Foreign relations of Switzerland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nations with which Switzerland has diplomatic relations.

The foreign relations of Switzerland are the primary responsibility of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA). Some international relations of Switzerland are handled by other departments of the federal administration of Switzerland.

History[edit]

The First Geneva Convention (1864). Geneva is the city that hosts the highest number of international organisations in the world.[1]

Article 54 of the Swiss Constitution of 1999 declares the safeguarding of Switzerland's independence and welfare as the principal objective of Swiss foreign policy. Below this overarching goal, the Constitution specifies these foreign policy objectives:

These objectives reflect the Swiss moral obligation to undertake social, economic, and humanitarian activities that contribute to world peace and prosperity. This is manifested by Swiss bilateral and multilateral diplomatic activity, assistance to developing countries, and support for the extension of international law, particularly humanitarian law.

Traditionally, Switzerland has avoided alliances that might entail military, political, or direct economic action. Only in recent years have the Swiss broadened the scope of activities in which they feel able to participate without compromising their neutrality. Switzerland is not a member of the European Union and joined the United Nations very late compared to its European neighbours.

Switzerland maintains diplomatic relations with almost all countries and historically has served as a neutral intermediary and host to major international treaty conferences. The country has no major dispute in its bilateral relations.

Switzerland (mainly Geneva) is home to many international governmental and nongovernmental organisations, including the International Olympic Committee, the International Committee of the Red Cross and the European Broadcasting Union. One of the first international organisations, the Universal Postal Union, is located in Bern.

United Nations[edit]

Session in the Palace of Nations in Geneva

After the creation of the United Nations in 1945, Switzerland did not join the United Nations for some time, fearing that its status as a neutral country would be damaged.[2] On 10 September 2002, Switzerland became a full member of the United Nations, after a referendum supporting full membership won in a close vote six months earlier; Swiss voters had rejected membership by a 3-to-1 margin in 1986. The 2002 vote made Switzerland the first and only country to join based on a popular vote.[3] Conversely, on 17 May 1992, Swiss voters approved by a healthy margin (55 percent in favour) the decision to join the IMF and the World Bank. Less than two weeks later, but a full two years after the initial application, Switzerland finally became a member of the IMF on 29 May of that same year.

Prior to its formal accession to the United Nations, Switzerland had maintained an observer role at the UN's General Assembly and its Economic and Social Council. Prior to full membership it had no right to a seat as one of the elected members of the UN Security Council. Switzerland was elected as a member of the United Nations Security Council for the period 2023-2024 on 9 June 2022. Switzerland says it intends to play its role as a "bridge builder".[4] Other stated priorities are peace building, supporting women into the political process, minorities rights and human rights and more transparency from the Security Council.[5]

Switzerland has fully participated within many of the UN's specialised institutions, including the Economic Commission for Europe, United Nations Environment Programme, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UN Conference on Trade and Development, UN Industrial Development Organization, and the Universal Postal Union. Switzerland has also furnished military observers and medical teams to several UN operations.[which?]

Switzerland is a party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice.

Support of UN sanctions[edit]

The Swiss government on 25 June 2003, eased most of the sanctions against the Republic of Iraq in accord with UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1483. The government lifted the trade embargo, flight restrictions, and financial sanctions in place since August 1990. The weapons embargo and the asset freeze, the scope of which was extended, remain in force, and restrictions on the trade in Iraqi cultural goods were newly imposed. Though not a member at the time, Switzerland had joined UN sanctions against Iraq after the invasion of Kuwait.

Switzerland also has joined UN economic sanctions imposed on Libya, Sierra Leone, UNITA (Angola), Liberia, and Serbia/Montenegro. On 15 October 2003, the Federal Council ended the import restrictions on raw diamonds from Sierra Leone and lifted sanctions against Libya.

Switzerland in October 2000 implemented an ordinance to enforce UN sanctions against the Taliban (UNSCR 1267), which it subsequently amended in April 2001 in accord with tighter UN regulations (UNSCR 1333). On 2 May 2002, the Swiss Government eased the sanctions regime in accord with UNSCR 1388 and 1390, lifting the ban on the sale of acetic acid (used in drug production), Afghan airlines, and Afghan diplomatic representations. The weapons embargo, travel restrictions, and financial sanctions remain in force.

The Swiss Government in November 2001 issued an ordinance declaring illegal the terrorist organisation Al-Qaeda as well as possible successor or supporting organisations. More than 200 individuals or companies linked to international terrorism have been blacklisted to have their assets frozen. Thus far, Swiss authorities have blocked about 72 accounts totalling U.S.$22.6 million.

