Narrators and Focalizers: the Presentation of the Story in the Iliad (2nd ed.). London: Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 978-1-85399-658-0.
- Edwards, Mark W. (1987). Homer, Poet of the Iliad. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-3329-8.
- Fenik, Bernard (1974). Studies in the Odyssey. Hermes, Einzelschriften 30. Wiesbaden: Steiner.
- Finley, Moses (2002). The World of Odysseus. New York: The New York Review of Books. ISBN 978-1-59017-017-5.
- Nagy, Gregory (1979). The Best of the Achaeans: Concepts of the Hero in Archaic Greek Poetry. Baltimore; London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Nagy, Gregory (2010). Homer: the Preclassic. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-95024-5.
- Reece, Steve. The Stranger's Welcome: Oral Theory and the Aesthetics of the Homeric Hospitality Scene. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1993.
- P.V. Jones (ed.) 2003, Homer's Iliad. A Commentary on Three Translations, London. ISBN 1-85399-657-2
- G. S. Kirk (gen. ed.) 1985–1993, The Iliad: A Commentary (6 volumes), Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-28171-7, 0-521-28172-5, 0-521-28173-3, 0-521-28174-1, 0-521-31208-6, 0-521-31209-4
- J. Latacz (gen. ed.) 2002 Homers Ilias. Gesamtkommentar. Auf der Grundlage der Ausgabe von Ameis-Hentze-Cauer (1868–1913) (6 volumes published so far, of an estimated 15), Munich/Leipzig. ISBN 3-598-74307-6, ISBN 3-598-74304-1
- N. Postlethwaite (ed.) 2000, Homer's Iliad: A Commentary on the Translation of Richmond Lattimore, Exeter. ISBN 0-85989-684-6
- M. W. Willcock (ed.) 1976, A Companion to the Iliad, Chicago. ISBN 0-226-89855-5
- A. Heubeck (gen. ed.) 1990–1993, A Commentary on Homer's Odyssey (3 volumes; orig. publ. 1981–1987 in Italian), Oxford. ISBN 0-19-814747-3, ISBN 0-19-872144-7, ISBN 0-19-814953-0
- P. Jones (ed.) 1988, Homer's Odyssey: A Commentary based on the English Translation of Richmond Lattimore, Bristol. ISBN 1-85399-038-8
- I. J. F. de Jong (ed.) 2001, A Narratological Commentary on the Odyssey, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-46844-2
Dating the Homeric poems
- Janko, Richard (1982). Homer, Hesiod and the Hymns: Diachronic Development in Epic Diction. Cambridge Classical Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23869-4.
- Buck, Carl Darling (1928). The Greek Dialects. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Hesiod, the Homeric hymns and Homerica. The Loeb Classical Library. Translated by Evelyn-White, Hugh Gerard. London; New York: Heinemann; MacMillen. 1914.
- Ford, Andrew (1992). Homer : the poetry of the past. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-2700-8.
- Kirk, G. S. (1962). The Songs of Homer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon (revised ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press; Perseus Digital Library.
- Murray, Gilbert (1960). The Rise of the Greek Epic (Galaxy Books ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
- Schein, Seth L. (1984). The Mortal Hero : An Introduction to Homer's Iliad. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-05128-7.
- Silk, Michael (1987). Homer: The Iliad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83233-5.
- Smith, William, ed. (1876). A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. I, II & III. London: John Murray.
- Thurman, Judith (18 September 2023). "Mother Tongue: How Emily Wilson makes Homer modern". The New Yorker (Long-form article on Emily Wilson's Homer translations). pp. 46–53.
|Library resources about |
- Works by Homer at Perseus Digital Library
- Works by Homer in eBook form at Standard Ebooks
- Works by Homer at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Homer at Internet Archive
- Works by Homer at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Homer; Murray, Augustus Taber (1925). The Iliad with an English Translation (in Ancient Greek and English). Vol. I, Books I–XII. London; New York: William Heinemann; G. P. Putnam's Sons – via Internet Archive.
- The Chicago Homer
- Homer at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- Heath, Malcolm (4 May 2001). "CLAS3152 Further Greek Literature II: Aristotle's Poetics: Notes on Homer's Iliad and Odyssey". Department of Classics, University of Leeds. Archived from the original on 8 September 2008. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- Bassino, Paola (2014). "Homer: A Guide to Selected Sources". Living Poets: a new approach to ancient history. Durham University. Retrieved 18 November 2014.