Hashmat Kevalramani

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Hashmat Kewalramani, also spelled as Hashmat Kevalramani, sometimes written as Hushu Kewalramani, but most commonly as Hashoo Kewalramani (Sindhi: حشو ڪيولراماڻي), was a Sindhi dissident, political activist, and writer.[1] He was forcibly exiled from Pakistan in 1949.[2]

As a writer, he authored a book called Pakistan X-rayed. He also wrote articles for Economic and Political Weekly.[3]

Early life and education[edit]

Kewalramani was born in Bharan or Bharasti village of Naushahro Feroze District on December 20, 1914. His father, Tehilram, served as a Resident Magistrate.[4] After his father's demise when he was eight, his mother took over his upbringing and education.[4]

Kewalramani's educational journey took him from Karachi to Ceylon (modern-day Sri Lanka), and eventually to England, where he was exposed to socialism.[4] While in London, Kewalramani was a classfellow of Indira Gandhi and was actively involved in the independence movement.[2] Among his companions were Shaikh Ayaz, Sobho Gianchandani, Ibrahim Joyo, and GM Syed.[2] His political involvement grew while in England, culminating in his active participation in the Indian student community and the labor movement.[4] He returned from England without a degree to engage in politics.[2]


Returning to Sindh in 1939, he became involved in the Karachi Labor and Student Movements.[4] Despite confrontations with authorities leading to his imprisonment, Kewalramani founded the Sindh Students Federation in 1942, encouraging socialist and nationalist ideologies among young people.[4]

Syed noted that Kewalramani contributed significantly to the establishment of the Sindhi Samaj in Delhi, initially organizing a Sindhi Language Convention attended by then President of India, Radha Krishan.[2] He advocated for a united, independent India and opposed British rule.[2]

Following the 1947 partition of India, Kewalramani advocated for Sindhi rights and due to this, he was placed under house arrest in Karachi.[2][4] During this period, he translated GM Syed's book My Struggle for a New Sindh into English and worked for the monthly magazine Pakistan Times.[2] His activities were deemed threatening by the new Pakistani government, resulting in his forced departure from the country in 1949.[2][4]

Despite being presented before the court of Masood Khadarpoosh, then Commissioner of Karachi, Kewalramani was unwilling to leave Pakistan for India.[2] Relocated to India, he turned to journalism and worked towards the recognition of the Sindhi language and culture.[4] He was a significant figure in the movement to include the Sindhi language in the Indian Constitution and advocated for the revival of the Sindhi script.[4] Kewalramani maintained communication with key figures in Sindh and composed numerous English columns regarding various sociopolitical issues.[4] He also translated several Sindhi stories into English, further contributing to Sindhi literature.[4] Even after 15 years of exile in India, he still considered himself a refugee in 1963.[2]

Personal life[edit]

Kewalramani married Sarla Ahuja, with whom he had a son named Gul who later gained prominence in the art world.[4]

Books written[edit]

  • Pakistan X-rayed (1951)
  • Sindhi Short Stories


  1. ^ "سنڌ جو عظيم المياتي ڪردار ڪامريڊ حشو ڪيولراماڻي!! - Awami Awaz". 21 December 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Balouch, Akhtar (May 23, 2015). "Hashmat Kevalramani: Pakistan's first exiled man". Dawn.
  3. ^ "Hashoo kewal ramani".
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "حشو ڪيولراماڻي : (Sindhianaسنڌيانا)". Encyclopedia Sindhiana.

Further reading[edit]

  • Janab Guzaaryam Jann Sien by GM Syed, p. 217
  • Wahee Khaatay Jaa Panaa by Laxman Komal, p. 75
  • Sahiwal Jail Kee Diary by Shaikh Ayaz