EU and other international organizations[edit]

Switzerland and Denmark signed a treaty of Friendship in 1875.

Switzerland is a member of many international organizations, including the World Trade Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, European Free Trade Association, Council of Europe, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, International Atomic Energy Agency, and International Telecommunications Satellite Organization. Its central bank is a member of the Bank for International Settlements, based in Basel.

Switzerland is an active participant in the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, its foreign minister serving as Chairman-in-Office for 1996. Switzerland also is an active participant in the major nonproliferation and export control regimes.

Although it is surrounded by member nations, Switzerland is not a member nation of the European Union. In 1992 Swiss voters approved membership in the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, but later that year rejected the European Economic Area agreement, which the government viewed as a first step toward European Union membership. The Swiss instead take part in the European single market and Schengen through bilateral treaties.

More complete list of memberships:

ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CE, CERN, CGPM, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD (World Bank), ICAO, ICC, ICC, ICDO, ICFTU, ICMM, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFCS, IFRCS, IGC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, IWC, LAIA (observer), NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIE, OPCW, OSCE, OTIF, PCA, PFP, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC.

Participation in peacekeeping[edit]

While the Swiss electorate did reject a government proposition to directly deploy Swiss troops as UN peacekeepers (the Blue Helmets) in 1994, a total of 23 Swiss personnel including police and military observers (the Blue Berets) have served or are now serving for the United Nations. These dispositions are impartial, clearly defined and cover a number of UN projects around the globe.[6]

In 1996 Switzerland joined NATO's Partnership for Peace, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, and deployed Yellow Berets to support the OSCE in Bosnia. In June 2001, Swiss voters approved new legislation providing for the deployment of armed Swiss troops for international peacekeeping missions under UN or OSCE auspices as well as closer international cooperation in military training.

Since 1999, the Swiss army is participating through SWISSCOY in the peace keeping mission of the Kosovo Force (KFOR) based on UN-resolution 1244, with prolonged presence until 2014, after approval by the Swiss federal assembly in Spring 2011. Main duties include the supervision of civilian reconstruction efforts, monitoring and protection of patrimonial sites, military police and medical assistance.[7]

Representation of foreign entities and in foreign disputes[edit]

The ministers of foreign affairs of Germany, the United Kingdom, China, the United States, France, Russia, the European Union and Iran meeting in Geneva for the interim agreement on the Iranian nuclear programme (2013).

Under a series of treaties concluded after the First World War, Switzerland assumed responsibility for the diplomatic and consular representation of Liechtenstein, the protection of its borders, and the regulation of its customs.

Due to its long-standing neutrality, Switzerland has served as the protecting power for many countries, that did not have diplomatic relations with each other. This reached an apex during the Second World War, when Switzerland formally undertook 219 mandates for 35 states, and represented another eight states unofficially.[8] After the Second World War, Switzerland served an additional 67 mandates for various countries, including those between Cuba and other nations in the Western Hemisphere after the 1959 Cuban Revolution, between Middle Eastern nations following the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War in 1973, and between India and Pakistan prior to the formalization of relations in 1976.

Switzerland also represented Cuba in the United States between 1991 and 2015.[9] [check quotation syntax] Today, Switzerland has seven protecting power mandates:

  • United States interests in both Cuba (until 2015) and Iran
  • Cuban interest in the United States (until 2015)
  • Iranian interests in both Canada and Egypt
  • Saudi Arabian and Iranian interests with each other (Iran and Saudi Arabia have direct diplomatic relations since August 2023)[10]
  • Georgian and Russian interests with each other

Switzerland played a key role in brokering a truce agreement between the Sudanese Government and Sudan People's Liberation Army for the Nuba Mountains region, signed after a week's negotiations taking place near Lucerne in January 2002. Switzerland has also sent services to allied troops in the War in Afghanistan.[11]

Switzerland is also playing a major role in Palestinian politics, trying to act as a mediator between Fatah and Hamas regarding the integration of employees in Gaza. The Swiss diplomatic efforts lead to an agreement called "the Swiss Document" which initially was approved by both Palestinian parties.[12]

