Heather Wilson

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Heather Wilson
Wilson in 2021
11th President of University of Texas at El Paso
Assumed office
August 15, 2019
Preceded byDiana Natalicio
24th United States Secretary of the Air Force
In office
May 16, 2017 – May 31, 2019
PresidentDonald Trump
Preceded byDeborah Lee James
Succeeded byMatthew Donovan (acting)
Barbara Barrett
12th President of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
In office
June 17, 2013 – May 10, 2017
Preceded byRobert Wharton
Succeeded byJim Rankin
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New Mexico's 1st district
In office
June 25, 1998 – January 3, 2009
Preceded bySteven Schiff
Succeeded byMartin Heinrich
Personal details
Heather Ann Wilson

(1960-12-30) December 30, 1960 (age 63)
Keene, New Hampshire, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
SpouseJay Hone
EducationUnited States Air Force Academy (BS)
Jesus College, Oxford (MPhil, DPhil)
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Air Force
Years of service1978–1989
Rank Captain

Heather Ann Wilson (born December 30, 1960) is the 11th President of the University of Texas at El Paso. She previously served as the 24th Secretary of the United States Air Force from 2017 through 2019. Wilson was the 12th president of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in Rapid City from 2013 to 2017, and she was the first female military veteran elected to a full term in Congress.[1] She was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives for New Mexico's 1st congressional district from 1998 to 2009.

While Secretary of the Air Force, Wilson focused on restoring the readiness of the force which had declined after years of combat and budget constraints. She proposed and supported three straight years of double-digit budget increases for military space capability and publicly acknowledged that space is likely to be contested in any future conflict. Wilson also guided implementation of acquisition reform to reduce the time to get military capability to the warfighter and increase competition by making it easier for innovative companies to supply the Air Force. Wilson was honored by the Air Force, Army, Navy, and Department of Defense for her superior service upon her retirement.

While in the U.S. House of Representatives, Wilson focused on national security issues, serving on the United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and the United States House Committee on Armed Services.[1] She also focused on health care, energy, manufacturing and trade, and telecommunications, serving on the United States House Committee on Energy and Commerce.[1] She opted not to run for re-election in 2008 and sought the U.S. Senate seat of retiring senator Pete Domenici but finished second in the Republican primary to Congressman Steve Pearce, who then lost the general election to Democrat Tom Udall.[2] On March 7, 2011, she announced another run for Senate in 2012 to replace retiring senator Jeff Bingaman,[3] but lost the general election to Democrat Martin Heinrich, her successor in the House of Representatives.[4]

In April 2013 she was selected to be president of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology by the South Dakota Board of Regents.[5] She was the eighteenth president, and first female president, of SD Mines.[6] Upon the recommendation of Secretary of Defense James Mattis, on January 23, 2017, President Donald Trump announced that he would nominate Wilson as Secretary of the Air Force.[7] The U.S. Senate confirmed her nomination on May 8, 2017, and Mattis described her as “a leader for all seasons.”[8] On March 8, 2019, Wilson said that she would resign as Secretary, effective May 31, 2019, in order to assume the office of President of the University of Texas at El Paso.[9][10] On March 2, 2020, President Trump appointed Wilson to be a member of the National Science Board.[11]

Early life and education[edit]

Wilson was born on December 30, 1960, in Keene, New Hampshire, the daughter of Martha Lou, nurse, and George Douglas "Doug" Wilson, a commercial pilot and member of the Experimental Aircraft Association.[1][12][13] Wilson grew up around aviation and hoped to become a pilot like her father and grandfather before her.[1] Her paternal grandparents were born in Scotland.[14] Her grandfather, George Gordon "Scotty" Wilson, flew for the Royal Air Force in World War I and emigrated to America in 1922 where he was a barnstormer and airport operator in the 1920s and 1930s. He served as a courier pilot during World War II and started the New Hampshire Civil Air Patrol where he was a Wing Commander.[15] Her father started flying at age 13 and enlisted in the United States Air Force after high school.[16]

