Graphics display resolution

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A chart showing the number of pixels in different display resolutions

The graphics display resolution is the width and height dimension of an electronic visual display device, measured in pixels. This information is used for electronic devices such as a computer monitor. Certain combinations of width and height are standardized (e.g. by VESA) and typically given a name and an initialism that is descriptive of its dimensions. A graphics display resolution can be used in tandem with the size of the graphics display to calculate pixel density. An increase in the pixel density often correlates with a decrease in the size of individual pixels on a display.

The graphics display resolution is also known as the display mode or the video mode. It indicates the number of distinct pixels that can be displayed on a screen, which affects the sharpness and clarity of the image. The graphics display resolution can be controlled by various factors, such as the type of display device, the signal format, the aspect ratio, and the refresh rate.[1] The graphics display resolution can be expressed as a single number (e.g. 1080p), which represents the number of horizontal or vertical pixels, or as two numbers separated by a multiplication sign (e.g. 1920×1080), which represent the width and height in pixels.[2]

The graphics display resolution is influenced by the aspect ratio, which is the ratio of the width to the height of the display. The aspect ratio determines how the image is scaled and stretched to fit the screen. The most common aspect ratios for graphics displays are 4:3, 16:10 (equal to 8/5), 16:9, and 21:9 (equal to 7/3). The aspect ratio also affects the field of view and the perceived size of objects on the screen.[3] Some graphics displays support multiple resolutions and aspect ratios, which can be changed by the user or by the software.[4]

Overview by vertical resolution and aspect ratio[edit]

Graphics display resolutions (by vertical resolution (height) and storage aspect ratio (SAR))[5]
Height
(px)
Display width (px), followed by standard classification if available
Storage
aspect
ratio:

[5][n 1]
1∶1 5∶4 4∶3 3∶2 16∶10
(8:5)
15∶9
15∶3
16∶9 "17∶9"[n 2] 18∶9 "21∶9"[n 2]
(7:3)
32∶9
1 1.25 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 (1.8) 2 (2.3) 3.5
120 160 QQVGA[c.n.]
144 176 QCIF (11∶9)[n 3] 192[c.n.] 256[c.n.]
160 240[6] HQVGA[c.n.] 256[c.n.]
200 320 CGA[n 4]
240 320 QVGA[7]
 →SIF(525)  [n 3][c.n.]
352 SIF(525) (22∶15)[n 3] 384[c.n.] 400 WQVGA[8] 426[c.n.]
360[c.n.] 432[c.n.] (9∶5)
288 352 CIF (11∶9)[n 3] 384 →CIF[n 3][c.n.] 512[c.n.]
320 480 HVGA[9]
350 640 EGA (64∶35)[n 4]
360
[n 5]
480[c.n.] 640 nHD[c.n.]
400 640[c.n.] 720[10] (9∶5)
480 600[c.n.] 640 VGA[7]
64 →NTSC  [n 6]
720 NTSC 768[7] 800 WVGA[11] 848[7] (53∶30) 960[c.n.]
853 →NTSC[n 7] (853∶480)
854 FWVGA[12](427∶240)
540
[n 8]
675[c.n.] 720[c.n.] 960[13]qHD[c.n.]
576 720 PAL, D-1 768 →PAL[n 9] 960[c.n.] 1024 →PAL[n 10]
1024WSVGA[c.n.]
600 750[c.n.] 800 SVGA[7] 960[7] 1024 WSVGA[14] (128∶75 ≈17∶10) 1064[7] (133∶75)
640 960[15][16] 1024[c.n.] 1136[c.n.][n 11]
720 960[c.n.] 1152[7] 1280 HD (720p) 1440[c.n.] 1680[c.n.] (21∶9)
1480[c.n.] (181/2∶9)
768 960[c.n.] 1024 XGA[7] 1152[c.n.] 1224[7] (51∶32) 1280[7] 1360[7] (85∶48)
1366 WXGA[17]
1366 FWXGA[18] (683∶384)
800 1200[c.n.][n 12] 1280 WXGA[19]
864 1152 XGA+[20] 1296[c.n.][n 13] 1536[c.n.]
900 1200[c.n.] 1440 WXGA+[21] 1600 HD+[22]
960 1280 QuadVGA[23] 1440[c.n.] 1536[7] 1704[7] (71∶40)
1024 1280 SXGA[7][n 14] 1366[c.n.][n 15] 1536[c.n.][n 16] 1600 WSXGA (25∶16)[24]
1050 1400 SXGA+[19] 1680 WSXGA+[19] 1864[7] (982∶525)
1080
[n 17]
1024[25] (128∶135)[n 18]
(≈0.948)
1280 DVCPRO HD (32∶27) 1440[c.n.] 1728[7] 1920 FHD[26]
1920 2K[c.n.]
2048 2K DCI (256∶135) 2160[c.n.] 2520[c.n.] (21∶9) 3840[c.n.]
2220[c.n.] (181/2∶9) 2560 UWFHD[27] (64∶27)
2280[c.n.] (19∶9)
1152 1536[c.n.] 2048 QWXGA[28]
1200 1500[c.n.] 1600 UXGA[7] 1920 WUXGA[19]
1920  FHD+  [29]
2128[7] (133∶75)
1280 1920[c.n.] 2048[c.n.]
1440 1920[7] 2160[c.n.] 2304[7] 2560 QHD[30]
2560 WQHD[26]
2880[c.n.] 3200[c.n.] (20∶9) 5120[c.n.]
2960[c.n.] (181/2∶9) 3440 UWQHD[31] (211/2∶9)
3040[c.n.] (19∶9)
3120[c.n.] (191/2∶9)
1504 2256 2K[32]
1536 2048 QXGA[7] 2456[7] (307∶192) 2728[7] (341∶192)
1600 2400[c.n.] 2560 WQXGA[33]
2560  QHD+  [34]
3840 UWQHD+[35] (12∶5)
1620 2880 3k[36]
1800 2880 WQXGA+[37] 3200 QHD+[38]
1920 1920 SQFHD[39] 2560[7] 2880[c.n.] 3072 3K+[40] 3408[7] (71∶40)
2048 2048[n 19][41] 2560 QSXGA[21] 2732[c.n.] 3200 WQSXGA[c.n.] (25∶16)
2160 2880[c.n.] 3240[c.n.] 3456 3.5K[29] 3840 4K UHD[26] 4096 4K DCI (256∶135) 4320[c.n.] 5120[c.n.] (64∶27) 7680[c.n.]
2400 3200 QUXGA[21] 3840 WQUXGA[42]
3840  UHD+  [29]
4264[7] (533∶300)
2560 3840[c.n.] 4096[c.n.]
2880 3840[7] 4608[7] 5120 5K UHD[26] 5760[c.n.]
3072 4096[c.n.]
3456 6144 6K[43]
4320 7680 8K UHD[26] 8192[c.n.] (256∶135) 10240 10K[c.n.] (64∶27)
Storage
aspect
ratio:

[5][n 1]
1∶1 5∶4 4∶3 3∶2 16∶10
(8:5)
15∶9
15∶3
16∶9 "17∶9"[n 2] 18∶9 "21∶9"[n 2]
(7:3)
32∶9
1 1.25 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 (1.8) 2 (2.3) 3.5

Legend:

  • Bold pixel numbers (width) are resolutions of computer display standards like e.g. "QWXGA" or "HD+".
  • Bold big display standards are ″fundamental″ standards (PAL, NTSC, CGA, EGA, VGA, XGA, HD) or widely used (FHD, 4K).
  • Bold Italic are format standards (SIF, CIF, DVCPRO HD).
  •   CIF and SIF
  •   NTSC and PAL
  •   CGA, EGA
  •   unnamed/non standard display resolutions
  •   [c.n.] Citations are needed for these resolutions
  •   These resolutions are for displays with non-square pixels and usually displayed in 4∶3 (CGA, EGA, CIF, SIF) and/or 16∶9 (e.g. PAL, NTSC, DVCPRO HD) resulting in different pixel aspect ratios.
  • (25∶16) For resolution with an aspect ratio close to that in the column header the aspect ratio is listed in brakets behind. The exact decimal equivalents to these are in the following table:
Storage aspect ratio: 32∶27 11∶9 22∶15
(≈13∶9)
25∶16 128∶75 133∶75 71∶40 9∶5 64∶35 256∶135 181/2∶9 19∶9 191/2∶9 20∶9 21∶9 64∶27 211/2∶9 12∶5
Decimal equivalent:[n 1] 1.185 1.2 1.46 1.5625 1.706 1.773 1.775 1.8 ≈1.829 1.8962 2.05 2.1 2.16 2.2 2.3 2.370 2.38 2.4
Listed in table column: 5∶4
(1.25)
3∶2
(1.5)
16∶10
(1.6)
17∶10
(1.7)
16∶9
(1.7)
"17∶9"
(1.8)
18∶9
(2)
"21∶9"
(2.3)

Notes:

  1. ^ a b c The overline (vinculum) above some diggits symbolized repeating decimals.
  2. ^ a b c d Most of the "17∶9" or "21∶9" displays are only called so but have a slightly different storage aspect ratio.
  3. ^ a b c d e Common Intermediate Format (CIF) and Source Input Format (SIF) are not display standards but "storage standards". They are to display 4:3 pictures (display aspect ratio (DAR) = 4∶3) but using a storage aspect ratio of 11∶9 (CIF) or 22∶15 (SIF) because originally they were not intended for graphics displays with square pixels like computer screens or many modern televisions.
  4. ^ a b non-square pixels, traditionally displayed on a 4:3 CRT
  5. ^ 360 px in height: sometimes actually 368 lines for technical reasons[citation needed]
  6. ^ 640 × 480 (VGA): is also the 4:3 equivalent for NTSC (480 lines) on a display with square pixels.
  7. ^ 853 × 480: is the 16:9 equivalent for NTSC (480 lines) on a display with square pixels. Citations are needed that displays with this resolution exist.
  8. ^ 540 px in height: sometimes actually 544 lines for technical reasons[citation needed]
  9. ^ 768 × 576: possibly DPAL or F-PAL[citation needed] It is the 4:3 equivalent for PAL (576 lines) on a display with square pixels. Citations are needed that displays with this resolution exist.
  10. ^ 1024 × 576: is the 16:9 equivalent for PAL (576 lines) on a display with square pixels. Citations are needed that displays with this resolution exist.
  11. ^ 1136 × 640: possibly WDVGA[citation needed]
  12. ^ 1200 × 800: possibly DSVGA[citation needed]
  13. ^ 1296 × 864: there is also 1280 × 854[citation needed]
  14. ^ 1280 × 1024: sometimes non-square pixels on 4:3 display, sometimes 5:4 display
  15. ^ 1366 × 1024: sometimes actually 1360 × 1024 for technical reasons[citation needed]
  16. ^ 1536 × 1024: possibly DXGA[citation needed]
  17. ^ 1080 px in height: sometimes actually 1088 lines for technical reasons[citation needed]
  18. ^ non-square pixels, Hitachi's ALiS Technology for Plasma TVs with horizontaly "streched" pixels, displayed on a 16:9(?) or 16:10(?) Plasma TV
  19. ^ originally used in air traffic control displays such as the Sony DM2800.