Following the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Switzerland decided to adopt all EU sanctions against Russia. According to the Swiss President Ignazio Cassis, the measures were "unprecedented but consistent with Swiss neutrality". The administration also confirmed that Switzerland would continue to offer its services to find a peaceful solution in the conflict. Switzerland only participates in humanitarian missions and provides relief supplies to the Ukrainian population and neighbouring countries.[13] In August 2022, Russia rejected a proposed Swiss mandate to represent Ukrainian interests in Russia, considering that Switzerland had lost its neutral status.[14]

On 18 April 2023, Federal Councilor Alain Berset paid an official visit to Berlin, Germany at the invitation of Chancellor Olaf Scholz. At the center of the discussions was the refusal by Switzerland to allow the re-exporting of ammunition and arms to the crisis region in Ukraine. While the talks took place in a friendly atmosphere, Alain Berset insisted on the traditional application of Swiss neutrality towards the sale of military hardware to Germany for use in that conflict. A number of parliamentary efforts by Swiss lawmakers to allow such sales were already rejected previously.[15]

On 1 May 2023, Saudi Minister of Industry and Mineral Resources Bandar Al-Khorayef made an official visit to the Swiss Confederation, meeting with Swiss State Secretary for Economic Affairs, Helene Budliger Artieda, and Chairwoman of the Board at Swiss Export Risk Insurance (SERV), Barbara Hayoz. The talks were mainly addressing export cooperation between the two nations, and the Saudi minister also held a talk at the meeting of the World Economic Forum in January 2023. Switzerland also represented Saudi interests in Iran before diplomatic relations were restored in April 2023.[16][17]

Diplomatic representations[edit]

Bilateral relations[edit]

Africa[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria
  • Algeria has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Algiers.
 Angola 30 September 1976 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 September 1976[18]
  • Angola has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Luanda.
 Benin 21 November 1961 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 November 1961[19]
 Botswana 22 August 1967

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 August 1967[20]

 Burkina Faso 17 October 1961 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 October 1961[21]
 Cape Verde 1980

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1980.[22]

 Central African Republic 11 February 1964 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 February 1964 when appointed first Ambassador of Switzerland to Central African Republic (resident in Leopoldville) Mr. Arturo Marcionelli[23]
 Chad 16 December 1963 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 December 1963 when appointed first Ambassador of Switzerland to Chad (resident in Lagos) Mr. Giovanni Enrico Bucher[24]
  • Chad has an embassy in Geneva.
  • Switzerland has a Cooperation Office in N'Djamena.
 Comoros 1 March 1977
 Democratic Republic of Congo 12 October 1962 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 October 1962 when appointed first Chargé d'Affaires a.i. of Switzerland to Republic of Congo (Leopoldville) Mr. Paul Etienne Jaccaud[26]
 Republic of Congo 21 April 1964 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 April 1964 when appointed first Ambassador of Switzerland to Congo (Brazzaville) Mr. Arturo Marcionelli[27]
 Cote d'Ivoire 26 July 1961 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 July 1961[28]
 Djibouti 23 December 1982 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 December 1982[29]
 Egypt 11 March 1935 See Egypt–Switzerland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 March 1935 when Mr. Henri Martin, first Minister of Switzerland to Egypt, presented his letters of credentials.[30]

  • Egypt has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Cairo.
 Equatorial Guinea 4 November 1968 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 November 1968[31]
 Eswatini 6 August 1969

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 August 1969 when Ambassador of Switzerland to South Africa, Mr. R. Hunziker presented his credentials to King of Swaziland Sobhuza II.[32]

 Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Geneva.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Gabon 11 February 1964 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 February 1964 when appointed first Ambassador of Switzerland to Gabon (resident in Leopoldville) Mr. Arturo Marcionelli[33]
 Gambia 30 March 1966[34]
 Ghana 19 July 1960 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 July 1960[35]
 Guinea 19 July 1960 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 July 1960[36]
 Kenya 28 February 1964 See Kenya–Switzerland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 February 1964 when appointed first Ambassador of Switzerland to Kenya (resident in Addis Ababa) Mr. Roger Dürr[37]

  • Kenya has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Nairobi.
 Lesotho 22 August 1967

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 August 1967[38]

