List of Pakistan Movement activists

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A subset of Founding Fathers of Pakistan met in Lahore in 1940 to discuss the idea of Pakistan.

The Founders and activists of the Pakistan Movement, also known as Founding Fathers of Pakistan (Urdu:بانيڹ پاكستان; Romanization lit.:bəŋɨaɪaɪ-e-Pəkɨstəŋ), were the political leaders and statespersons who participated in the success of the political movement, following the signing of the Pakistan Resolution, that led the establishment and creation of the independent Pakistan on August 1947.[1] Within this large group, a further and extended subset signed the Objective Resolution that was annexed to the Constitution of Pakistan in 1950.[2]

The term was first used by the linguist and archeologist Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani's book, the Founding Fathers of Pakistan (1998), which popularized the term in literary activities of the country.[3] The Pakistan Movement was led by a large group of activists and statesmen who played crucial role in the politics of the British Indian Empire in 1930s and 1940s.[3] More recently, the term was used by the government officially in explaining the foreign policy text.[4] Authors and historians of Pakistan more broadly define the term "Founding Fathers" to mean a larger group which also includes all those who, whether as politicians, jurists, statesperson, soldiers, diplomats, academicians, or ordinary citizens, took part in winning the independence of four provinces in the north-west region of British India from the control of the United Kingdom and also from the influence of the Indian Congress;[1][5][6][7] this creating Pakistan.[1]

The following is a list of people who played a prominent role in making of Pakistan as independence activists, leaders, freedom fighters and revolutionaries.

Historical background[edit]

All-India Muslim League's convention held in 1938.

In 1905, the Bengal presidency's partition was decided by the English government which separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas was supported by the Muslims communities.[8] The success of the Swadeshi movement led by Indian activists led the reintegrating the presidency and it was a catalyst in making the Muslims reformers of India realize the need for a separate homeland.[8]

During the same year, the political efforts and initiations led by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan led the establishment of the historic All-India Muslim League (AIML) to protect the interests and rights of the Muslim regions in the subcontinent.[9] Mutual distrust among the Hindu leaders and Muslim reformers further grew.[10] A conference held as well as chaired by Indian Viceroy, Early Minto, the Hindu-Muslim conflict was raised to the constitutional plane.[10] In 1906, an annual meeting of Muhammadan Educational Conference was held in Dhaka led by Nawab Sir Khwaja Salimullh Banhadur, Nawab Vikar-ul-Mulk, Sir Sultan Mahomed Shah, Aga Khan III and 3,000 other delegates attended the session making it the largest-ever representative gathering of Muslim India.[11] Muslim cleric Ali Johar wrote All-India Muslim League's first agenda and Syed Ameer Ali established its European branch in the United Kingdom.[11]

For some quiet time, the Muslim League worked on its reputation and credibility against the much influential Indian Congress. It was not until when Liaquat Ali Khan and his companion Shrene Pant convinced Muhammad Ali Jinnah and among others to join the Muslim League in 1930s. The philosophical idea, Pakistan (Iqbal, 1930); the 14 points (Jinnah, 1929); the Now or Never (Ali, 1933); the Two-nation theory which was subsequently contributed and worked by many activists and leaders played a crucial role in gaining the creation of Pakistan in 1947.[12]

The newly founded country of Pakistan had to create a government and legislature to replace the British India government and the British Parliament.[13] The founding fathers of Pakistan first established the partial Constituent Assembly (which was replaced with Parliament), and adopted the Objectives Resolution was annexed to the Constitution of Pakistan.[13]

Occupations and finances[edit]

The founders and activists as well had different occupations and practiced a wide range of high and middle-status occupations, and many pursued more than one career simultaneously. However, the more influential founding fathers were trained and professional barristers and lawyers.[citation needed] Notable activist, Sir Dr. Ziauddin Ahmed, was a mathematician who helped forming in the first educational policy of the country.[citation needed] Ra'ana Ali Khan was an economist; and Abu Bakr Ahmad, a political scientist; M.M. Sharif, a philosopher; and Shaukat Hyatt Khan, an officer in the British Army, are the quiet few notable personalities who played an integrated role in the movement.[citation needed]

List of Founders of Pakistan[edit]

Listed Founders of Pakistan
(Birth and date)
Portrait Place of representation and origin Pre-independence and Post-independence notability
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Quaidportrait.jpg Karachi, Sindh Founder of Pakistan
First Governor-General of Pakistan
First President-Speaker of the Constituent Assembly
Presiding figure of the Muslim League
Allama Muhammad Iqbal
Iqbal.jpg Sialkot, Punjab Regarded as Spiritual Father of Pakistan
Presented and conceived the idea of Pakistan
Formalize the Two-Nation Theory
Philosopher and Poet of Urdu language
Aga Khan III
Aqa Khan in Chicago.jpg Karachi, Sindh Key presiding figure of the Muslim League
Led the Ismailism movement in support of Pakistan movement.
Liaquat Ali Khan
Liaquat Ali Khan.jpg Karnal, Punjab First Prime Minister of Pakistan
Author of Objectives Resolution
Fatima Jinnah
Fatima jinnah1.jpg Karachi, Sindh Regarded as Māder-e-Pakistan
Woman activist
Younger sister of Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Leader of the Opposition during 1965 elections
Fazlul Huq
A k fazlul hoque.jpg Barisal, Bengal Ascended as Interior Minister of Pakistan
Governor of East Pakistan
Khawaja Nazimuddin
Khawaja Nazimuddin of Pakistan.JPG Dhaka, Bengal First Bengali leader of Pakistan
Second Prime Minister of Pakistan
Second Governor-General of Pakistan
Naseer Ahmad Malhi
ChaudhryNaseerAhmadMalhi.jpeg Sialkot, Punjab First Minister of Education of Pakistan
Rahmat Ali
Chaudhary Rahmat Ali.jpg Balachaur, Punjab Coined and created "Pakstan"
Author of Now or Never
Bahadur Yar Jung
Qaidemillat.jpg Hyderabad, Hyderabad Deccan
Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan
Jhelum, Punjab Leader of Pakistan Movement, close companion of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, minister and diplomat
Muhammad Arif Khan Rajbana Sial


Jhang, Punjab Key presiding figure of the Muslim League.