Aspect ratio[edit]

Multiple display standards compared.

The favored aspect ratio of mass-market display industry products has changed gradually from 4:3, then to 16:10, then to 16:9, and has now changed to 18:9 for smartphones.[44][needs update] The 4:3 aspect ratio generally reflects older products, especially the era of the cathode ray tube (CRT). The 16:10 aspect ratio had its largest use in the 1995–2010 period, and the 16:9 aspect ratio tends to reflect post-2010 mass-market computer monitor, laptop, and entertainment products displays. On CRTs, there was often a difference between the aspect ratio of the computer resolution and the aspect ratio of the display causing non-square pixels (e.g. 320 × 200 or 1280 × 1024 on a 4:3 display).

The 4:3 aspect ratio was common in older television cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, which were not easily adaptable to a wider aspect ratio. When good quality alternate technologies (i.e., liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and plasma displays) became more available and less costly, around the year 2000, the common computer displays and entertainment products moved to a wider aspect ratio, first to the 16:10 ratio. The 16:10 ratio allowed some compromise between showing older 4:3 aspect ratio broadcast TV shows, but also allowing better viewing of widescreen movies. However, around the year 2005, home entertainment displays (i.e., TV sets) gradually moved from 16:10 to the 16:9 aspect ratio, for further improvement of viewing widescreen movies. By about 2007, virtually all mass-market entertainment displays were 16:9. In 2011, 1920 × 1080 (Full HD, the native resolution of Blu-ray) was the favored resolution in the most heavily marketed entertainment market displays. The next standard, 3840 × 2160 (4K UHD), was first sold in 2013.[citation needed]

Also in 2013, displays with 2560 × 1080 (aspect ratio 64:27 or 2.370, however commonly referred to as "21:9" for easy comparison with 16:9) appeared, which closely approximate the common CinemaScope movie standard aspect ratio of 2.35–2.40. In 2014, "21:9" screens with pixel dimensions of 3440 × 1440 (actual aspect ratio 43:18 or 2.38) became available as well.

The computer display industry maintained the 16:10 aspect ratio longer than the entertainment industry, but in the 2005–2010 period, computers were increasingly marketed as dual-use products, with uses in the traditional computer applications, but also as means of viewing entertainment content. In this time frame, with the notable exception of Apple, almost all desktop, laptop, and display manufacturers gradually moved to promoting only 16:9 aspect ratio displays. By 2011, the 16:10 aspect ratio had virtually disappeared from the Windows laptop display market (although Mac laptops are still mostly 16:10, including the 2880 × 1800 15" Retina MacBook Pro and the 2560 × 1600 13" Retina MacBook Pro). One consequence of this transition was that the highest available resolutions moved generally downward (i.e., the move from 1920 × 1200 laptop displays to 1920 × 1080 displays).

In response to usability flaws of now common 16:9 displays in office/professional applications,[citation needed] Microsoft and Huawei started to offer notebooks with a 3:2 aspect ratio. By 2021, Huawei also offers a monitor display offering this aspect ratio, targeted towards professional uses.

Video Graphics Array (VGA and derivatives) [edit]

VGA – Video Graphics Array
(by vertical resolution)
Name H
(px)
V
(px)
H:V
0
H × V
(Mpx)
QQVGA[citation needed] QQ VGA 160 120 4:3 0.019
HQVGA[citation needed] HQ VGA 240 160 3:2 0.038
QVGA[7][45] Q VGA 320 240 4:3 0.077
WQVGA[8] WQ VGA 400 240 5:3 0.096
HVGA[9] H VGA 480 320 3:2 0.154
VGA[7][21] VGA 640 480 4:3 0.307
WVGA[46][47][11] W VGA 800 480 5:3 0.384
FWVGA[12][48] FW VGA 854 480 ≈ 16:9 0.410
WSVGA[citation needed] WS VGA 1024 576 16:9 0.590
SVGA[7][21] S VGA 800 600 4:3 0.480
WSVGA[14] WS VGA 1024 600 128:75 0.614
DVGA[citation needed] D VGA 960 640 3:2 0.614
QuadVGA[23]
Quad VGA[49]
Quad VGA 1280 960 4:3 1.229

160 × 120 (QQVGA) [edit]

Quarter-QVGA (QQVGA or qqVGA) denotes a resolution of 160 × 120 or 120 × 160 pixels, usually used in displays of handheld devices. The term Quarter-QVGA signifies a resolution of one fourth the number of pixels in a QVGA display (half the number of vertical and half the number of horizontal pixels) which itself has one fourth the number of pixels in a VGA display. There are also models with QQVGA 160 × 128 (5:4 aspect ratio).[50]

The abbreviation qqVGA may be used to distinguish quarter from quad, just like qVGA.[51]

240 × 160 (HQVGA) [edit]

HQVGA[citation needed] (or Half-QVGA)[citation needed] denotes a display screen resolution of 240 × 160 or 160 × 240 pixels, as seen on the Game Boy Advance. This resolution is half of QVGA, which is itself a quarter of VGA, which is 640 × 480 pixels.

320 × 240 (QVGA) [edit]

QVGA compared to VGA

Quarter VGA (QVGA[7][45] or qVGA) is a popular term for a computer display with 320 × 240 display resolution. QVGA displays were most often used in mobile phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), and some handheld game consoles. Often the displays are in a "portrait" orientation (i.e., taller than they are wide, as opposed to "landscape") and are referred to as 240 × 320.[52]

The name comes from having a quarter of the 640 × 480 maximum resolution of the original IBM Video Graphics Array display technology, which became a de facto industry standard in the late 1980s. QVGA is not a standard mode offered by the VGA BIOS, even though VGA and compatible chipsets support a QVGA-sized Mode X. The term refers only to the display's resolution and thus the abbreviated term QVGA or Quarter VGA is more appropriate to use.

QVGA resolution is also used in digital video recording equipment as a low-resolution mode requiring less data storage capacity than higher resolutions, typically in still digital cameras with video recording capability, and some mobile phones. Each frame is an image of 320 × 240 pixels. QVGA video is typically recorded at 15 or 30 frames per second. QVGA mode describes the size of an image in pixels, commonly called the resolution; numerous video file formats support this resolution.

While QVGA is a lower resolution than VGA, at higher resolutions the "Q" prefix commonly means quad(ruple) or four times higher display resolution (e.g., QXGA is four times higher resolution than XGA). To distinguish quarter from quad, lowercase "q" is sometimes used for "quarter" and uppercase "Q" for "Quad", by analogy with SI prefixes like m/M and p/P, but this is not a consistent usage.[53]

Some examples of devices that use QVGA display resolution include the iPod Classic, Samsung i5500, LG Optimus L3-E400, Galaxy Fit, Y and Pocket, HTC Wildfire, Sony Ericsson Xperia X10 Mini and Mini pro and Nintendo 3DS' bottom screen.

400 × 240 (WQVGA) [edit]

WQVGA and similar display resolutions
(by vertical resolution)
Name H
(px)
V
(px)
H:V
0
H × V
(Mpx)
Sources
* 360 240 15:10 0.086 [citation needed]
* 376 240 4.7:3 0.090 [citation needed]
* 384 240 16:10 0.092 [citation needed]
WQVGA 400 240 15:9 0.096 [8]
* 426 240 ≈16:9 0.102 [citation needed]
* 428 240 ≈16:9 0.103 [citation needed]
* 432 240 18:10 0.104 [citation needed]
* 480 270 16:9 0.130 [citation needed]
WQVGA 480 272 ≈16:9 0.131 [54]
* ... unnamed

Wide QVGA or WQVGA are some display resolutions having the same height in pixels as QVGA, but wider.[citation needed]

Since QVGA is 320 pixels wide and 240 pixels high (aspect ratio of 4:3), the resolution of a WQVGA screen might be 360 × 240 (3:2 aspect ratio), 384 × 240 (16:10 aspect ratio), 400 × 240 (5:3 – such as the Nintendo 3DS screen or the maximum resolution in YouTube at 240p), 426 × 240, 428 × 240 (≈16:9 ratio) or 432 × 240 (18:10 aspect ratio). As with WVGA, exact ratios of n:9 are difficult because of the way VGA controllers internally deal with pixels. For instance, when using graphical combinatorial operations on pixels, VGA controllers will use 1 bit per pixel. Since bits cannot be accessed individually but by chunks of 16 or an even higher power of 2, this limits the horizontal resolution to a 16-pixel granularity, i.e., the horizontal resolution must be divisible by 16. In the case of the 16:9 ratio, with 240 pixels high, the horizontal resolution should be 240 / 9 × 16 = 426.6 (42623), the closest multiple of 16 is 432.

WQVGA has also been used to describe displays that are not 240 pixels high, for example, Sixteenth HD1080 displays which are 480 pixels wide and 270 or 272 pixels high. This may be due to WQVGA having the nearest screen height.

WQVGA resolutions were commonly used in touchscreen mobile phones, such as 400 × 240, 432 × 240, and 480 × 240. For example, the Hyundai MB 490i, Sony Ericsson Aino and the Samsung Instinct have WQVGA screen resolutions – 240 × 432. Other devices such as the Apple iPod Nano also use a WQVGA screen, 240 × 376 pixels.

