Gujrat District

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Gujrat
ضلع گجرات
The oldest mosque in Gujrat - Eid Gah Gujrat.jpg
Rice crop in Chakrian, September 2016.jpg
Top: Gujrat Eidgah
Bottom: Rice fields in Chakrian
Map of Gujrat District
Map of Gujrat District
Country Pakistan
Province Punjab
DivisionGujranwala
HeadquartersGujrat
Government
 • Deputy CommissionerDr. Khurram Shahzad [1]
 • District Police OfficerUmar Salamat
 • District Health OfficerN/A
Area
 • Total3,192 km2 (1,232 sq mi)
Population
 (2017)[2]
 • Total2,756,289
 • Density860/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+5 (PST)
Number of Tehsils4

Gujrat (Punjabi and Urdu: ضلع گجرات), is a district of Punjab Province in Pakistan.

It is bounded on the northeast by Mirpur, on the northwest by the River Jhelum, which separates it from Jhelum District, on the east and southeast by the Chenab River, separating it from the districts of Gujranwala and Sialkot, and on the west by Mandi Bahauddin. District Gujrat is spread over an area of 3,192 square kilometres.

History[edit]

Ancient history[edit]

According to the British Imperial Gazetteer:

Gujrat town itself is a place of some antiquity, and the district bounds in ancient sites.The region was conquered by Chandragupta Maurya. It remained under the Mauryas for few hundred years until shortly after the death of Ashoka in 231, and about forty years later came under the sway of Demetrius the Graeco-Bactrian. The overthrow of the Bactrians by the Parthians in the latter half of the second century brought another change of rulers, and the coins of the Indo-Parthian Maues (c. 120 B. c.), who is known to local tradition as Raja Moga, have been found at Mong. At the end of the first century A. D., i.e. whole of the Punjab was conquered by the Yueh-chi. For several hundred years nothing is known of the history of the District, except that between 455 and 540 it must have been exposed to the ravages of the White Huns. Dr. Stein holds that the District formed part of the kingdom of Gurjara, which, according to the Rajatarangini, was invaded between 883 and 902 by Sankara Varman of Kashmir, who defeated its king Alakana.[3]

However the foundation of the capital, Gujrat, according to the Ancient Geography of India:

is ascribed to a king named Bachan Pal of whom nothing more is known; and its restoration is attributed to Alakhana, the Maha Raja of Gurjara, who was defeated by Sangkara Varmma between AD 883 AD 901.[4]

Islamic Rule (Ghaznavid, Ghurid, Delhi, Suri and Mughal Empires)[edit]

In 997 CE, Mahmud Ghaznavi, took rule over the Ghaznavid dynasty established by his father Sebuktegin. After defeating the Hindu Shahis, he conquered their kingdom entirely which included the Punjab region of modern day Pakistan.

After defeating the Ghaznavids, the Ghurids succeeded them who were then replaced by the Delhi Sultanate.

The Mughal emperor Akbar established Gujrat as a district along with many others when he began consolidating his rule over his vast empire. Jahangir, Akbars son and successor, in his memoirs records the following information on Gujrat:

At the time when His Majesty Akbar went to Kashmir, a fort had been built on the bank of that river. Having brought to this fort a body of Gujars who had passed their time in the neighbourhood in thieving and highway robbery, he established them here. As it had become the abode of Gujars, he made it a separate pargana, and gave it the name of Gujrat. "[5]

The settlement of the tract was completed by Akbar, who built a fort and compelled the Gujars to settle in it. The tract was then named Gujrat and formed into a separate district. Revenue records have been preserved in the families of the hereditary registrars (kanungos), and these exhibit Gujrat the capital of a district containing 2,592 villages, paying a revenue of 11.6 million. In 1605 the famous Sayyid Abdul Kasim received Gujrat as a fief from Akbar.

After Aurangzebs death in 1707, Mughal power declined. Nadir Shah occupied the district of Gujrat during his invasion of the Mughal Empire in 1739. Shortly afterwards in 1741, the city was captured by Punjabi Gakhar tribesmen from near the Rawalpindi area.