The United States Air Force Academy began admitting women during Wilson's junior year at Keene High School (Keene, New Hampshire). She applied and was appointed to the Academy.[1] At the Academy, she was the first woman to command basic training and the first woman Vice Wing Commander.[17] She graduated in 1982 as a Distinguished Graduate (magna cum laude equivalent).[18][19] Wilson earned a Rhodes Scholarship to study at the University of Oxford and continued her education at Jesus College, earning an M.Phil. and D.Phil. in international relations by 1985.[18]

In 1990, Oxford University Press published her book, International Law and the Use of Force by National Liberation Movements,[20] which won the 1988 Paul Reuter Prize of the International Committee of the Red Cross.[21] The Paul Reuter Prize is awarded for a major work in the sphere of international humanitarian law. Wilson won the second Reuter prize ever awarded.[22]

An Air Force officer for seven years, Wilson was a negotiator and political adviser to the U.S. Air Force in the United Kingdom, and a defense planning officer for NATO in Belgium, where her work included arms control negotiations.[23]


National Security Council[edit]

Wilson served in the United States Air Force until 1989 when she was chosen to serve as director for European Defense Policy and Arms Control on the National Security Council staff,[1] "the President's principal forum for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. [. . .] The Council also serves as the President's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies."[24] She worked for Republican president George H. W. Bush.[25] Her principal responsibilities included guiding the U.S. position on the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) negotiations and NATO affairs during the period of the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Warsaw Pact.[citation needed]

Keystone International[edit]

After leaving government in 1991, Wilson founded Keystone International, Inc. in Albuquerque, New Mexico to promote business development in the United States and Russia.[26][27]

Governor Johnson administration[edit]

In 1995, Governor Gary Johnson appointed Wilson to be Cabinet Secretary of the New Mexico Children, Youth, and Families Department,[26] a state-level agency with 2,000 employees and $200 million budget. During her tenure, Wilson lead efforts to reform child welfare laws, modernize the juvenile justice system, and improve early childhood education. This position led her to take an intense interest in Medicare and Medicaid and the ways in which the system can be improved to ensure the health of the American people and the American healthcare industry. Under her leadership, the department opened a juvenile work camp and a secure facility for young, non-violent offenders. It eliminated the wait for state-subsidized child care, revamped the foster care program and made adoptions faster. She also was an architect and the chief lobbyist for the governor's education agenda, including a law allowing charter schools, annual testing, and more budget authority for local school boards.[28]

U.S. House of Representatives[edit]

Congressional Photo of Heather Wilson (1998–2009)


1998 special election

Five-term Republican Congressman Steven Schiff declared he would not run for re-election in February 1998 because of his battle with squamous cell carcinoma. Wilson resigned her cabinet post to enter the Republican primary. She won the support of Schiff and U.S. Senator Pete Domenici. Domenici called Wilson "the most brilliantly qualified House candidate anywhere in the country."[29] After Congressman Schiff's death in March, a special election on June 23 was announced. Wilson won the Republican primary for the general election with 62 percent of the vote,[30] "propelling her to a sizable win in the June 2 primary for the fall election against conservative state senator William F. Davis."[1]

Three weeks after winning the primary, Wilson won the special election with 44 percent of the vote in a four-way race against Democratic state senator Phil Maloof, Green Party candidate Robert L. Anderson, and Libertarian Party candidation Bruce Bush.[31] She was sworn into office on June 25, 1998, making her the first woman since Georgia Lusk in 1946, and the first Republican woman ever, to represent New Mexico.[1]

The special election set a record for the infusion of party money.[32] For the June 23 special election, Maloof spent $3.1 million,[1] approximately $1.5 million of which came from the Maloof family fortune and $1 million from committees.[32] Wilson received $1 million from various GOP committees and raised an additional $1.5 million herself.[32]