480 × 320 (HVGA) [edit]

HVGA and similar display resolutions
(by vertical resolution)
Name H
(px)
V
(px)
H:V
0
H × V
(Mpx)
Sources
* 640 240 8:3 0.154 [citation needed]
* 480 270 16:9 0.130 [citation needed]
* 480 272 ≈16:9 0.131 [citation needed]
HVGA 480 320 3:2 0.154 [9]
* 480 360 4:3 0.173 [citation needed]
* ... unnamed

HVGA (Half-size VGA) screens have 480 × 320 pixels (3:2 aspect ratio), 480 × 360 pixels (4:3 aspect ratio), 480 × 272 (≈16:9 aspect ratio), or 640 × 240 pixels (8:3 aspect ratio).[citation needed] The former is used by a variety of PDA devices, starting with the Sony CLIÉ PEG-NR70 in 2002, and standalone PDAs by Palm. The latter was used by a variety of handheld PC devices. VGA resolution is 640 × 480.

Examples of devices that use HVGA include the Apple iPhone (1st generation through 3GS), iPod Touch (1st Generation through 3rd), BlackBerry Bold 9000, HTC Dream, Hero, Wildfire S, LG GW620 Eve, MyTouch 3G Slide, Nokia 6260 Slide, Palm Pre, Samsung M900 Moment, Sony Ericsson Xperia X8, mini, mini pro, active and live and the Sony PlayStation Portable.

Texas Instruments produces the DLP pico projector which supports HVGA resolution.[55]

HVGA was the only resolution supported in the first versions of Google Android, up to release 1.5.[56] Other higher and lower resolutions became available starting on release 1.6, like the popular WVGA resolution on the Motorola Droid or the QVGA resolution on the HTC Tattoo.

Three-dimensional computer graphics common on television throughout the 1980s were mostly rendered at this resolution, causing objects to have jagged edges on the top and bottom when edges were not anti-aliased.

640 × 480 (VGA) [edit]

Video Graphics Array (VGA)[7][21] refers specifically to the display hardware first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987.[57] Through its widespread adoption, VGA has also come to mean either an analog computer display standard, the 15-pin D-subminiature VGA connector, or the 640 × 480 resolution itself. While the VGA resolution was superseded in the personal computer market in the 1990s and the SEGA Dreamcast in 1998,[58] it became a popular resolution on mobile devices in the 2000s.[59] VGA is still the universal fallback troubleshooting mode in the case of trouble with graphic device drivers in operating systems.

In the field of video, the resolution of 480i supports 640 samples per line (corresponding to 640x480) corresponding to Standard Definition (SD), in contrast to high-definition (HD) resolutions like 1280 × 720 and 1920 × 1080.

800 × 480 (WVGA) [edit]

WVGA and similar display resolutions
(by vertical resolution)
Name H
(px)
V
(px)
H:V
0
H × V
(Mpx)
Sources
* 640 360 16:9 0.230 [citation needed]
* 640 384 15:9 0.246 [citation needed]
* 800 450 16:9 0.360 [citation needed]
* 720 480 15:10 0.346 [citation needed]
* 768 480 16:10 0.369 [citation needed]
WVGA 800 480 15:9 0.384 [46][47][11]
* 848 480 ≈16:9 0.407 [citation needed]
WVGA 852 480 ≈16:9 0.409 [60]
* 853 480 ≈16:9 0.409 [citation needed]
FWVGA 854 480 ≈16:9 0.410 [12][48]
* ... unnamed

Wide VGA or WVGA, sometimes just WGA[citation needed] are some display resolutions with the same 480-pixel height as VGA but wider, such as 720 × 480 (3:2 aspect ratio), 800 × 480[46][47][11] (5:3), 848 × 480, 852 × 480,[60] 853 × 480, or 854 × 480 (≈16:9).[citation needed] It is a common resolution among LCD projectors and later portable and hand-held internet-enabled devices (such as MID and Netbooks) as it is capable of rendering websites designed for an 800 wide window in full page-width. Examples of hand-held internet devices, without phone capability, with this resolution include: Spice stellar nhance mi-435, ASUS Eee PC 700 series, Dell XCD35, Nokia 770, N800, and N810.

Mobile phones with WVGA display resolution are also common.

854 × 480 (FWVGA) [edit]

FWVGA[12][48] is an abbreviation for Full Wide Video Graphics Array which refers to a display resolution of 854 × 480 pixels. 854 × 480 is approximately the 16:9 aspect ratio of anamorphically "un-squeezed" NTSC DVD widescreen video and is considered a "safe" resolution that does not crop any of the image. It is called Full WVGA to distinguish it from other, narrower WVGA resolutions which require cropping 16:9 aspect ratio high-definition video (i.e. it is full width, albeit with a considerable reduction in size).

The 854 pixel width is rounded up from 853.3:

480 × 169 = 76809 = 85313.

Since a pixel must be a whole number, rounding up to 854 ensures inclusion of the entire image. 853 × 480 is the 16:9 equivalent for NTSC (480 lines) on a display with square pixels. Citations are needed that displays with this resolution exist.

In 2010, mobile phones with FWVGA display resolution started to become more common. A list of mobile phones with FWVGA displays is available. In addition, the Wii U GamePad that comes with the Nintendo Wii U gaming console includes a 6.2-inch FWVGA display.

800 × 600 (SVGA) [edit]

Super Video Graphics Array, abbreviated to Super VGA or SVGA,[7][21] also known as Ultra Video Graphics Array,[61] abbreviated to Ultra VGA or UVGA, is a broad term that covers a wide range of computer display standards.[62]

Originally, it was an extension to the VGA standard first released by IBM in 1987. Unlike VGA – a purely IBM-defined standard – Super VGA was defined by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA), an open consortium set up to promote interoperability and define standards. When used as a resolution specification, in contrast to VGA or XGA for example, the term SVGA normally refers to a resolution of 800 × 600 pixels.

The marginally higher resolution 832 × 624 is the highest 4:3 resolution not greater than 219 pixels, with its horizontal dimension a multiple of 32 pixels. This enables it to fit within a framebuffer of 512 KB (512 × 210 bytes), and the common multiple of 32 pixels constraint is related to alignment. For these reasons, this resolution was available on the Macintosh LC III and other systems.[citation needed]

1024 × 576, 1024 × 600 (WSVGA) [edit]

The wide version of SVGA is known as WSVGA (Wide Super VGA or Wide SVGA), featured on Ultra-Mobile PCs, netbooks, and tablet computers. The resolution is either 1024 × 576 (aspect ratio 16:9) or 1024 × 600 (128:75) with screen sizes normally ranging from 7 to 10 inches. It has full XGA width of 1024 pixels. Although digital broadcast content in former PAL/SECAM regions has 576 active lines, several mobile TV sets with a DVB-T2 tuner use the 600-line variant with a diameter of 7, 9 or 10 inches (18 to 26 cm).

1024 × 576 is the 16:9 equivalent for PAL (576 lines) on a display with square pixels, resulting in a pixel aspect ratio of 16∶11 or 64∶45 depending on the native resolution of PAL.[citation needed]

960 × 640 [edit]

DVGA[citation needed] (DoubleVGA) screens have 960 × 640 pixels (3:2 aspect ratio). Both dimensions are double that of HVGA, hence the pixel count is quadrupled.

Examples of devices that use DVGA include the Meizu MX mobile phone and the Apple iPhone 4 and 4S with the iPod Touch 4, where the screen is called the "Retina Display".

1280 × 960 (QuadVGA) [edit]

QuadVGA[23] (also labelled as Quad VGA[49] or Quad-VGA[63]) is a non-standard term used to refer to a resolution of 1280 × 960, since both sides are doubled from VGA. However, it is usually not as the abbreviation QVGA because this is strongly associated with the alternate meaning Quarter VGA (QVGA 320 × 240).

It is sometimes unofficially called SXGA−[citation needed] to avoid confusion with the SXGA standard (1280 × 1024). Elsewhere this 4:3 resolution was also called UVGA (Ultra VGA),[citation needed] or SXVGA (Super eXtended VGA)[citation needed].

Extended Graphics Array (XGA and derivatives) [edit]

XGA – Extended Graphics Array
(by vertical resolution)
Name H
(px)
V
(px)
H:V
0
H × V
(Mpx)
XGA[7][19][21] XGA 1024 768 4:3 0.786
WXGA[17][25]
(FWXGA)[18][64]
W XGA* 1366 768 ≈16:9 1.049
WXGA[19][21] 1280 800 16:10 1.024
XGA+[20][65] XGA + 1152 864 4:3 0.995
WXGA+[21][66][67]
(WXGA)[19]
W XGA + 1440 900 16:10 1.296
SXGA[7][21] S XGA 1280 1024 5:4 1.311
WSXGA[24] WS XGA 1600 1024 25:16 1.638
SXGA+[19][21] S XGA + 1400 1050 4:3 1.470
WSXGA+[19][21][12] WS XGA + 1680 1050 16:10 1.764
QWXGA[28] QW XGA 2048 1152 16:9 2.359
UXGA[7][19][21] U XGA 1600 1200 4:3 1.920
WUXGA[19][21]
(FHD+)[29]
WU XGA 1920 1200 16:10 2.304
QXGA[7][21] Q XGA 2048 1536 4:3 3.146
WQXGA[33] WQ XGA 2560 1600 16:10 4.096
WQXGA+[37] WQ XGA + 2880 1800 16:10 5.184
QSXGA[21] QS XGA 2560 2048 5:4 5.243
WQSXGA[citation needed] WQS XGA 3200 2048 25:16 6.554
QUXGA[21] QU XGA 3200 2400 4:3 7.680
WQUXGA[68][42]
(UHD+)[29]
WQU XGA 3840 2400 16:10 9.216
* ... WXGA is one of the rare display standards where two display
* ...resolutions are defined (and documented by reliable sources)

1024 × 768 (XGA) [edit]

XGA logo used internally within IBM, designed by Paul Rand[69]

The Extended Graphics Array (XGA) or originally Extended Video Graphics Array (Extended-XGA, EVGA)[70] is an IBM display standard introduced in 1990. Later it became the most common appellation of the 1024 × 768[7][19][21] pixels display resolution.