 Liberia 19 July 1960 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 July 1960[39]
 Madagascar 13 June 1961 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 June 1961[40]
  • Madagascar has an embassy in Geneva.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Antananarivo.
 Malawi 19 May 1966 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 May 1966 when has been accredited first Ambassador of Switzerland to Malawi (Resident in Nairobi) Dr. H. K. Frey.[41]
 Mali 26 May 1961 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 May 1961[42]
 Mauritania 26 May 1961 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 May 1961[43]
 Mauritius 8 May 1968
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 May 1968 when appointed first Ambassador of Switzerland to Mauritius (resident in Addis Ababa) Mr Fernand Bernoulli[45]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.
 Mozambique 12 April 1976 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 April 1976[46]
 Niger 26 May 1961 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 May 1961[47]
 Nigeria
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos.
 Rwanda 12 November 1963 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 November 1963 when appointed first Ambassador of Switzerland to Rwanda (resident in Leopoldville) Mr. Arturo Marcionelli[48]
 Sao Tome and Principe 28 February 1985 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 February 1985[49]
 Senegal 26 May 1961 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 May 1961[50]
  • Senegal has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Dakar.
 Seychelles 10 March 1981 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 March 1981[51]
 South Africa See South Africa–Switzerland relations
 Sudan 27 December 1960 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 December 1960 when has been accredited Ambassador of Switzerland to Sudan (Resident in Cairo) Dr. Jean-Louis Pahud.[53]
 Togo 19 July 1960 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 July 1960[54]
 Uganda 1 March 1964 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 March 1964 when Mr. Roger Duerr, Swiss Ambassador to Uganda, presented his credentials to the President.[55]
 Zambia 10 June 1966 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 June 1966 when appointed first Ambassador of Switzerland to Zambia (resident in Kinshasa) Mr. Theodor Curchod[56]
 Zimbabwe 2 July 1980

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 July 1980[57]

Americas[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina 12 September 1891 See Argentina–Switzerland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 September 1891.[58]

 Belize 1988
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1988.[59]
  • Switzerland is represented in Belize through its embassy in Mexico City and since 1996 an honorary consulate in Belize City.[59]
 Bolivia 15 February 1946 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 February 1946 when has been appointed Charge d'Affaires of Switzerland to Bolivia with residence in Lima Mr. Hans Adolf Berger.[60]
 Brazil
 Canada 1945 See Canada–Switzerland relations
 Chile
  • Chile has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Santiago.
 Colombia
  • Colombia has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Bogotá.
 Costa Rica
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in San José.
 Cuba 18 June 1902 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 June 1902.[61]
Embassy of Switzerland in Havana
  • Cuba has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Havana.
 Dominican Republic 1936 See Dominican Republic-Switzerland relations
  • Dominican Republic has an embassy in Bern and a consulate in Zürich
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Santo Domingo
  • The DR is home to the largest Swiss community in the Caribbean
 El Salvador 1841
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Geneva.
  • Switzerland is accredited to El Salvador from its embassy in San José, Costa Rica, and maintains an honorary consulate in San Salvador.
 Guatemala
  • Guatemala has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Guatemala City.
 Haiti 29 September 1941 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 September 1941 when accredited first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Haiti to Switzerland Mr. Constantin Fouchard.[62]
  • Haiti is accredited to Switzerland from its embassy in Paris, France, and maintains an honorary consulate in Zürich.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
 Honduras 12 August 1957 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 August 1957 when Mr. Werner Fuchss envoy of Switzerland to Guatemala has been also appointed to Honduras.[63]
 Mexico 1827 See Mexico–Switzerland relations
 Nicaragua 1956
  • Nicaragua has an embassy in Geneva.
  • Switzerland is accredited to Nicaragua from its embassy in San José, Costa Rica and maintains an honorary consulate in Managua.
  • Relations with Nicaragua and Switzerland focus on development cooperation, humanitarian aid and trade.
 Peru
  • Peru has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Lima
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1992.[64]

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1985

Both countries established consular relations in 1985 and diplomatic relations in 2001.[65]

 Suriname 1979 See Suriname–Switzerland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1979.[66]

 United States 1853 See Switzerland–United States relations

The first official U.S.–Swiss consular relations were established in the late 1820s. Diplomatic relations were established in 1853 by the U.S. and in 1868 by Switzerland. The U.S. ambassador to Switzerland is also accredited to the Principality of Liechtenstein.

 Uruguay 1828 See Switzerland–Uruguay relations

Both countries share a long history of mutual economic relations, and they established diplomatic relations in 1828.[67][68] Uruguay became a popular destination for Swiss migrants starting in the 1860s.[69] In 1931 Uruguay called for a Swiss style parliamentary system.[70] In the twentieth century, Uruguay has looked to Switzerland as a model for government, historical and cultural ties go back to at least the nineteenth century.[71] There are 956 people with Swiss passports residing in Uruguay in 2009.[72] Uruguay was described as the "Switzerland of the Americas" in a 1951 The New York Times article for its popularity as a haven for capital fleeing Europe at the time and its adoption of Swiss-inspired banking laws.[73] Thomas J. Knight also wrote that "Uruguay has for most of its history been the 'Switzerland' of South America."[74]

  • Switzerland has an embassy in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Bern.
 Venezuela
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Caracas.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Bern.