The special election also raised awareness of a 1996 occurrence when Wilson had her family's foster parent records relocated to a more secure location. After completing an investigation, former district attorney Bob Schwartz confirmed that the file was intact, accessible to the Department, and had not been tampered with.[33] It remained in the custody of the Department, available for any official use but unavailable to her other than through the process all foster parents must use to get access to their records. Wilson produced an affidavit from the Department's General Counsel that the file remained intact and unavailable to her for the duration of her time as Cabinet Secretary.[34]

1998 general election

Less than five months later in the general election, Wilson faced Phil Maloof again. This time, she won a full term, defeating Maloof 48 percent to 41 percent.[35] Maloof far outspent Wilson again, spending an additional $5 million to Wilson's $1.1 million, making it the most expensive House race in New Mexico's history.[1]


Wilson managed to defeat her Democratic opponent, former U.S. Attorney John J. Kelly, by five points.[36]


Wilson had a somewhat easier time in 2002, defeating State Senate President Pro Tem Richard M. Romero by 10 points.[37]


In 2004, Wilson faced Romero again. Outside spending on the election was the 15th highest of all House races that year, totaling $2,499,980.[38] The National Republican Congressional Committee spent $1,085,956 in the race. The Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee spent $1,296,402.[39]

Wilson and 66 other candidates received $10,000 donations from then-U.S. House Majority Leader Tom DeLay's Americans for a Republican Majority (ARMPAC) political action committee. ARMPAC filed termination papers with the Federal Election Commission on April 24, 2007.[40] Wilson returned the $10,000 donation from ARMPAC.[41]

During Wilson's reelection campaign in 2004, Romero ran advertisements that made the suggestion that her votes in Congress aided Osama bin Laden because she had voted against a bill to require the screening of cargo holds. Wilson's campaign countered with a policy ad stating Romero "voted against the death penalty for child molesters who murder their victims."[42]

Wilson won the election by eight points.[37]


In the 2006 elections, Heather Wilson faced New Mexico Attorney General Patricia A. Madrid, and a poll taken from October 24–29 prior to the election by Reuters/Zogby showed Madrid leading Wilson 53–44.[43] Wilson won the election by 875 (out of 211,000) votes, or 0.4%[44]


Wilson was the first woman to represent New Mexico since Georgia Lusk in the 1940s.[45] Wilson was a member of the Republican Main Street Partnership, a coalition of centrist Republican leaders.[46] Wilson has appeared on HBO's Real Time with Bill Maher.[47]

On October 10, 2002, together with 213 other Republicans and 81 Democrats, Wilson voted in favor of authorizing the use of military force against Iraq.[48]

The Albuquerque Journal reported several instances in 2004 when Wilson acted in opposition to Republican interests: requiring the Bush administration to release cost figures for his prescription drug plan, criticizing Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld about the failure to properly respond to violations of the Geneva Conventions during an Abu Ghraib hearing, and opposing a move by House Republicans to protect Tom DeLay from his fundraising scandal. While critics said these were calculated moves to moderate her image for her upcoming election, Wilson later lost her seat on the House Armed Services Committee due to the actions of Republican Joe Barton, an ally of DeLay.[49][50][51]

Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 Motion to Recommit

In 2003, Wilson joined 221 Republicans and 1 Democrat in voting against a Motion to Recommit the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (HR 1).[52] The motion would have deleted entire sections of the joint House and Senate compromise bill and replaced them with the respective Senate version.

Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act

On January 21, 2004, legislation was introduced by Congressman Fred Upton to increase the fines and penalties for violating the prohibitions against the broadcast of obscene, indecent, or profane language. On February 11, 2004, the United States House Energy Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet held a hearing on the bill, at which representatives of the Federal Communications Commission, major broadcasting corporations, and the National Football League testified.[53] During the hearing, Wilson denounced Karmazin[54] saying, "You knew what you were doing. You knew what kind of entertainment you're selling, and you wanted us all to be abuzz, here in this room and on the playground in my kids' school, because it improves your ratings. It improves your market share, and it lines your pockets."[55] The bill, H.R. 3717,[56] passed the House of Representatives on March 26, 2004, by a vote of 391–22–1.[57]

NSA warrantless domestic surveillance

On February 7, 2006, Wilson, while serving as Chairwoman of the House Intelligence Subcommittee on Technical and Tactical Intelligence, called for a full congressional inquiry into the NSA warrantless surveillance. Eric Lichtblau of The New York Times said that "the congresswoman's discomfort with the operation appears to reflect deepening fissures among Republicans over the program's legal basis and political liabilities." In an interview for the article, Wilson said, "The president has his duty to do, but I have mine too, and I feel strongly about that."[58]

Terminated U.S. attorney

Wilson was accused of and later cleared of influencing the termination of a U.S. Attorney. In February 2007, former U.S. Attorney David Iglesias alleged that Wilson's competitive 2006 campaign for re-election to the House was a significant reason for his dismissal from the Justice Department.[59][60] In a March 2007 statement, Wilson said an October call to Iglesias was to resolve an allegation of ethical impropriety made against Iglesias, which Iglesias denied. Iglesias never reported the contact, as he was required to do by DOJ rules.[61] In July 2007, the United States House Committee on Ethics decided not to proceed with any investigation of Wilson.[62] The Justice Department also did a review and the matter was thereafter closed.[63]

Environmental record

Wilson was a member of the Republican Main Street Partnership, the chairs of which introduced legislation to make the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a cabinet department.[64]

Wilson, along with 80 Democrats and 215 other Republicans, supported House passage of the conference report on the Healthy Forests Restoration Act, which opponents argued would "reduce and expedite environmental and judicial reviews of forest thinning projects.[64]

Wilson, 36 Democrats, and 192 other Republicans supported House passage of the Threatened and Endangered Species Recovery Act of 2005, which would have amended and reauthorized the Endangered Species Act of 1973 to provide greater results conserving and recovering listed species, and for other purposes.[64]

The League of Conservation Voters (LCV) Action Fund, the political advocacy group's Political Action Committee (PAC), named Wilson to its 2006 "Dirty Dozen" list[65] of members of Congress targeted for defeat by the LCV in the 2006 elections.[65] The LCVAF also issued a press release in which Wilson was criticized for voting against a $58 million fund for voluntary conservation measures in the state.[66]

Committee assignments[edit]

2008 U.S. Senate campaign[edit]

Wilson was defeated in a June 3, 2008, primary against Congressman Steve Pearce by a margin of 51% to 49%.[68] Wilson immediately endorsed Pearce's candidacy, saying that Republicans have "no time for disappointment or for bitterness. Republicans have made their choice and I gladly accept it."[69] In the general election, Pearce was overwhelmingly defeated by Congressman Tom Udall, 61% to 39%.[70]

2012 U.S. Senate campaign[edit]

On November 6, 2012, incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Jeff Bingaman decided to retire instead of running for reelection to a sixth term.[71] Wilson won the Republican nomination to succeed him, and faced Democrat Martin Heinrich, who had succeeded Wilson in Congress. In the general election, Heinrich defeated Wilson 51% to 45%.[72]

Academic career[edit]

Wilson served as president of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology from 2013 to 2017, leaving to accept the appointment of Secretary of the Air Force.[73] She returned to academia as the president of the University of Texas at El Paso following her resignation as Secretary of the Air Force.