Member All-India Constituent Assembly.

Chief Party Whip.

G. M. Syed
Karachi, Sindh Key presiding figure of the Muslim League
Rallied Sindh's support for Pakistan movement
Abdur Rab Nishtar
Abdul Rab Nishtar.jpg Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Governor of Punjab
First Minister of communications
Huseyn Suhrawardy
H. S. Suhrawardy.gif Dhaka, Bengal First Prime Minister of Pakistan of Pakistan
Enforcer of One Unit
Mohammad Ali Jouhar
Molana-Muhammad-Ali.jpg Rampur, Uttar Pradesh Muslim cleric and leader of Khilafat Movement
Key presiding figure of the Muslim League
Shaukat Ali
Mshaukat.jpg Rampur, Uttar Pradesh Muslim cleric and leader of Khilafat Movement
Key presiding figure of the Muslim League
Jalal-ud-din Jalal Baba
Jalal Baba's portrait.jpg Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Founder of Hazara Muslim League
Senior Muslim Leaguer and winner of referendum in NWFP
Zafar Ali Khan
Blank.jpg Wazirabad, Punjab and Poet of Urdu language
Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi
Wazirabad, Punjab Orator, Spiritual Leader of Pakistan Movement
Ra'ana Ali Khan
Begum Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan (1961).jpg Almora, United Provinces First Lady of Pakistan
Governor of Sindh
Initiated Women military corps
Widely known as Māder-e-Pakistan"
Jogendra Nath Mandal
Barisal, Bengal First Law Minister of Pakistan
Victor Turner
Blank.jpg London United Kingdom Founded Federal Board of Revenue
First Finance Secretary of Pakistan
Founder of Pakistan Civil Services
Syed Amir-uddin Kedwaii
Syed Amir-uddin Kedwaii.JPG Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh Designed the Pakistani Flag
Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman.JPG Rampur, Uttar Pradesh Presiding figure of the Muslim League
Jahanara Shahnawaz
Lahore, Punjab Crucial role in women legislature after the independence.

Notable activists[edit]

The activities and constant public gathering of founding fathers of Pakistan attracted the people of North-West India to be politically active in the movement. Many of the activists would later becoming the future leader of the country.

Listed activists of Pakistan
(Birth and date)
Portrait Place of representation and origin Pre-independence and Post-independence notability
Shireen Jinnah
Blank.jpg Karachi, Sindh Sister of Jinnah
Muhammad Asad
Lemberg, Austria-Hungary Honorary figure in Pakistan
Sartaj Aziz
Sartaj Aziz (cropped).jpg Mardan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa National Security Adviser (2013–Present)
Played key role in the political events in Pakistan, including that of nuclear tests in 1998
Professor of Economics at various universities of Pakistan.
Rafiq Tarar Gujranwala, Punjab 9th President of Pakistan
Mir Hazar Khoso Jaffarabad, Balochistan Acting Prime Minister of Pakistan
(25 March 2013 – 4 June 2013)
Nurul Amin
Nurul Amin.jpg Shahbazpur, Bengal Prime Minister of Pakistan
(7–20 December 1971)
Only Vice-President of Pakistan
Alvin Robert Cornelius
Agra Chief Justice of Pakistan
Pir Gohar
Mardan, KP Poet and critic

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Cohen, Stephen P. (2004). The idea of Pakistan (1. paperback ed.). Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815715021.
  2. ^ Akhtar, PAF, Air Marshal Masood (28 October 2011). "Six Suggested Founding Fathers' Vision Documents for Pakistan... II". Pakistan Tribune. 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  3. ^ a b Dani, Ahmad Hasan, ed. (1998). Founding fathers of Pakistan. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications. ISBN 9693508300.
  4. ^ Staff editors. "Guiding Principles of Pakistan's Foreign Policy". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA). Retrieved 30 January 2014. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  5. ^ Hasnat, Syed Farooq (2011). Pakistan. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-313-34697-2.
  6. ^ Chitkara, M.G. (1996). Nuclear Pakistan. New Delhi: A.P.H. Pub. Corp. ISBN 8170247675.
  7. ^ Pande, Aparna (2008). Explaining Pakistan: Escaping India. New Delhi India: Routledge. ISBN 978-1136818943.
  8. ^ a b Administrators; et al. (1 June 2003). "Partition of Bengal". Nazaria-e-Pakistan. Story of Pakistan (Pre-Independence, part-I). Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  9. ^ Abdul Rashid Kahn, "All India Muhammadan Educational Conference and the Foundation of the All India Muslim League," Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society (2007) Vol. 55 Issue 1/2, pp 65–83.
  10. ^ a b staff.; et al. (1 June 2003). "Simla Deputation". Nazaria-e-Pakistan. Nazaria-e-Pakistan (Story of Pakistan, Simla Deputation). Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  11. ^ a b Staff (June 2003). "Establishment of All India Muslim League". Nazaria-e-Pakistan Trust (AIML). Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  12. ^ Staff. "The Struggle for Independence". Nazaria-Pakistan Trust (Independence timeline). Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  13. ^ a b "The Constituent Assembly". Nazaria Pakistan, (Post-Independence, part I). 1 January 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.