The initial version of XGA expanded upon IBM's older VGA by adding support for four new screen modes, including one new resolution:[71][72]

XGA-2 added a 24-bit DAC, but this was used only to extend the available master palette in 256-color mode, e.g. to allow true 256-greyscale output. Other improvements included the provision of the previously missing 800 × 600 resolution in up to 65,536 colors, faster screen refresh rates in all modes (including non-interlace, flicker-free output for 1024 × 768), and improved accelerator performance and versatility.

All standard XGA modes have a 4:3 aspect ratio with square pixels, although this does not hold for certain standard VGA and third-party extended modes (640 × 400, 1280 × 1024).

1366 × 768 and 1280 × 800 (WXGA) [edit]

WXGA and similar display resolutions
(by vertical resolution)
Name H
(px)
V
(px)
H:V
0
H × V
(Mpx)
Source
* 1280 720 16:9 0.922 [citation needed]
* 1152 768 15:10 0.885 [citation needed]
WXGA 1280 768 15:9 0.983 [73][24]
* 1344 768 7:4 1.032 [citation needed]
*
(FWXGA)[24]
1360 768 ≈16:9 1.044 [74][24]
WXGA
(FWXGA)[18][64]
1366 768 ≈16:9 1.049 [17][25]
WXGA 1280 800 16:10 1.024 [19][21]
* ... unnamed

Wide XGA (WXGA) is a set of non-standard resolutions derived from XGA (1024 × 768) by widening it to 1366 × 768[17][25] with a widescreen aspect ratio of nearly 16:9 or to 1280 × 800[19] with a aspect ratio of 16:10. WXGA is commonly used for low-end LCD TVs and LCD computer monitors for widescreen presentation. The exact resolution offered by a device described as "WXGA" can be somewhat variable owing to a proliferation of several closely related timings optimised for different uses and derived from different bases.

Widespread availability of 1280 × 800 and 1366 × 768 pixel resolution LCDs for laptop monitors can be considered an OS-driven evolution from the formerly popular 1024 × 768 screen size, which has itself since seen UI design feedback in response to what could be considered disadvantages of the widescreen format when used with programs designed for "traditional" screens.[original research?] In Microsoft Windows operating system specifically, the larger taskbar of Windows 7 occupies an additional 16-pixel lines by default, which may compromise the usability of programs that already demanded a full 1024 × 768 (instead of, e.g. 800 × 600) unless it is specifically set to use small icons; an "oddball" 784-line resolution would compensate for this, but 1280 × 800 has a simpler aspect and also gives the slight bonus of 16 more usable lines. Also, the Windows Sidebar in Windows Vista and 7 can use the additional 256 or 336 horizontal pixels to display informational "widgets" without compromising the display width of other programs, and Windows 8 is specifically designed around a "two-pane" concept where the full 16:9 or 16:10 screen is not required. Typically, this consists of a 4:3 main program area (typically 1024 × 768, 1000 × 800 or 1440 × 1080) plus a narrow sidebar running a second program, showing a toolbox for the main program or a pop-out OS shortcut panel taking up the remainder.[citation needed]

1366 × 768 (WXGA) [edit]

When referring to televisions and other monitors intended for consumer entertainment use, WXGA is often understood to refer to a resolution of 1366 × 768,[17][25] with an aspect ratio of very nearly 16:9. The basis for this otherwise odd seeming resolution is similar to that of other "wide" standards – the line scan (refresh) rate of the well-established "XGA" standard (1024 × 768 pixels, 4:3 aspect ratio) extended to give square pixels on the increasingly popular 16:9 widescreen display ratio without having to effect major signalling changes other than a faster pixel clock, or manufacturing changes other than extending panel width by one third. As 768 is not divisible by 9, the aspect ratio is not quite 16:9 – this would require a width of 136513 (1365.3) pixels. However, at only 0.05%, the resulting error is insignificant. It is also occasionally referred to as FWXGA (Full Wide XGA), so it can be distinguished from other, narrower WXGA resolutions.[18][64]

In 2006, 1366 × 768 was the most popular resolution for liquid crystal display televisions (versus XGA for Plasma TVs flat panel displays);[17][failed verification] by 2013, even this was relegated to only being used in smaller or cheaper displays (e.g. "bedroom" LCD TVs, or low-cost, large-format plasmas), cheaper laptop and mobile tablet computers, and midrange home cinema projectors, having otherwise been overtaken by higher "full HD" resolutions such as 1920 × 1080.

1280 × 800 (WXGA) [edit]

When referring to laptop displays or independent displays and projectors intended primarily for use with computers, WXGA is also used to describe a resolution of 1280 × 800 pixels, with an aspect ratio of 16:10.[75][76] This was once particularly popular for laptop screens, usually with a diagonal screen size of between 12 and 15 inches, as it provided a useful compromise between 4:3 XGA and 16:9 WXGA, with improved resolution in both dimensions vs. the old standard (especially useful in portrait mode, or for displaying two standard pages of text side by side), a perceptibly "wider" appearance and the ability to display 720p HD video "native" with only very thin letterbox borders (usable for on-screen playback controls) and no stretching. Additionally, it required only 1000 KB (just under 1 MB) of memory per 8-bit channel; thus, a typical double-buffered 32-bit colour screen could fit within 8 MB, limiting everyday demands on the complexity (and cost, energy use) of integrated graphics chipsets and their shared use of typically sparse system memory (generally allocated to the video system in relatively large blocks), at least when only the internal display was in use (external monitors generally being supported in "extended desktop" mode to at least 1600 × 1200 resolution). 16:10 (or 8:5) is itself a rather "classic" computer aspect ratio, harking back to early 320 × 200 modes (and their derivatives) as seen in the Commodore 64, IBM CGA card and others. However, as of mid-2013, this standard is becoming increasingly rare, crowded out by the more standardised and thus more economical-to-produce 1366 × 768 panels, as its previously beneficial features become less important with improvements to hardware, gradual loss of general backwards software compatibility, and changes in interface layout. As of August 2013, the market availability of panels with 1280 × 800 native resolution had been generally relegated to data projectors or niche products such as convertible tablet PCs and LCD-based eBook readers.[original research?]

Others [edit]

Additionally, at least three other resolutions are sometimes labelled as WXGA:

  • The first variant, 1280 × 768,[73][24] can be seen as a compromise resolution that addressed this problem, as well as a halfway point between the older 1024 × 768 and 1280 × 1024 resolutions, and a stepping stone to 1366 × 768 (being one-quarter wider than 1024, not one-third) and 1280 × 800, that never quite caught on in the same way as either of its arguably derivative successors. Its square-pixel aspect ratio is 15:9 (or 5:3), in contrast to HDTV's 16:9 and 1280 × 800's 16:10. It is also the lowest resolution that might be found in an "Ultrabook" standard laptop, as it satisfies the minimum horizontal and vertical pixel resolutions required to officially qualify for the designation.[citation needed]
  • Second, the HDTV-standard 1280 × 720[77] (otherwise commonly described as "720p"), which offers an exact 16:9 aspect ratio with square pixels; naturally, it displays standard 720p HD video material without stretching or letterboxing and 1080i/1080p with a simple 2:3 downscale. This resolution has found some use in tablets and modern, high-pixel-density mobile phones, as well as small-format "netbook" or "ultralight" laptop computers. However, its use is uncommon in larger, mainstream devices as it has an insufficient vertical resolution for the proper use of modern operating systems such as Windows 7 whose UI design assumes a minimum of 768 lines. For certain uses such as word processing, it can even be considered a slight downgrade (reducing the number of simultaneously visible lines of text without granting any significant benefit as even 640 pixels is sufficient horizontal resolution to legibly render a full page width, especially with the addition of subpixel anti-aliasing).[citation needed]
  • A common variant on this resolution is also 1360 × 768 (unnamed[74] or named FWXGA[24]), which confers several technical benefits, most significantly a reduction in memory requirements from just over to just under 1 MB per 8-bit channel (1366 × 768 needs 1024.5 KB per channel; 1360 × 768 needs 1020 KB; 1 MB is equal to 1024 KB), which simplifies architecture and can significantly reduce the amount–and speed–of VRAM required with only a very minor change in available resolution, as memory chips are usually only available in fixed megabyte capacities. For example, at 32-bit color, a 1360 × 768 framebuffer would require only 4 MB, whilst a 1366 × 768 one may need 5, 6, or even 8 MB depending on the exact display circuitry architecture and available chip capacities. The 6-pixel reduction also means each line's width is divisible by 8 pixels, simplifying numerous routines used in both computer and broadcast/theatrical video processing, which operate on 8-pixel blocks. Historically, many video cards also mandated screen widths divisible by 8 for their lower-color, planar modes to accelerate memory accesses and simplify pixel position calculations (e.g. fetching 4-bit pixels from 32-bit memory is much faster when performed 8 pixels at a time, and calculating exactly where a particular pixel is within a memory block is much easier when lines do not end partway through a memory word), and this convention persisted in low-end hardware even into the early days of widescreen, LCD HDTVs; thus, most 1366-width displays also quietly support display of 1360-width material, with a thin border of unused pixel columns at each side. This narrower mode is even further removed from the 16:9 ideal, but the error is still less than 0.5% (technically, the mode is either 15.94:9.00 or 16.00:9.04) and should be imperceptible.[citation needed]
  • Other mentionable resolutions are 1152 × 768 with a 3:2 aspect ratio, and 1344 × 768 with a 7:4 aspect ratio (similar to 16:9).[citation needed]
  • Some 1440 × 900 resolution displays have also been found labeled as WXGA;[19] however, the "correct" label is WXGA+.