Secretary of the Air Force[edit]

Wilson's official portrait as Secretary of the Air Force, 2017

After being nominated by President Donald Trump on January 23, 2017, and confirmed by the U.S. Senate on May 8, 2017, Wilson became the first U.S. Air Force Academy graduate to be sworn in as Secretary of the Air Force on May 16, 2017.[74]

As the 24th Secretary of the Air Force, she was responsible for the matters of the Air Force Department, including the organization, training, equipping and supplying 685,000 active, guard, reserve and civilian personnel and their families. She supervised the Air Force's yearly budget of more than $138 billion and leads strategy and policy development, risk management, weapons procurement, technology investments and human resources management within a global enterprise.[75]

On March 8, 2019, Wilson announced she would resign from this position to be President of the University of Texas at El Paso.[10]

Business career[edit]

Wilson was the head of the consulting firm, Heather Wilson & Company after leaving Congress.

During her Senate campaign, the Department of Energy began a review of her contracts with national laboratories. In June 2013, a Department of Energy Inspector General report claimed that Wilson collected $450,000 from four Department of Energy facilities between January 2009 and March 2011. The report criticized the labs for maintaining unsatisfactory documentation on the work performed. The labs disagreed with the report.[76]

Sandia Corp., one of the laboratories, reimbursed the federal government for the fees paid to Heather Wilson & Company. There was a settlement agreement with the Justice Department, and Wilson was not mentioned in that agreement. In addition, Wilson stated that she "was not a lobbyist for Sandia and [she] was not a member of the Contract Strategy Team criticized by the Inspector General's report."[77]

Heather Wilson chaired the Women in Aviation Advisory Board to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and has served on corporate boards of directors including Maxar Technologies, Raven Industries and Peabody Energy.

Personal life[edit]

