|Native to||People's Republic of China|
|Region||Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China|
|(1.2 million cited 1987)|
The Hangzhou dialect (simplified Chinese: 杭州话; traditional Chinese: 杭州話; pinyin: Hángzhōuhuà, Rhangzei Rhwa) is spoken in the city of Hangzhou, China and its immediate suburbs, but excluding areas further away from Hangzhou such as Xiāoshān (蕭山) and Yúháng (余杭) (both originally county-level cities and now the districts within Hangzhou City). Its number of speakers has been estimated to be about 1.2 to 1.5 million. It is a dialect of Wu, one of the Chinese varieties.
The Hangzhou dialect is of immense interest to Chinese historical phonologists and dialectologists because phonologically, it exhibits extensive similarities with the other Wu dialects; however, grammatically and lexically, it shows many Mandarin tendencies. Although the Hangzhou dialect has the basic characteristics of the Wu language, several waves of migration from the north, represented by the southward relocation of the ruling centre of Song dynasty, have caused the local language system to undergo great changes and gradually take on a special character in Jiangnan region.
The Hangzhou dialect is classified as a "developing" language, with a rating of 5 on the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS), meaning it is still in vigorous use, but its written form are neither sustainable, nor widespread.
Richard VanNess Simmons, a professor of Chinese at Rutgers University in New Jersey, United States, argues that Hangzhounese, rather than being Wu as it was classified by Yuen Ren Chao, is a Mandarin variety. He further proves that the Mandarin layer in Hangzhounese is demonstrably Northern, using features such as the palatalization of the historical velar initials in division II, thereby making it unrelated to nearby Jianghuai and Southwestern Mandarin. Chao had developed a "Common Wu Syllabary" for the Wu dialects. Simmons claimed that had Chao compared the Hangzhounese to the Wu syllabary and Jianghuai dialects, he would have found more similarities to Mandarin languages. Jianghuai Mandarin shares an "old literary layer" as a stratum with southern languages like Southern Min, Hakka, Gan and Hangzhounese, which it does not share with Northern Mandarin. Sino-Vietnamese also shares some of these characteristics. The stratum in Min Nan specifically consist of Zeng group and Geng group's "n" and "t" finals when an "i" initial is present.
John H. McWhorter claimed that Hangzhounese was categorized as a Wu variety because seven tones are present in Hangzhounese, which is significantly more than the typical number of tones found in northern Mandarin lects, which is typically four.
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It stretches from yuhang xiasha in the east to the Qiangtang River in the south. A growing number of Hangzhounese speakers is emerging overseas in New York City, United States.
The Hangzhou dialect is mainly spoken in the urban area in Hangzhou, including the urban area of Gongshu district, Shangcheng district, Xiacheng district, the urban area of Jianggan district, the urban area and seven villages of Xihu district, and part of Binjiang district.
|High||i y||ï ÿ||u|
- Syllabic continuants: [z̩] [z̩ʷ] [m̩] [ŋ̩] [l̩]
- The Hangzhou dialect has a rare "apical glide" [ʮ] which is an allophone of /w/ after sibilant initials.
- /j/ is pronounced [ɥ] before rounded vowels.
- Contrast can be found to justify most of these vowels as distinct phonemes in Hangzhou dialect. /i, y/ and /ï, ÿ/, however, are in complementary distribution. /ï/ and /ÿ/ are only found following sibilants /ts, ts', dz, s/ and /z/, where /i/ and /y/ does not.
In HZD, bilabial fricatives [ɸ] and [β] are allophone of bilabial fricatives /f/ and /v/ after [u].
Vowels /y/ and /ʏ/ are contrastive, representing different characters with different meaning.
|流||[lʏ13]||moving of liquid|
Glottalization of initial nasals and laterals
Some initial nasals and laterals are glottalized.