1152 × 864 (XGA+) [edit]

XGA+ and similar display resolutions
(by vertical resolution)
Name H
(px)
V
(px)
H:V
0
H × V
(Mpx)
Usage Source
* 1120 832 35:26 (≈1.35) 0.932 NeXT [citation needed]
XGA+ 1152 864 4:3 (≈1.33) 0.995 [20]
* 1152 870 192:145 (≈1.32) 1.002 Apple [citation needed]
* 1152 900 32:25 (1.28) 1.037 Sun [citation needed]
* ... unnamed

XGA+ stands for Extended Graphics Array Plus and is a computer display standard, usually understood to refer to the 1152 × 864 resolution with an aspect ratio of 4:3. Until the advent of widescreen LCDs, XGA+ was often used on 17-inch desktop CRT monitors.[citation needed] It is the highest 4:3 resolution not greater than 220 pixels (≈1.05 megapixels), with its horizontal dimension a multiple of 32 pixels. This enables it to fit closely into a video memory or framebuffer of 1 MB (1 × 220 bytes), assuming the use of one byte per pixel. The common multiple of 32 pixels constraint is related to alignment.

Historically, the resolution also relates to the earlier standard of 1152 × 900 pixels, which was adopted by Sun Microsystems for the Sun-2 workstation in the early 1980s. A decade later, Apple Computer selected the resolution of 1152 × 870 for their 21-inch CRT monitors, intended for use as two-page displays on the Macintosh II computer. These resolutions are even closer to the limit of a 1 MB framebuffer, but their aspect ratios differ slightly from the common 4:3.

XGA+ is the next step after XGA (1024 × 768), although it is not approved by any standard organizations. The next step with an aspect ratio of 4:3 is 1280 × 960 (QuadVGA) or 1400 × 1050 (SXGA+).

1440 × 900 (WXGA+, WSXGA) [edit]

WXGA+[21][66][67] and WSXGA[26] are terms referring to a computer display resolution of 1440 × 900. Occasionally manufacturers use other terms to refer to this resolution.[78] The Standard Panels Working Group refers to the 1440 × 900 resolution as WXGA (but refers also WXGA to 1280 × 800).[19]

WXGA+ can be considered enhanced versions of WXGA with more pixels. The aspect ratios is 16:10 (widescreen). WXGA+ resolution is common in 19-inch widescreen desktop monitors (a very small number of such monitors use WSXGA+), and is also optional, although less common, in laptop LCDs, in sizes ranging from 12.1 to 17 inches.[citation needed]

The name WSXGA is also used to describe a resolution of 1600 × 1024,[24] which has an aspect ratio of 25:16 (1.5625:1, which is close to 16:10).

1280 × 1024 (SXGA) [edit]

Super XGA (SXGA) is a standard monitor resolution of 1280 × 1024 pixels. This display resolution is the "next step" above the XGA resolution that IBM developed in 1990.

The 1280 × 1024 resolution is not the standard 4:3 aspect ratio, but 5:4 (1.25:1 instead of 1.3:1). A standard 4:3 monitor using this resolution will have rectangular rather than square pixels, meaning that unless the software compensates for this the picture will be distorted, causing circles to appear elliptical.

SXGA is the most common native resolution of 17-inch and 19-inch LCD monitors. An LCD monitor with SXGA native resolution will typically have a physical 5:4 aspect ratio, preserving a 1:1 pixel aspect ratio.

Sony manufactured a 17-inch CRT monitor with a 5:4 aspect ratio designed for this resolution. It was sold under the Apple brand name.[citation needed]

SXGA is also a popular resolution for cell phone cameras, such as the Motorola Razr and most Samsung and LG phones. Although being taken over by newer UXGA (2.0-megapixel) cameras, the 1.3-megapixel was the most common around 2007.[citation needed]

Any CRT that can run 1280 × 1024 can also run 1280 × 960 (QuadVGA or sometimes SXGA-), which has the standard 4:3 ratio. A flat panel TFT screen, including one designed for 1280 × 1024, will show stretching distortion when set to display any resolution other than its native one, as the image needs to be interpolated to fit in the fixed grid display. Some TFT displays do not allow a user to disable this, and will prevent the upper and lower portions of the screen from being used forcing a "letterbox" format when set to a 4:3 ratio.[citation needed]

The 1280 × 1024 resolution became popular because at 24 bit/px color depth it fits well into 4 megabytes of video RAM.[citation needed] At the time, memory was extremely expensive. Using 1280 × 1024 at 24-bit color depth allowed using 3.75 MB of video RAM, fitting nicely with VRAM chip sizes which were available at the time (4 MB):

(1280 × 1024) px × 24 bit/px ÷ 8 bit/byte ÷ 220 byte/MB = 3.75 MB

1400 × 1050 (SXGA+) [edit]

SXGA+ stands for Super Extended Graphics Array Plus and is a computer display standard. An SXGA+ display is commonly used on 14-inch or 15-inch laptop LCD screens with a resolution of 1400 × 1050 pixels. An SXGA+ display is used on a few 12-inch laptop screens such as the ThinkPad X60 and X61 (both only as tablet) as well as the Toshiba Portégé M200 and M400, but those are far less common. At 14.1 inches, Dell offered SXGA+ on many of the Latitude C-Series laptops, such as the C640, and IBM since the ThinkPad T21. Sony also used SXGA+ in their Z1 series, but no longer produce them as widescreen has become more predominant.

In desktop LCDs, SXGA+ is used on some low-end 20-inch monitors, whereas most of the 20-inch LCDs use UXGA (standard screen ratio), or WSXGA+ (widescreen ratio).

1680 × 1050 (WSXGA+) [edit]

WSXGA+[19][21][12] stands for Widescreen Super Extended Graphics Array Plus. WSXGA+ displays were commonly used on Widescreen 20-, 21-, and 22-inch LCD monitors from numerous manufacturers (and a very small number of 19-inch widescreen monitors), as well as widescreen 15.4-inch and 17-inch laptop LCD screens like the Thinkpad T61p, the late 17" Apple PowerBook G4 and the unibody Apple 15" MacBook Pro. The resolution is 1680 × 1050 pixels (1,764,000 pixels) with a 16:10 aspect ratio.

WSXGA+ is the widescreen version of SXGA+. The next highest resolution (for widescreen) after it is WUXGA, which is 1920 × 1200 pixels.

1600 × 1200 (UXGA) [edit]

UXGA (sometimes UGA)[citation needed] is an abbreviation for Ultra Extended Graphics Array referring to a standard monitor resolution of 1600 × 1200 pixels (totaling 1,920,000 pixels), which is exactly four times the default image resolution of SVGA (800 × 600) (totaling 480,000 pixels). Dell Inc. refers to the same resolution of 1,920,000 pixels as UGA. It is generally considered to be the next step above SXGA (1280 × 960 or 1280 × 1024), but some resolutions (such as the unnamed 1366 × 1024 and SXGA+ at 1400 × 1050) fit between the two.

UXGA has been the native resolution of many fullscreen monitors of 15 inches or more, including laptop LCDs such as the ones in the IBM ThinkPad A21p, A30p, A31p, T42p, T43p, T60p, Dell Inspiron 8000/8100/8200 and Latitude/Precision equivalents; some Panasonic Toughbook CF-51 models; and the original Alienware Area 51M gaming laptop. However, in more recent times, UXGA is not used in laptops at all but rather in desktop UXGA monitors that have been made in sizes of 20 inches and 21.3 inches. Some 14-inch laptop LCDs with UXGA have also existed (such as the Dell Inspiron 4100), but these are very rare.

There are two different widescreen cousins of UXGA, one called UWXGA with 1600 × 768 (750)[citation needed] and one called WUXGA with 1920 × 1200 resolution.

1920 × 1200 (WUXGA) [edit]

WUXGA stands for Widescreen Ultra Extended Graphics Array and is a display resolution of 1920 × 1200 pixels (2,304,000 pixels) with a 16:10 screen aspect ratio. It is a wide version of UXGA. By some producers it is called FHD+ because it is the next bigger resolution in vertical direction after FHD (1920 × 1080).[29] WUXGA/FHD+ can be used for viewing high-definition television (HDTV) content, which uses a 16:9 aspect ratio and a 1280 × 720 (720p) or 1920 × 1080 (1080i or 1080p) resolution.

The 16:10 aspect ratio (as opposed to the 16:9 used in widescreen televisions) was chosen because this aspect ratio is appropriate for displaying two full pages of text side by side.[79]

WUXGA resolution has a total of 2,304,000 pixels. One frame of uncompressed 8 BPC RGB WUXGA is 6.75 MiB (6.912 MB). Initially, it was available in widescreen CRTs such as the Sony GDM-FW900 and the Hewlett-Packard A7217A (introduced in 2003), and in 17-inch laptops. Most QXGA displays support 1920 × 1200. WUXGA is also available in some mobile phablet devices such as the Huawei Honor X2 Gem.

The next lower standard resolution (for widescreen) before it is WSXGA+, which is 1680 × 1050 pixels (1,764,000 pixels, or 30.61% fewer than WUXGA); the next higher resolution widescreen is an unnamed 2304 × 1440 resolution (supported by the above GDM-FW900 and A7217A) and then the more common WQXGA, which has 2560 × 1600 pixels (4,096,000 pixels, or 77.78% more than WUXGA).

2048 × 1152 (QWXGA) [edit]

QWXGA[28] (for Quad-WXGA or Quad Wide Extended Graphics Array) is a display resolution of 2048 × 1152 pixels with a 16:9 aspect ratio. (If you take it as a starting point that WXGA has a display resolution of 1366 × 768[17] or 1280 × 800[19] a display with a size 4-times of WXGA would have theoretically 2732 × 1536 or 2560 × 1600 pixels but the first is not existing and the latter is named WQXGA. Conversely, the quarter of QWXGA (2048 × 1152) would have 1024 × 576 pixels but this is named WSVGA.)