Asia[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Armenia See Armenia–Switzerland relations

Switzerland recognized Armenia as an independent state on 23 December 1991. The two countries have maintained diplomatic relations ever since.

  • Armenia has an embassy in Geneva.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Yerevan.
 Azerbaijan 21 January 1992 See Azerbaijan–Switzerland relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Bern[75]
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Baku.[76]
 Bangladesh 14 June 1972 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 June 1972[77]
 China See China–Switzerland relations
 East Timor 16 September 2002 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 September 2002[78]
 Georgia
  • Georgia has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Tbilisi.
 India 1948 See India–Switzerland relations

India is one of Switzerland's most important partners in Asia. Bilateral and political contacts are constantly developing, and trade and scientific cooperation between the two countries are flourishing.[81] Switzerland was the first country in the World to sign a Friendship treaty with India in 1947.[82]

 Indonesia 2 November 1951 See Indonesia–Switzerland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 November 1951[83][84]

  • Indonesia has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Iran 4 March 1919 See Iran–Switzerland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 March 1919 when has been accredited first Persian Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Switzerland Zoka-ed-Dovleh.[85]

  • Iran has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Tehran.
 Iraq 1 May 1946 See Iraq–Switzerland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 May 1946 when has been accredited Minister of Switzerland to Iraq (resident in Cairo) Mr. Daniel Secretan.[86]

In November 2000 Switzerland opened a diplomatic liaison office in Baghdad to safeguard its interests. Bilateral relations became closer after the Iraq War in 2003.

  • Iraq has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland is accredited to Iraq from its embassy in Amman, Jordan.
 Israel See Israel–Switzerland relations

Switzerland recognized Israel on 25 January 1949 and opened a consulate in Tel Aviv.

 Japan 6 February 1864
  • Japan has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Kazakhstan
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
 Kuwait 21 February 1966 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 February 1966[87]
 Kyrgyzstan 1993

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1993.[88]

 Lebanon
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Beirut.
 Malaysia 1963 See Malaysia–Switzerland relations
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
 North Korea December 1974[89] See North Korea–Switzerland relations
  • North Korea has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland is accredited to North Korea from its embassy in Beijing, China.
 Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus has a Representative Office in Geneva.[90]
 Pakistan

Switzerland recognised Pakistan's independence from Great Britain in 1947, and the two states established diplomatic relations in 1949.[91] Switzerland ranks fifth in terms of foreign direct investment in Pakistan.[92][93]

  • Pakistan has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Islamabad and a consulate-general in Karachi.
 Palestine

Switzerland recognised Palestine's independence, and the two states established diplomatic relations.

  • Palestine has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has a representative office in Ramallah.
 Philippines 1956

Bilateral ties between the Philippines and Switzerland dates back to the early 19th century when Swiss traders, missionaries and travelers went to Southeast Asia. A Swiss representation in the Philippines was proposed in 1851, which was realized with the opening of a Swiss honorary consulate in Manila in 1862. Formal relations was established between the two countries on 30 August 1956.[94]

  • Philippines has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Manila.
 Saudi Arabia 12 July 1956 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 July 1956.[95]
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Bern and a consulate-general in Geneva.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Riyadh.
 Singapore
 South Korea 11 February 1963[96] See South Korea–Switzerland relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between South Korea and the Switzerland began on 11 February 1963.

 Sri Lanka 7 November 1956

See Sri Lanka-Switzerland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 November 1956 when has been accredited Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Switzerland to Ceylon Dr Hans Keller.[99]

  • Sri Lanka has an embassy in Bern,Switzerland.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Colombo.
 Tajikistan 9 December 1992
 Thailand 28 May 1931 See Foreign relations of Thailand

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 May 1931.[101]

  • Thailand has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Bangkok.
 Turkey See Switzerland–Turkey relations
 United Arab Emirates 12 September 1973 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 September 1973[102]
 Vietnam 11 October 1971

Europe[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania 1 March 1922[104]
  • Albania has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Tirana.