Syllable Patterns and Tones
In Hangzhou dialect (hereafter: HZD), phonetic symbol is divided into onsets and rhymes using onset-rhyme model. Onsets are simple and not mandatory, vowels can appear initially if [m], [n] and [əl] appear in the rhyme. HZD does not allow codas, but nasals are permitted at the end of the syllable, if they are part of the complex nucleus.
The old Hangzhou dialect has 53 rhymes.
|Rhymes in old HZD|
The Hangzhou tonal system is similar to that of the Suzhou dialect, in that some words with shàng tone in Middle Chinese have merged with the yīn qù tone. Since the tone split dating from Middle Chinese still depends on the voicing of the initial consonant, these constitute just three phonemic tones: pin, shang, and qu. (Ru syllables are phonemically toneless.)
|Tone number||Tone name||Tone letters||Description|
|1||yin ping (陰平)||˧˨˧ (323)||mid dipping|
|2||yang ping (陽平)||˨˩˨ (212)||low dipping|
|3||shang (上)||˥˩ (51)||falling|
|4||yin qu (陰去)||˧˦ (334)||mid rising|
|5||yang qu (陽去)||˩˧ (113)||low rising|
|6||yin ru (陰入)||˥ʔ (5)||high checked|
|7||yang ru (陽入)||˩˨ʔ (12)||low checked|
In HZD, the tones will change not only because of the nearby tones, but also due to the phrase structures.
|relidei||日里头||in the day|
|zaogedei||早间头||in the morning|
|yadaobian||夜到边||in the evening|
|xiaodiadia||小爷爷||grandfather's sister's husband|
|xiaoboubou||小伯伯||father's younger brother|
|damuma||大姆妈||wife of father's oldest brother|
|senniang||婶娘||wife of father's little brother|
|guvu||姑夫||father's sister's husband|
|jiumu||舅妈||wife of mother's brother|
|ganyi||干姨||mother's sister's husband|
|biaogou/biaodi||表哥/表弟||male older/younger cousin who does not share surname|
|biaojie/biaomei||表姐/表妹||female older/younger cousin who does not share surname|
|danggou/dangdi||堂哥/堂弟||male older/younger cousin who shares the same surname|
|dangjie/dangmei||堂姐/堂妹||female older/younger cousin who shares the same surname|
|Prepositions||tong||同||to (as in 对 in Mandarin)|
The most important event to have impacted Hangzhou's dialect was the city's establishment as Lin'an, the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty. When the Northern Song Dynasty was conquered by the Jin Dynasty in 1127, large numbers of northern refugees fled to what is now Hangzhou, speaking predominantly Mandarin of the Henan variety. Within 30 years, contemporary accounts record that immigrants outnumbered natives in Hangzhou. This resulted in Mandarin influences in the pronunciation, lexicon and grammar of the Hangzhou dialect.
Further influence by Mandarin occurred after the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1912. The local Manchu garrisons were dissolved, adding significant numbers of the Beijing dialect Mandarin speakers to the population.
In recent years, with the standardization of Mandarin, the vitality of the Hangzhou dialect is decreasing. As Kandrysawtz concluded, the Hangzhou dialect is spoken in fewer places and by fewer people, especially the younger generation. Some people also hold the attitude that the Hangzhou dialect is not appropriate in official occasions.
- Wu Chinese
- List of varieties of Chinese
- Chinatowns in Queens § Flushing
- Simmons (1995).
- "杭州市文化广电旅游局 Hangzhou Dialect". wgly.hangzhou.gov.cn. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
- Kandrysawtz, Kai (December 2017). The Vitality of the Hangzhou Dialect of Mandarin (PDF) (Report). Vol. 55. p. 3.
- Li, Rong (2012). 中國語言地圖集.