A few QWXGA LCD monitors were available in 2009 with 23- and 27-inch displays, such as the Acer B233HU (23-inch) and B273HU (27-inch), the Dell SP2309W, and the Samsung 2343BWX. As of 2011, most 2048 × 1152 monitors have been discontinued, and as of 2013, no major manufacturer produces monitors with this resolution.[citation needed]

2048 × 1536 (QXGA) [edit]

QXGA (for Quad-XGA or Quad Extended Graphics Array) is a display resolution of 2048 × 1536 pixels (equal four times XGA (1024 × 768) with a 4:3 aspect ratio as XGA. The name comes from it having four times as many pixels as an XGA display. Examples of LCDs with this resolution are the IBM T210 and the Eizo G33 and R31 screens, but in CRT monitors this resolution is much more common; some examples include the Sony F520, ViewSonic G225fB, NEC FP2141SB or Mitsubishi DP2070SB, Iiyama Vision Master Pro 514, and Dell and HP P1230. Of these monitors, none are still in production. A related display size is WQXGA, which is a widescreen version. CRTs offer a way to achieve QXGA cheaply. Models like the Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 2045U and IBM ThinkVision C220P retailed for around US$200, and even higher performance ones like the ViewSonic PerfectFlat P220fB remained under $500. At one time, many off-lease P1230s could be found on eBay for under $150. The LCDs with WQXGA or QXGA resolution typically cost four to five times more for the same resolution. IDTech manufactured a 15-inch QXGA IPS panel, used in the IBM ThinkPad R50p. NEC sold laptops with QXGA screens in 2002–05 for the Japanese market.[80][81] The iPad (starting from 3rd generation and Mini 2) also has a QXGA display.[82][83]

2560 × 1600 (WQXGA) [edit]

WQXGA (Wide Quad Extended Graphics Array) is a display resolution of 2560 × 1600 pixels with a 16:10 aspect ratio. The name implies a "wide QXGA" (QXGA 2048 × 1536) but it's not. Instead, WQXGA has exactly four times as many pixels as a WXGA (1280 × 800) hence the name "Quad-WXGA" would fit but QWXGA is definded as 2048 × 1152 pixels. By some producers it is called QHD+[34][84][85] referring to QHD (2560 × 1440). (QHD+ is sometimes also used for the resolution 3200 × 1800 (QHD+).)

To obtain a vertical refresh rate higher than 40 Hz with DVI, this resolution requires dual-link DVI cables and devices. To avoid cable problems monitors are sometimes shipped with an appropriate dual link cable already plugged in. Many video cards support this resolution. One feature that is currently unique to the 30-inch WQXGA monitors is the ability to function as the centerpiece and main display of a three-monitor array of complementary aspect ratios, with two UXGA (1600 × 1200) 20-inch monitors turned vertically on either side. The resolutions are equal, and the size of the 1600 resolution edges (if the manufacturer is honest) is within a tenth of an inch (16-inch vs. 15.89999"), presenting a "picture window view" without the extreme lateral dimensions, small central panel, asymmetry, resolution differences, or dimensional difference of other three-monitor combinations. The resulting 4960 × 1600 composite image has a 3.1:1 aspect ratio. This also means one UXGA 20-inch monitor in portrait orientation can also be flanked by two 30-inch WQXGA monitors for a 6320 × 1600 composite image with an 11.85:3 (79:20, 3.95:1) aspect ratio. Some WQXGA medical displays (such as the Barco Coronis 4MP or the Eizo SX3031W) can also be configured as two virtual 1200 × 1600 or 1280 × 1600 seamless displays by using both DVI ports at the same time.[original research?]

An early consumer WQXGA monitor was the 30-inch Apple Cinema Display, unveiled by Apple in June 2004. At the time, dual-link DVI was uncommon on consumer hardware, so Apple partnered with Nvidia to develop a special graphics card that had two dual-link DVI ports, allowing simultaneous use of two 30-inch Apple Cinema Displays. The nature of this graphics card, being an add-in AGP card, meant that the monitors could only be used in a desktop computer, like the Power Mac G5, that could have the add-in card installed, and could not be immediately used with laptop computers that lacked this expansion capability.[citation needed]

In March 2009, Apple updated several Macintosh computers with a Mini DisplayPort adapter, such as the Mac mini and iMac. These allow an external connection to 2560x1600 display.[86][87]

In 2010, WQXGA made its debut in a handful of home theater projectors targeted at the Constant Height Screen application market. Both Digital Projection Inc and projectiondesign released models based on a Texas Instruments DLP chip with a native WQXGA resolution, alleviating the need for an anamorphic lens to achieve 1:2.35 image projection. Many manufacturers have 27–30-inch models that are capable of WQXGA, albeit at a much higher price than lower resolution monitors of the same size. Several mainstream WQXGA monitors are or were available with 30-inch displays, such as the Dell 3007WFP-HC, 3008WFP, U3011, U3014, UP3017, the Hewlett-Packard LP3065, the Gateway XHD3000, LG W3000H, and the Samsung 305T. Specialist manufacturers like NEC, Eizo, Planar Systems, Barco (LC-3001), and possibly others offer similar models. As of 2016, LG Display make a 10-bit 30-inch AH-IPS panel, with wide color gamut, used in monitors from Dell, NEC, HP, Lenovo and Iiyama.

Released in November 2012, Google's Nexus 10 is the first consumer tablet to feature WQXGA resolution. Before its release, the highest resolution available on a tablet was QXGA (2048 × 1536), available on the Apple iPad 3rd and 4th generations devices. Several Samsung Galaxy tablets, including the Note 10.1 (2014 Edition), Tab S 8.4, 10.5 and TabPRO 8.4, 10.1 and Note Pro 12.2, as well as the Gigaset QV1030, also feature a WQXGA resolution display.

In 2012, Apple released the 13 inch MacBook Pro with Retina Display that features a WQXGA display, and the new MacBook Air in 2018.

The LG Gram 17 introduced in 2019[88] uses a 17-inch WQXGA display. It has been updated with the LG Gram 2021[89] that retains the same screen size and resolution.

2560 × 2048 (QSXGA) [edit]

QSXGA (Quad Super Extended Graphics Array) is a display resolution of 2560 × 2048 pixels with a 5:4 aspect ratio. Grayscale monitors with a 2560 × 2048 resolution, primarily for medical use, are available from Planar Systems (Dome E5), Eizo (Radiforce G51), Barco (Nio 5, MP), WIDE (IF2105MP), IDTech (IAQS80F), and possibly others.

Recent medical displays such as Barco Coronis Fusion 10MP or NDS Dome S10 have a native panel resolution of 4096 × 2560. These are driven by two dual-link DVI or DisplayPort outputs. They can be considered to be two seamless virtual QSXGA displays as they have to be driven simultaneously by both dual-link DVI or DisplayPort since one dual-link DVI or DisplayPort cannot single-handedly display 10 megapixels. A similar resolution of 2560 × 1920 (4:3) was supported by a small number of CRT displays via VGA such as the Viewsonic P225f when paired with the right graphics card.[citation needed]

3200 × 2048 (WQSXGA) [edit]

WQSXGA (Wide Quad Super Extended Graphics Array) describes a display standard that can support a resolution up to 3200 × 2048 pixels, assuming a 25:16 (1.5625:1) aspect ratio. The Coronis Fusion 6MP DL by Barco supports 3280 × 2048 (approximately 16:10).[citation needed]

3200 × 2400 (QUXGA) [edit]

QUXGA (Quad Ultra Extended Graphics Array) describes a display standard that can support a resolution up to 3200 × 2400 pixels, assuming a 4:3 aspect ratio.

3840 × 2400 (WQUXGA) [edit]

WQUXGA[42][68] (Wide Quad Ultra Extended Graphics Array) describes a display standard that supports a resolution of 3840 × 2400 pixels, which provides a 16:10 aspect ratio. This resolution is exactly four times 1920 × 1200 (in pixels). Some manufacturers refer to this resolution as UHD+[29][68][90][91] compared to UHD (3840 × 2160).

Most display cards with a DVI connector are capable of supporting the 3840 × 2400 resolution. However, the maximum refresh rate will be limited by the number of DVI links connected to the monitor. 1, 2, or 4 DVI connectors are used to drive the monitor using various tile configurations. Only the IBM T221-DG5 and IDTech MD22292B5 support the use of dual-link DVI ports through an external converter box. Many systems using these monitors use at least two DVI connectors to send video to the monitor. These DVI connectors can be from the same graphics card, different graphics cards, or even different computers. Motion across the tile boundary(ies) can show tearing if the DVI links are not synchronized. The display panel can be updated at a speed between 0 Hz and 41 Hz (48 Hz for the IBM T221-DG5, -DGP, and IDTech MD22292B5). The refresh rate of the video signal can be higher than 41 Hz (or 48 Hz) but the monitor will not update the display any faster even if graphics card(s) do so.[citation needed]

In June 2001, WQUXGA was introduced in the IBM T220 LCD monitor using a LCD panel built by IDTech. LCD displays that support WQUXGA resolution include: IBM T220, IBM T221, Iiyama AQU5611DTBK, ViewSonic VP2290,[92] ADTX MD22292B, and IDTech MD22292 (models B0, B1, B2, B5, C0, C2). IDTech was the original equipment manufacturer which sold these monitors to ADTX, IBM, Iiyama, and ViewSonic.[93] However, none of the WQUXGA monitors (IBM, ViewSonic, Iiyama, ADTX) are in production anymore: they had prices that were well above even the higher end displays used by graphic professionals, and the lower refresh rates, 41 Hz and 48 Hz, made them less attractive for many applications.

High-definition (HD and derivatives) [edit]

HD – High-definition
(by vertical resolution)
Name H
(px)
V
(px)
H:V
0
H × V
(Mpx)
nHD[citation needed] n HD 640 360 16:9 0.230
qHD[citation needed] q HD 960 540 16:9 0.518
HD[citation needed] HD 1280 720 16:9 0.922
HD+[22] HD + 1600 900 16:9 1.440
FHD[26] F HD 1920 1080 16:9 2.074
UWFHD[27][94] UWF HD 2560 1080 64:27
(≈21:9)
2.765
FHD+[29][85]
(WUXGA)[19][21][85]
F HD + 1920 1200 16:10 2.304
QHD[30]
WQHD[26]
Q
WQ
HD 2560 1440 16:9 3.686
UWQHD[31][95][96] UWQ HD 3440 1440 43:18
≈21:9
4.954
2K[32] 2K 2256 1504 3:2 3.393
QHD+[34][84][85]
(WQXGA)[33][85]
Q HD + 2560 1600 16:10 4.096
WQHD+[35] WQ HD + 3840 1600 24:10
(12:5)
6.144
3k[36] 3k 2880 1620 16:9 4.666
QHD+[38] Q HD + 3200 1800 16:9 5.760
SQFHD[39] SQF HD 1920 1920 1:1 3.686
3K+[40] 3K + 3072 1920 16:10 5.898
3.5K[29] 3.5K 3456 2160 16:10 7.465
4K UHD[26] 4K U HD 3840 2160 16:9 8.294
UHD+[29][68][90][91][85]
(WQUXGA)[93][85]
U HD + 3840 2400 16:10 9.216
5K UHD[26] 5K U HD 5120 2880 16:9 14.746
6K[43] 6K 6144 3456 16:9 21.234
8K UHD[26] 8K U HD 7680 4320 16:9 33.178
16K[citation needed] 16k 15360 8640 16:9 132.710

All standard HD resolutions share a 16∶9 aspect ratio, although some derived resolutions with smaller or larger ratios also exist. Most of the narrower resolutions are only used for storing, not for displaying videos.