See Albanians in Switzerland

 Austria 1687 See Austria–Switzerland relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 Belarus 1992
 Belgium 30 September 1845 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 September 1845 when Constantin Rodenbach has been appointed as first Belgian Charge d'Affaires to Switzerland.[105]
  • Belgium has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Brussels.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Sarajevo.
 Bulgaria 1905
 Croatia
 Czech Republic
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Prague.
 Denmark 1875 See Denmark–Switzerland relations
  • Denmark has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Copenhagen.
 European Union 1972 See Switzerland–European Union relations
 Finland
  • Finland has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 France April 1521 See France–Switzerland relations
 Germany 1871 See Germany–Switzerland relations
 Greece 8 October 1917 See Greece–Switzerland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 October 1917 when has been accredited first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Greece to Switzerland Mr. Ap. Alexandris.[111]

  • Greece has an embassy in Bern and consulates-general in Geneva.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Athens.
 Hungary
  • Hungary has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Budapest.
 Ireland
  • Ireland has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Dublin.
 Italy 12 February 1860 See Italy–Switzerland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 February 1860 when has been appointed first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Switzerland Alessandro Jocteau.[112]

  • Italy has an embassy in Bern and consulates-general in Geneva, Lugano and Zürich and a consulate in Basel.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Rome and a consulate-general in Milan.
 Kosovo See Kosovo–Switzerland relations

Switzerland recognized Kosovo on 27 February 2008.[113] Switzerland has an embassy in Pristina since 28 March 2008.[114] Kosovo will open an embassy in Bern. In September 2008, Swiss authorities initially expressed reservation for Designate Ambassador Naim Mala due to his double nationality[115] but latter accepted him. Switzerland currently has 212 troops serving in Kosovo as peacekeepers in the NATO led Kosovo Force.[116]

 Liechtenstein See Liechtenstein–Switzerland relations
 Moldova 2 September 1992 See Moldova–Switzerland relations
 Netherlands
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in The Hague.
 North Macedonia 31 January 1994

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 January 1994.

  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Skopje.
 Norway
  • Norway has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Oslo.
 Poland
  • Poland has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Portugal
  • Portugal has an embassy in Bern and consulates-general in Geneva and Zürich and consular offices in Lugano and Sion.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Lisbon and a consulate in Porto.
 Romania See Romania–Switzerland relations

Since the 1990s, Switzerland has helped Romania financially, for a total sum of 140 million Swiss Francs between 1996 and 2006, and an additional 23 million Francs in 2006–2007. Switzerland has become the 12th largest foreign investor in Romania.[117] In 2005, Romania exported goods to Switzerland for a total of 206 million Swiss Francs, with Switzerland exporting for 547 million Swiss Francs to Romania, making Romania the biggest partner of Switzerland in South-West Europe.[118] By 2006, this had increased by 26% from Romania and 38% from Switzerland.[119]

  • Romania has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Bucharest.
 Russia 1816 See Russia–Switzerland relations

Switzerland opened a consulate in Saint Petersburg in 1816, upgrading it to a legation 90 years later. The two countries broke off diplomatic relations in 1923, when Russia was going through a period of revolutionary turmoil – and they were not resumed until 1946.

 Serbia 1916 See Serbia–Switzerland relations
 Slovakia
  • Slovakia has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Bratislava.
 Slovenia
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Ljubljana.
 Spain See Spain–Switzerland relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Madrid.
 Sweden
  • Sweden has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Stockholm.
 Ukraine 1991 See Switzerland–Ukraine relations
 United Kingdom See Switzerland–United Kingdom relations
  • Switzerland has an embassy in London.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Bern.

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia 1961 See Australia–Switzerland relations

Switzerland opened a consulate in Sydney in 1855 and one in Melbourne in 1856. Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1961.

 Kiribati 1 June 2004 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 June 2004[124]
 Federated States of Micronesia 22 April 2003

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 April 2003.[125][126]

 Marshall Islands 22 January 2003

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 January 2003[127]

 New Zealand 1963

Switzerland opened a consulate in Auckland in 1912. Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1963.

 Papua New Guinea 1976

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1976.[128]

 Samoa 1981

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 August 1981.[129][130]

 Solomon Islands 2007

Both countries established diplomatic relations in December 2007.[131]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (in French) François Modoux, "La Suisse engagera 300 millions pour rénover le Palais des Nations", Le Temps, Friday 28 June 2013, page 9.
  2. ^ "Why did Switzerland only join the United Nations in 2002?". IamExpat.ch. 24 October 2022. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
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External links[edit]