- David Prager Branner (2006). David Prager Branner (ed.). The Chinese rime tables: linguistic philosophy and historical-comparative phonology. Vol. 271 of Amsterdam studies in the theory and history of linguistic science: Current issues in linguistic theory (illustrated ed.). John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 206. ISBN 90-272-4785-4. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
Had Chao developed a syllabary for the Jiang-Huai Mandarin dialects with a diagnostic power and representativeness comparable to that of his Wu Syllabary, and had he placed Hangzhou in that context, he most surely would have discovered
- Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, Inc. Internet Database Service (2007). Linguistics and language behavior abstracts: LLBA., Volume 41, Issue 4. Sociological Abstracts, Inc. p. 1541. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
We point out that in fact this stratum is an old literary layer in Minnan dialects. We find it also exists in Hakka-gan dialects, the Hangzhou dialect. South East Mandarins, & Jianghuai Mandarins extensively. In Sino-annamite. there are(the University of Michigan)
- University of California, Berkeley. Project on Linguistic Analysis (2007). Journal of Chinese linguistics, Volume 35. Project on Linguistic Analysis. p. 97. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
We find it also exists in Hakka-gan dialects, Hangzhou dialect, South East Mandarins, Jianghuai Mandarins extensively. In Sino-annamite, there are some similarities to Minnan dialects. Basing on our new findings, we believe that in Song
- John H. McWhorter (2007). Language interrupted: signs of non-native acquisition in standard language grammars (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-19-530980-5. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
For example, many Mandarin dialects have more than four tones. Hangzhou has no fewer than seven, such that it was previously classified as a Wu dialect (Simmons 1992; Baxter 2000, 106–8). In the Jiang-Huai region five-tone dialects are not uncommon, with six-tone ones reported on the Northern/Central boundary (Norman 1988, 194). These represent a retention of one of the original four tones of Middle Chinese (the rù tone), as distinguished from the more common Mandarin trait of having lost this tone while collapsing the two-way register distinction between the three others into a four-tone contrast not contingent upon register
- Cao, Zhiyun (2006). "浙江省的汉语方言". 方言. 3: 255–263 – via ixueshu.
- Simmons, Richard VanNess (12 June 1992). The Hangzhou Dialect (Thesis). p. 55.
- Yue, Yang; Hu, Fang (2018), "Vowels and Diphthongs in Hangzhou Wu Chinese Dialect" (PDF), Proc. Interspeech: 207–211, doi:10.21437/Interspeech.2018-1225, S2CID 52187066
- Simmons, Richard VanNess (1992). The Hangzhou dialect (Thesis).
- You, Rujie (24 January 2011). "杭州話語音特點及其古官話成分". 中國語言學集刊第五卷第一期:129-144, 2011BULLETIN OF CHINESE LINGUISTICS5.1: 129-144, 201. 5 (1): 132. doi:10.1163/2405478X-90000076.
- You, Rujie (24 January 2011). "杭州話語音特點及其古官話成分". 中國語言學集刊第五卷第一期:129-144, 2011BULLETIN OF CHINESE LINGUISTICS5.1: 129-144, 201. 5 (1): 134. doi:10.1163/2405478X-90000076.
- Hao, Sheng. An Introduction to Hangzhou Dialect (PDF) (Report). p. 4.
- Boltz, William G. (2000–2001). "Notes on Richard VanNess Simmons: Chinese Dialect Classification" (PDF). Oriens Extremus. 42.
- Qián, Nǎiróng 錢乃榮 (1992). 當代吳語研究 Dāngdài Wúyǔ yánjiū [Contemporary Wu linguistics studies]. Shanghai: 上海敎育出版社 Shànghǎi jiàoyù chūbǎnshè. ISBN 7-5320-2355-9.
- Simmons, Richard VanNess (1995). "Distinguishing characteristics of the Hangzhou dialect" (PDF). New Asia Academic Bulletin. 11: 383–398.
- Simmons, Richard VanNess (1999). Chinese Dialect Classification: A comparative approach to Harngjou, Old Jintarn, and Common Northern Wu. John Benjamins. ISBN 978-90-272-3694-4.