640 × 360 (nHD) [edit]

nHD (ninth HD) is a display resolution of 640 × 360 pixels, which is exactly one-ninth of a Full HD (1080p) frame and one-quarter of an HD (720p) frame. Pixel doubling (vertically and horizontally) nHD frames will form one 720p frame and pixel tripling nHD frames will form one 1080p frame.

One drawback of this resolution regarding encoding is that the number of vertical lines is not a multiple of 16, which is a common macroblock size for video codecs. Video frames encoded with 16×16 pixel macroblocks would be padded to 640 × 368 and the added pixels would be cropped away at playback. H.264 codecs have this padding and cropping ability built-in as standard. The same is true for qHD and 1080p but the relative amount of padding is more for lower resolutions such as nHD.[citation needed]

To avoid storing the eight lines of padded pixels, some people prefer[who?] to encode video at 624 × 352, which only has one stored padded line. When such video streams are either encoded from HD frames or played back on HD displays in full-screen mode (either 720p or 1080p) they are scaled by non-integer scale factors. True nHD frames on the other hand have integer scale factors, for example the Nokia 808 PureView which has an nHD display.

960 × 540 (qHD) [edit]

Note: qHD is quarter HD; QHD is quad HD

qHD is a display resolution of 960 × 540 pixels, which is exactly one-quarter of a Full HD (1080p) frame, in a 16:9 aspect ratio.

One of the few tabletop TVs to use this as its native resolution was the Sony XEL-1. Similar to DVGA, this resolution became popular for high-end smartphone displays in early 2011. Mobile phones including the Jolla, Sony Xperia C, HTC Sensation, Motorola Droid RAZR, LG Optimus L9, Microsoft Lumia 535 and Samsung Galaxy S4 Mini have displays with the qHD resolution, as does the PlayStation Vita portable game system (though it is actually 960 × 544, rather than 960 × 540).

1280 × 720 (HD) [edit]

The HD resolution of 1280 × 720 pixels stems from high-definition television (HDTV), where it originally used 50 or 60 frames per second. With its 16:9 aspect ratio, it is exactly 2 times the width and 11/2 times the height of 4:3 VGA (640 × 480), which shares its aspect ratio and 480 line count with NTSC. HD, therefore, has exactly 3 times as many pixels as VGA, i.e. almost 1 megapixel.

This resolution is often referred to as 720p, although the p (which stands for progressive scan and is important for transmission formats) is irrelevant for labeling digital display resolutions. When distinguishing 1280 × 720 from 1920 × 1080, the pair has sometimes been labeled HD1 or HD-1 and HD2 or HD-2, respectively.[citation needed]

In the mid-2000s, when the digital HD technology and standard debuted on the market, this type of resolution was often referred to by the branded name HD ready or HDr for short, which had specified it as a minimum resolution for devices to qualify for the certification. However, few screens have been built that use this resolution natively. Most employ 16:9 panels with 768 lines instead (WXGA), which resulted in odd numbers of pixels per line, i.e. 13651/3 are rounded to 1360, 1364, 1366 or even 1376, the next multiple of 16.

1600 × 900 (HD+) [edit]

The HD+[22] (HD Plus) resolution of 1600 × 900 pixels in a 16:9 aspect ratio is often referred to as 900p.[citation needed]

1280 × 1080[edit]

1280 × 1080 is the resolution of Panasonic's DVCPRO HD format.[97] It has an aspect ratio of 32:27 (1.185:1), an approximation of Movietone cameras of the 1930s. In 2007, Hitachi released a few 42" and 50" television models at this resolution.[98]

1920 × 1080 (FHD) [edit]

FHD (Full HD) is the resolution used by the 1080p and 1080i HDTV video formats. It has a 16:9 aspect ratio and 2,073,600 total pixels, i.e. very close to 2 megapixels, and is exactly 50% larger than 720p HD (1280 × 720) in each dimension for a total of 2.25 times as many pixels. When using interlacing, the uncompressed bandwidth requirements are similar to those of 720p at the same field rate (a 12.5% increase, as one field of 1080i video is 1,036,800 pixels, and one frame of 720p video is 921,600 pixels). Although the number of pixels is the same for 1080p and 1080i, the effective resolution is somewhat lower for the interlaced format, as it is necessary to use some vertical low-pass filtering to reduce temporal artifacts such as interline twitter.

The next bigger resolution in vertical direction is 1920 × 1200 (WUXGA), hence also called FHD+ by some producers.[29]

2048 × 1080 (2K DCI) [edit]

DCI 2K is a standardized format established by the Digital Cinema Initiatives consortium in 2005 for 2K video projection. This format has a resolution of 2048 × 1080 (2.2 megapixels) with an aspect ratio of 256:135 (1.8962:1).[99] This is the native resolution for DCI-compliant 2K digital projectors and displays.

2160 × 1080 [edit]

2160 × 1080 is a resolution used by many smartphones since 2018. It has an aspect ratio of 18:9, matching that of the Univisium film format.[100]

2560 × 1080 [edit]

This resolution is equivalent to a Full HD (1920 × 1080) extended in width by 33%, with an aspect ratio of 64:27 (2.370, or 21.3:9). It is sometimes referred to as 1080p ultrawide[citation needed] or UW FHD (ultrawide FHD)[27] or UWFHD.[94] Monitors at this resolution usually contain built-in firmware to divide the screen into two 1280 × 1080 screens.[101]

3840 × 1080 [edit]

This resolution is equivalent to two Full HD (1920 × 1080) displays side by side or one vertical half of a 4K UHD (3840 × 2160) display. It has an aspect ratio of 32:9 (3.5:1), close to the 3.6:1 ratio of IMAX UltraWideScreen 3.6. Samsung monitors at this resolution contain built-in firmware to divide the screen into two 1920 × 1080 screens, or one 2560 × 1080 and one 1280 × 1080 screen.[102]

2560 × 1440 (QHD) [edit]

Note: qHD is "quarter HD"; QHD is "quad HD"

QHD (Quad HD) or 1440p,[103] is a display resolution of 2560 × 1440 pixels. The name QHD reflects the fact that it has four times as many pixels as HD (720p). It is also commonly called WQHD (Wide Quad HD),[104][26] to emphasize it being a wide resolution, although that is technically unnecessary, since the HD resolutions are all wide. One advantage of using "WQHD" is avoiding confusion with qHD with a small q (960 × 540). The aspect ratio is 16∶9. (The next bigger resolution in vertical direction is WQXGA/QHD+ 2560 × 1600 with an aspect ratio of 16∶10).

This resolution was under consideration by the ATSC in the late 1980s to become the standard HDTV format, because it is exactly 4 times the width and 3 times the height of VGA, which has the same number of lines as NTSC signals at the SDTV 4:3 aspect ratio. Pragmatic technical constraints made them choose the now well-known 16:9 formats with twice (HD) and thrice (FHD) the VGA width instead.

In October 2006, Chi Mei Optoelectronics (CMO) announced a 47-inch 1440p LCD panel to be released in Q2 2007;[105] the panel was planned to finally debut at FPD International 2008 in a form of autostereoscopic 3D display.[106] As of the end of 2013, monitors with this resolution were becoming more common.

The 27-inch version of the Apple Cinema Display monitor introduced in July 2010 has a native resolution of 2560 × 1440, as does its successor, the 27-inch Apple Thunderbolt Display.

The resolution is also used in portable devices. In September 2012, Samsung announced the Series 9 WQHD laptop with a 13-inch 2560 × 1440 display.[107] In August 2013, LG announced a 5.5-inch QHD smartphone display, which was used in the LG G3.[108] In October 2013 Vivo announced a smartphone with a 2560 × 1440 display.[109] Other phone manufacturers followed in 2014, such as Samsung with the Galaxy Note 4,[110] and Google[111] and Motorola[112] with the Nexus 6[113] smartphone. By the mid-2010s, it was a common resolution among flagship phones such as the HTC 10, the Lumia 950, and the Galaxy S6[114] and S7.[115]

3440 × 1440 [edit]

This resolution is equivalent to QHD (2560 × 1440) extended in width by 34%, giving it an aspect ratio of 43:18 (2.38:1, or 21.5:9; commonly marketed as simply "21:9"). The first monitor to support this resolution was the 34-inch LG 34UM95-P.[116] Dell and Samsung have referred to this resolution as "UWQHD".[31][96] Samsung has also called it "Ultra WQHD"[95] and LG has used the term "UltraWide QHD".[117] Another monitor by LG with this resolution was first released in Germany in late December 2013, before being officially announced at CES 2014.

3840 × 1600 [edit]

This resolution has a 12:5 aspect ratio (2.4:1, or 21.6:9; commonly marketed as simply "21:9"). It is equivalent to WQXGA (2560 × 1600) extended in width by 50%, or 4K UHD (3840 × 2160) reduced in height by 26%. This resolution is commonly encountered in cinematic 4K content that has been cropped vertically to a widescreen 2.4:1 aspect ratio. The first monitor to support this resolution was the 37.5-inch LG 38UC99-W. Other vendors followed, with Dell U3818DW, HP Z38c, and Acer XR382CQK. This resolution is referred to as UW4K, WQHD+,[118] UWQHD+, or QHD+,[119][120] though no single name is agreed upon.