Wilson is an instrument rated private pilot. She is married to Jay Hone, an attorney and retired Air National Guard Colonel. They have two adult children and two granddaughters.[78] Their adopted son, Scott Alexander Hone, passed away in 2023. [79]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "WILSON, Heather | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  2. ^ "Updated: Race for the Senate: Heather Wilson". abqjournal.com. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  3. ^ "Breaking: Heather Wilson is Running For Senate". abqjournal.com. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  4. ^ "Updated: Wilson being considered for top national security job". abqjournal.com. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  5. ^ "Mines Family Welcomes Wilson Family". South Dakota School of Mines & Technology. June 26, 2013. Archived from the original on June 26, 2013. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  6. ^ "PHOTOS: Heather Wilson's tenure at School of Mines". Rapid City Journal. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  7. ^ "President Donald J. Trump Intends to Nominate Heather Wilson as Secretary of the Air Force". whitehouse.gov. January 23, 2017. Archived from the original on January 24, 2017. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  8. ^ "Senate confirms Trump's Air Force chief". TheHill. May 8, 2017. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  9. ^ Lamothe, Dan; Sonne, Paul (March 8, 2019). "Air Force Secretary Heather Wilson says she will resign". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  10. ^ a b Morgan, Wesley (March 8, 2019). "Air Force secretary is stepping down". Politico. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  11. ^ www.whitehouse.gov
  12. ^ "Area native is president's pick for Air Force secretary". SentinelSource.com. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  13. ^ "Difficult childhood drove Wilson to seek a better life". NMPolitics.net. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  14. ^ "Polishing a hidden gem". Rapid City Journal. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  15. ^ Woster, Kevin (February 23, 2017). "Wilson carries Frost, Tennyson on road less traveled to lead Air Force". South Dakota Public Broadcasting. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  16. ^ Rubin, Jennifer (April 18, 2012). "Interview: Heather Wilson, Senate candidate". Washington Post. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  17. ^ "President Heather Wilson Inauguration Set for Oct. 4 at South Dakota School of Mines & Technology". PRWeb. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  18. ^ a b "Wilson, Heather". United States Congress. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
  19. ^ "White House nominates Academy grad Heather Wilson to become Air Force". Dobbins Air Reserve Base. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  20. ^ Wilson, Heather A. (1990). International Law and the Use of Force by National Liberation Movements. Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780198256625.
  21. ^ "Paul Reuter Prize". icrc.org. November 19, 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
  22. ^ "The Paul Reuter Prize". icrc.org. November 30, 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
  23. ^ "Albuquerque Journal from Albuquerque, New Mexico on April 30, 1998 · Page 2". Newspapers.com. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  24. ^ "National Security Council". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved May 15, 2017 – via National Archives.
  25. ^ "US Senate confirms Heather Wilson as Air Force secretary, 76-22". Defense News. May 8, 2017. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  26. ^ a b Kheel, Rebecca (January 23, 2017). "Trump taps former congresswoman for Air Force secretary". The Hill. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  27. ^ Lamothe, Dan (January 23, 2017). "ChecTrump picks former congresswoman and Air Force veteran Heather Wilson as Air Force secretary". Washington Post. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  28. ^ "Heather A. Wilson". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 13, 2011.[dead link]
  29. ^ See "Women in Congress: Heather A. Wilson" Archived April 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Helen Douglas Mankin was a Red Cross civilian nurse who served in World War I, but did not have veteran status. Catherine Small Long, a member of the Navy WAVES, was elected to complete the term of her husband who died in office and did not run for re-election.
  30. ^ "NM District 01 – R Primary". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
  31. ^ "Secretary of State | Special Election Results". February 13, 2008. Archived from the original on February 13, 2008. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  32. ^ a b c "GOP Spends $1 Million to Hold N.M. Seat". Washington Post. June 25, 1998. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
  33. ^ Lumpkin, John J. (June 17, 1998). "Former DA Says Wilson Broke No Law Over File". Albuquerque Journal. Archived from the original on October 14, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
  34. ^ "ABQ Journal: DA Plans Check on Wilson Records". abqjournal.com. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  35. ^ "State of New Mexico | Official 1998 General Election Results for United States Representative - District 01". New Mexico Secretary of State. Archived from the original on July 3, 2008. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  36. ^ "The 2000 Elections: State by State". The New York Times. November 9, 2000. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  37. ^ a b "CNN.com - Wilson beats Romero in New Mexico - Nov 3, 2004". cnn.com. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  38. ^ "2004 Outside Spending, by Races". OpenSecrets. Retrieved August 15, 2011.
  39. ^ "Congressional Elections: New Mexico District 01 Race: 2004 Cycle". OpenSecrets. Retrieved August 15, 2011.
  40. ^ "DeLay's PAC closes shop" Archived May 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Washington Post, May 1, 2007