The district and Punjab as a whole was devastated even further from the invasions and raids of the Durrani Afghans (Pashtuns) between 1747 and 1772 under their newly appointed ruler Ahmad Shah Durrani who frequently crossed and recrossed the area for plunder and battling the newly emerged Sikh Misls for control of the region following the power vacuum left by the Mughals.[3]

Sikh and British era[edit]

By 1765, the Sikhs had eventually won out against the Durranis for control in the area of Gujrat when the Sikh Bhangi Misl under Gujjar Singh overran the area defeating the local Punjabi Ghakhars under Muqqarab Khan. The Sikhs defeated an invasion of an Afghan force for Gujrat on 29 April 1797.

In 1798, the Bhangi leader Sahib Singh pledged allegiance to the Sukerchakia Misl of Ranjit Singh. By 1810, Ranjit Singh's armies captured the city from Bhangi forces, thereby extending the rule of the Sikh Empire to the city.

The Sikh empire declined following Ranjit Singh’s death in 1839. The British East Indian Company defeated the Sikhs between 1845 and 1846 during the First Anglo-Sikh War reducing their power significantly. Two years later, the empire collapsed after the British EIC again decisively defeated the Sikhs at the Battle of Gujrat thus ending the Second Anglo-Sikh War. The Sikh empire was entirely annexed and incorporated into the rule of the British EIC.[3]

Demographics[edit]

According to 2017 census the population of the district is 2,756,289 of which 1,334,775 are males and 1,421,295 are females. 1,928,789 live in rural areas while 827,500 live in urban areas.

Religion[edit]

As per the 2017 census Islam is the dominant religion with 99.08% of the population while there is a minority of 0.77% Christians who live mainly in urban areas.

Religion in Gujrat District
Religion Population (1941)[6]: 42  Percentage (1941)
Islam Star and Crescent.svg 945,609 85.58%
Hinduism Om.svg 84,643 7.66%
Sikhism Khanda.svg 70,233 6.36%
Christianity Christian cross.svg 4,391 0.4%
Others [a] 76 0.01%
Total Population 1,104,952 100%

Language[edit]

At the time of the 2017 census 96.50% of the population spoke Punjabi and 1.81% Pashto as their first language.[2]

Administration[edit]

The district is administratively subdivided into four tehsils,[7] these are:

Education[edit]

District Gujrat has a total of 1,475 government schools at primary and secondary level.[9] Out of these public schools, 60 percent (889 schools) are for girls. According to the latest available data, 323,058 students are enrolled in the public schools while 10,581 teachers are working in these schools.

Notable people[edit]

Politicians[edit]

Scholars[edit]

Military[edit]

Poets[edit]

Sport[edit]

Actors/Actresses[edit]

Musicians[edit]

Other[edit]

  • The family of UK-born Shafilea Ahmed, an honour killing victim, originated from Uttam.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "DCs of Gujrat, Rahim Yar Khan transferred". Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  2. ^ a b "District Wise Results / Tables (Census - 2017)". www.pbscensus.gov.pk. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.
  3. ^ a b c Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 366
  4. ^ The Ancient Geography of India, page 151, Alexander Cunningham
  5. ^ The Memoirs of Jahangueir (Rogers), Volume 1, chpt. 23
  6. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1941 VOLUME VI PUNJAB PROVINCE". Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  7. ^ "4 new tehsils in Punjab on the cards". Latest News - The Nation.
  8. ^ Butt, Waseem Ashraf (20 November 2016). "Jalalpur Jattan notified as tehsil". DAWN.COM.
  9. ^ "Punjab Annual Schools Census Data 2014-15". Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  10. ^ "PML-Q's Moonis Elahi sworn in as federal minister". Dawn.com. 20 July 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
  11. ^ Crilly, Rob (3 August 2012). "The Pakistan village where Shafilea drank bleach to avoid an arranged marriage". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  1. ^ Including Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Ad-Dharmis, or not stated

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 32°35′N 73°45′E / 32.583°N 73.750°E / 32.583; 73.750