3200 × 1800 (QHD+) [edit]

This resolution has a 16:9 aspect ratio, and is exactly four times as many pixels as the 1600 × 900 HD+ resolution. It has been referred to as WQXGA+,[citation needed] QHD[121][122] and QHD+[38] by various different companies. QHD+ is also used for the resolution 2560 × 1600 (QHD+).

The first products announced to use this resolution were the 2013 HP Envy 14 TouchSmart Ultrabook[123] and the 13.3-inch Samsung Ativ Q.[124]

3840 × 2160 (4K UHD) [edit]

This resolution, sometimes referred to as 4K UHD or 4K × 2K, has a 16:9 aspect ratio and 8,294,400 pixels. It is double the size of Full HD (1920 × 1080) in both dimensions for a total of four times as many pixels, and triple the size of HD (1280 × 720) in both dimensions for a total of nine times as many pixels. It is the lowest common multiple of the HDTV resolutions. The next bigger resolution in vertical direction is UHD+ (WQUXGA) 3840 × 2400 with an apect ratio of 16∶10.

3840 × 2160 was chosen as the resolution of the UHDTV1 format defined in SMPTE ST 2036-1,[125] as well as the 4K UHDTV system defined in ITU-R BT.2020[126][127] and the UHD-1 broadcast standard from DVB.[128] It is also the minimum resolution requirement for CEA's definition of an Ultra HD display.[129] Before the publication of these standards, it was sometimes casually referred to as QFHD (Quad Full HD).[130]

The first commercial displays capable of this resolution include an 82-inch LCD TV revealed by Samsung in early 2008,[131] the Sony SRM-L560, a 56-inch LCD reference monitor announced in October 2009,[132] an 84-inch display demonstrated by LG in mid-2010,[133] and a 27.84-inch 158 PPI 4K IPS monitor for medical purposes launched by Innolux in November 2010.[134] In October 2011 Toshiba announced the REGZA 55x3,[135] which is claimed to be the first 4K glasses-free 3D TV.

DisplayPort supports 3840 × 2160 at 30 Hz in version 1.1 and added support for up to 75 Hz in version 1.2 (2009) and 120 Hz in version 1.3 (2014),[136] while HDMI added support for 3840 × 2160 at 30 Hz in version 1.4 (2009)[137] and 60 Hz in version 2.0 (2013).[138]

When support for 4K at 60 Hz was added in DisplayPort 1.2, no DisplayPort timing controllers (TCONs) existed which were capable of processing the necessary amount of data from a single video stream. As a result, the first 4K monitors from 2013 and early 2014, such as the Sharp PN-K321, Asus PQ321Q, and Dell UP2414Q and UP3214Q, were addressed internally as two 1920 × 2160 monitors side by side instead of a single display and made use of DisplayPort's Multi-Stream Transport (MST) feature to multiplex a separate signal for each half over the connection, splitting the data between two timing controllers.[139][140] Newer timing controllers became available in 2014, and after mid-2014 new 4K monitors such as the Asus PB287Q no longer rely on MST tiling technique to achieve 4K at 60 Hz,[141] instead, using the standard SST (Single-Stream Transport) approach.[142]

In 2015, Sony announced the Xperia Z5 Premium, the first smartphone with a 4K display,[143] and in 2017 Sony announced the Xperia XZ Premium, the first smartphone with a 4K HDR display.[144]

4096 × 2160 (4K DCI) [edit]

4096 × 2160, referred to as DCI 4K, Cinema 4K[145] or 4K × 2K, is the resolution used by the 4K container format defined by the Digital Cinema Initiatives Digital Cinema System Specification, a prominent standard in the cinema industry. This resolution has an aspect ratio of 256:135 (1.8962:1), and 8,847,360 total pixels.[99] This is the native resolution for DCI 4K digital projectors and displays.

HDMI added support for 4096 × 2160 at 24 Hz in version 1.4[137] and 60 Hz in version 2.0.[138][146]

5120 × 2160 [edit]

This resolution is equivalent to 4K UHD (3840 × 2160) extended in width by 33%, giving it a 64:27 aspect ratio (2.370 or 21.3:9, commonly marketed as simply "21:9") and 11,059,200 total pixels. It is exactly double the size of 2560 × 1080 in both dimensions, for a total of four times as many pixels. The first displays to support this resolution were 105-inch televisions, the LG 105UC9 and the Samsung UN105S9W.[147][148] In December 2017, LG announced a 34-inch 5120 × 2160 monitor, the 34WK95U,[149] and in January 2021 the 40-inch 40WP95C.[150] LG refers to this resolution as 5K2K WUHD.[151]

5120 × 2880 (5K UHD)[edit]

This resolution, commonly referred to as 5K or 5K × 3K, has a 16:9 aspect ratio and 14,745,600 pixels. Although it is not established by any of the UHDTV standards, some manufacturers such as Dell have referred to it as UHD+.[152] It is exactly double the pixel count of QHD (2560 × 1440) in both dimensions for a total of four times as many pixels, and is 33% larger than 4K UHD (3840 × 2160) in both dimensions for a total of 1.77 times as many pixels. The line count of 2880 is also the least common multiple of 480 and 576, the scanline count of NTSC and PAL, respectively. Such a resolution can vertically scale SD content to fit by natural numbers (6 for NTSC and 5 for PAL). Horizontal scaling of SD is always fractional (non-anamorphic: 5.33...5.47, anamorphic: 7.11...7.29).

The first display with this resolution was the Dell UltraSharp UP2715K, announced on September 5, 2014.[153] On October 16, 2014, Apple announced the iMac with Retina 5K display.[154][155]

DisplayPort version 1.3 added support for 5K at 60 Hz over a single cable, whereas DisplayPort 1.2 was only capable of 5K at 30 Hz. Early 5K 60 Hz displays such as the Dell UltraSharp UP2715K and HP DreamColor Z27q that lacked DisplayPort 1.3 support required two DisplayPort 1.2 connections to operate at 60 Hz, in a tiled display mode similar to early 4K displays using DP MST.[156]

Other resolution with the same 5120-pixel width, which is the lowest common multiple of popular 1024 and 1280, but a different aspect ratio have also been called "5K" and some nominal 5K resolutions are just 4800 pixels wide, which is the lowest common multiple of 960 and 800.

7680 × 4320 (8K UHD) [edit]

This resolution, sometimes referred to as 8K UHD, has a 16:9 aspect ratio and 33,177,600 pixels. It is exactly double the size of 4K UHD (3840 × 2160) in each dimension for a total of four times as many pixels, and Quadruple the size of Full HD (1920 × 1080) in each dimension for a total of sixteen times as many pixels. 7680 × 4320 was chosen as the resolution of the UHDTV2 format defined in SMPTE ST 2036-1,[125] as well as the 8K UHDTV system defined in ITU-R BT.2020[126][127] and the UHD-2 broadcast standard from DVB.[128]

DisplayPort 1.3, finalized by VESA in late 2014, added support for 7680 × 4320 at 30 Hz (or 60 Hz with Y′CBCR 4:2:0 subsampling). VESA's Display Stream Compression (DSC), which was part of early DisplayPort 1.3 drafts and would have enabled 8K at 60 Hz without subsampling, was cut from the specification prior to publication of the final draft.[157]

DSC support was reintroduced with the publication of DisplayPort 1.4 in March 2016. Using DSC, a "visually lossless" form of compression, formats up to 7680 × 4320 (8K UHD) at 60 Hz with HDR and 30 bit/px color depth are possible without subsampling.[158]

16K[edit]

16k is a resolution of 15360 × 8640 and an aspect ratio of 16∶9.[159]

Sony introduced a 63 ft × 17 ft (19.2 m × 5.2 m) commercial 16K display at NAB 2019 that is set to be released in Japan.[160] It is made up of 576 modules (360 × 360p),[161] in a formation of 48 by 12 modules, forming a 17280 × 4320 screen, with 4:1 storage aspect ratio and a 3.5:1 display aspect ratio (63 feet x 18 feet).

Unsystematic resolutions[edit]

After having used VGA-based 3:2 resolutions HVGA (480 × 320) and Retina DVGA (960 × 640) for several years in their iPhone and iPod products with a screen diagonal of 9 cm or 3.5 inches, Apple started using more exotic variants when they adopted the 16:9 aspect ratio to provide a consistent pixel density across screen sizes: first 1136 × 640 (rarely: WDVGA) with the iPhone 5, 5C, 5S and SE 1st for 10-cm or 4-inch screens, and later 1334 × 750 with the iPhone 6, 6S, 7, 8, SE 2nd and SE 3rd for 12-cm or 4.7-inch screens, while devices with 14-cm or 5.5-inch screens used standard 1920 × 1080 with the iPhone 6 Plus, 6S Plus, 7 Plus and 8 Plus. The iPhone X, XS and 11 Pro introduced a 2436 × 1125 resolution for 15-cm or 5.8-inch screens, while the iPhone XS Max and 11 Pro Max introduced a 2688 × 1242 resolution for 17-cm or 6.5-inch screens (with a notch) all at an aspect ratio of roughly 13:6 or, for marketing, 19.5:9.

Other manufacturers have also introduced phones with irregular display resolutions and aspect ratios, e.g. Samsung's various Infinity displays with 37:18 = 18+1/2:9 (Galaxy S8/S9 and A8/Samsung Galaxy A9 (2018)), i.e. 2960 × 1440 (Quad HD+, WQHD+) or 2220 × 1080 (Full HD+), and 19:9 (S10) aspect ratios: 3040 × 1440 and 2280 × 1080 (S10e).

Some air traffic control monitors use displays with a resolution of 2048 x 2048, with an aspect ratio of 1:1,[41] and similar consumer monitors at resolution of 1920 x 1920 are also available aimed primarily at productivity tasks.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "What Is Display Resolution?". Lifewire. Retrieved 2023-04-27.
  3. ^ "How to calculate the optimum monitor size at any resolution". PC Gamer. Retrieved 2023-04-27.
  4. ^ "Screen Resolutions and Why They Matter". How-To Geek. Retrieved 2023-04-27.
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