  41. ^ Trenkle, Jason (September 30, 2005). "DeLay's PAC gave money to NM reps; Wilson returned it". New Mexico Business Weekly. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
  42. ^ Navrot, Miguel (October 17, 2004). "House Race Is Close, Intense With Both Wilson, Romero on Attack". Albuquerque Journal.
  43. ^ Whitesides, John (November 1, 2006). "House control in range for Democrats: Reuters poll". Archived from the original on June 10, 2007.
  44. ^ "CNN 2004 election results". Retrieved February 6, 2008.
  45. ^ "Lusk, Georgia Lee, Biographical information". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
  46. ^ "Republican Main Street Partnership Website". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved October 5, 2007.
  47. ^ "Broadcast Transcript". Bill Maher. September 19, 2003. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
  48. ^ "H.J.Res. 114 (107th): Authorization for Use of Military Force Against ... -- House Vote #455 -- Oct 10, 2002". GovTrack.us. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  49. ^ Coleman, Michael (December 17, 2004). "Wilson Scrambling To Keep Energy Seat". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved October 6, 2007.
  50. ^ Fleck, John (January 27, 2005). "Wilson Will Return to Intelligence Panel". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved October 6, 2007.
  51. ^ Coleman, Michael (January 30, 2005). "N.M. Delegation Heads to Capitol With High Hopes". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved October 6, 2007.
  52. ^ "Conference Report ON H.R. 1, Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 – (House of Representatives – November 21, 2003)" (PDF). November 21, 2003. Retrieved November 24, 2019.
  53. ^ Janofsky, Michael (February 12, 2004). "Review of TV Decency Law Looks Beyond Bared Breast". New York Times. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
  54. ^ "The Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act of 2004" (PDF). Government Printing Office. February 11, 2004. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
  55. ^ "NM Republican Heather Wilson's "Nipplegate" commentary". YouTube.com. November 3, 2006. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
  56. ^ "Bill Summary & Status 108th Congress (2003-2004) H.R.3717". Library of Congress. March 26, 2004. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
  57. ^ "House Passes Broadcast Decency Bill". FoxNews.com. March 11, 2004. Archived from the original on July 26, 2008. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
  58. ^ Lichtblau, Eric; Scott Shane (February 8, 2006). "Republican Who Oversees N.S.A. Calls for Wiretap Inquiry". New York Times.
  59. ^ Taylor, Marisa (March 1, 2007). "Sources: GOP lawmakers tried to influence federal investigation". McClatchy Newspapers. Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved March 16, 2007.
  60. ^ Gallagher, Mike (April 15, 2007). "Domenici Sought Iglesias Ouster". The Albuquerque Journal.
  61. ^ Wilson, Heather (March 5, 2007). "Statement from Congresswoman Heather Wilson". Washington Post. Retrieved March 16, 2007.
  62. ^ "Wilson formally enters U.S. Senate race". March 7, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2011.
  63. ^ "House Ethics Committee to ask Iglesias about call from Heather Wilson". Albuquerque Tribune. July 31, 2007. Archived from the original on April 6, 2012.
  64. ^ a b c Issues2000.org. "Heather Wilson on the Issues". ontheissues.org. Retrieved May 16, 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  65. ^ a b "LCVAF Names Next 7 "Dirty Dozen" Members". June 13, 2006. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
  66. ^ [1][permanent dead link]
  67. ^ "Congressional Directory". gpoaccess.gov. December 8, 2009. Archived from the original on August 12, 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
  68. ^ "Canvass of Returns of Primary Election Held on June 3, 2008 – State of New Mexico" (PDF). New Mexico Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 22, 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  69. ^ "State Republican Pre-Primary Convention Results". Republican Party of New Mexico. March 17, 2008. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
  70. ^ "Congressional Elections: New Mexico Senate Race: 2008 Cycle". OpenSecrets. Retrieved August 15, 2011.
  71. ^ "Bingaman won't run for Senate in 2012". The Washington Post. February 19, 2011. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  72. ^ "2012 New Mexico Senate Results". Politico. Archived from the original on July 14, 2017. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  73. ^ "South Dakota School of Mines and Technology".
  74. ^ Giaritelli, Anna (May 16, 2017). "Heather Wilson sworn in as Air Force secretary during emotional ceremony". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  75. ^ "HEATHER WILSON > U.S. Air Force > Biography Display". www.af.mil. Retrieved January 21, 2020.
  76. ^ Dixon, Darius (June 11, 2013). "DOE IG flags $450K in payments to Heather Wilson's firm". Politico. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
  77. ^ Bureau, Michael Coleman | Journal Washington. "Updated: Feds fine Sandia for improper lobbying". abqjournal.com. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  78. ^ "Biography: Heather Wilson, President". South Dakota School of Mines. Archived from the original on January 25, 2017. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  79. ^ "Scott Hone Obituary (1970 - 2023) - Albuquerque, NM - Albuquerque Journal". Legacy.com.

External links[edit]

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New Mexico's 1st congressional district

Succeeded by
Party political offices
Preceded by
Allen McCulloch
Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from New Mexico
(Class 1)

Succeeded by
Academic offices
Preceded by
Robert Wharton
12th President of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
Succeeded by
Jan Puszynski
Preceded by 11th President of the University of Texas at El Paso
Political offices
Preceded by 24th United States Secretary of the Air Force
Succeeded by
U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded byas Former U.S. Representative Order of precedence of the United States
as Former U.S. Representative
Succeeded byas Former U.S. Representative