Page semi-protected

Florida

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Florida
State of Florida
Nickname(s): 
Sunshine State[1][2][3]
Motto(s): 
Anthem: "Florida" (state anthem), “Old Folks at Home” (state song)
Map of the United States with Florida highlighted
Map of the United States with Florida highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodFlorida Territory
Admitted to the UnionMarch 3, 1845 (27th)
CapitalTallahassee[1]
Largest cityJacksonville[5]
Largest metro and urban areasMiami
Government
 • GovernorRon DeSantis (R)
 • Lieutenant GovernorJeanette Nuñez (R)
LegislatureFlorida Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciarySupreme Court of Florida
U.S. senatorsMarco Rubio (R)
Rick Scott (R)
U.S. House delegation16 Republicans
11 Democrats
(list)
Area
 • Total65,758[6] sq mi (170,312 km2)
 • Land53,625 sq mi (138,887 km2)
 • Water12,133 sq mi (31,424 km2)  18.5%
 • Rank22nd
Dimensions
 • Length447 mi (721 km)
 • Width361 mi (582 km)
Elevation
100 ft (30 m)
Highest elevation345 ft (105 m)
Lowest elevation
(Atlantic Ocean[7])
0 ft (0 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total21,538,187[9]
 • Rank3rd
  • Rank8th
 • Median household income
$57,700[10]
 • Income rank
34th
Demonym(s)Floridian, Floridan
Language
 • Official languageEnglish[11]
 • Spoken languagePredominantly English and Spanish[12]
Time zones
Peninsula and "Big Bend" regionUTC−05:00 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
Panhandle west of the Apalachicola RiverUTC−06:00 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−05:00 (CDT)
USPS abbreviation
FL
ISO 3166 codeUS-FL
Traditional abbreviationFla.
Latitude24° 27' N to 31° 00' N
Longitude80° 02' W to 87° 38' W
Websitemyflorida.com
Florida state symbols
Flag of Florida.svg
Seal of Florida.svg
Living insignia
AmphibianBarking tree frog
BirdNorthern mockingbird
FishFlorida largemouth bass, Atlantic sailfish
FlowerOrange blossom
InsectZebra longwing
MammalFlorida panther, manatee, bottlenose dolphin, Florida Cracker Horse[13]
ReptileAmerican alligator, Loggerhead turtle, Gopher tortoise[13]
TreeSabal palmetto
Inanimate insignia
BeverageOrange juice
FoodKey lime pie, Orange
GemstoneMoonstone
RockAgatized coral
ShellHorse conch
SoilMyakka
State route marker
Florida state route marker
State quarter
Florida quarter dollar coin
Released in 2004
Lists of United States state symbols

Florida is a state located in the Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Bahamas and Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida and Cuba; it is the only state that borders both the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Spanning 65,758 square miles (170,310 km2), Florida ranks 22nd in area among the 50 states, and with a population of over 21 million, is the third-most populous. The state capital is Tallahassee and the most populous city is Jacksonville. The Miami metropolitan area, with a population of almost 6.2 million, is the most populous urban area in Florida and the ninth-most populous in the United States; other urban conurbations with over one million people are Tampa Bay, Orlando, and Jacksonville.

Various Native American groups have inhabited Florida for at least 14,000 years. In 1513, Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León became the first known European to make landfall, calling the region La Florida ([la floˈɾiða] for its lush greenery and the Easter season (Pascua Florida in Spanish). Florida subsequently became the first area in the continental U.S. to be permanently settled by Europeans, with the Spanish colony of St. Augustine, founded in 1565, being the oldest continuously inhabited city. Florida was repeatedly contested by Spain and Great Britain, before being ceded to the U.S. in 1819; it was admitted as the 27th state on March 3, 1845. Florida was the principal location of the Seminole Wars (1816–1858), the longest and most extensive of the Indian Wars in U.S. history. The state seceded from the Union on January 10, 1861, becoming one of the seven original Confederate States. After the Civil War, Florida was restored to the Union on June 25, 1868.

Since the mid-20th century, Florida has experienced rapid demographic and economic growth. Its economy, with a gross state product (GSP) of $1.0 trillion, is the fourth-largest of any U.S. state and the 16th-largest in the world; the main sectors are tourism, hospitality, agriculture, real estate, and transportation. Florida is world-renowned for its beach resorts, amusement parks, warm and sunny climate, and nautical recreation; attractions such as Walt Disney World, the Kennedy Space Center, and Miami Beach draw tens of millions of visitors annually. Florida is a popular destination for retirees, seasonal vacationers, and both domestic and international migrants; it hosts nine out of the ten fastest-growing communities in the U.S. The state's close proximity to the ocean has shaped its culture, identity, and daily life; its colonial history and successive waves of migration are reflected in African, European, Indigenous, Latino, and Asian influences. Florida has attracted or inspired writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes, particularly in golf, tennis, auto racing, and water sports. Florida is also heavily noted for being a battleground state in American presidential elections, notably those in 2000, 2016, and 2020.

About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. It has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States, spanning approximately 1,350 miles (2,170 km), not including its many barrier islands. Florida has 4,510 islands that are ten acres (4 ha) or larger in area, the second highest number after Alaska. Much of the state is at or near sea level, and is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida is the flattest state in the country, with the lowest high point of any U.S. state, at just 345 feet (105 meters). Lake Okeechobee is its largest freshwater lake, and the second-largest located entirely within the contiguous 48 states. Several beaches in Florida have turquoise and emerald-colored coastal waters.

Florida's climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south. It is the only state besides Hawaii to have a tropical climate, and is the only continental state with both a tropical climate (at the lower tip of the peninsula) and a coral reef. Consequently, Florida has several unique ecosystems, most notably Everglades National Park, the largest tropical wilderness in the U.S. and among the largest in the Americas. Unique wildlife include the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, and manatee. The Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, and the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world (after the Great Barrier Reef and Belize Barrier Reef).

History

People, known as Paleo-Indians, entered Florida at least 14,000 years ago.[14] By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major groups of people living in Florida included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, and the Calusa of southwest Florida.[citation needed]

European arrival

Map of Florida, likely based on the expeditions of Hernando de Soto (1539–1543)

Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513. He named it La Florida in recognition of the verdant landscape and because it was the Easter season, which the Spaniards called Pascua Florida (Festival of Flowers). The following day they came ashore to seek information and take possession of this new land.[15][16] The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and appeared only long after his death.[17]

In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet (21 m), with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult.[18] The Spanish introduced Christianity, cattle, horses, sheep, the Castilian language, and more to Florida.[19] Spain established several settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was mostly abandoned by 1561.

In 1564–65 there was a French settlement at Fort Caroline, in present Duval County, which was destroyed by the Spanish.[20]

In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine (San Agustín) was established under the leadership of admiral and governor Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, creating what would become one of the oldest, continuously occupied European settlements in the continental U.S. and establishing the first generation of Floridanos and the Government of Florida.[21] Spain maintained strategic control over the region by converting the local tribes to Christianity. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville, and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian, occurred in 1565 in St. Augustine. It is the first recorded Christian marriage in the continental United States.[22]

Some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, and their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos. The Spanish encouraged slaves from the Thirteen Colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism. Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves also reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spanish Florida as early as 1683.[23]

The Castillo de San Marcos. Originally white with red corners, its design reflects the colors and shapes of the Cross of Burgundy and the subsequent Flag of Florida.

The geographical area of Spanish claims in La Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north and French claims to the west. English colonists and buccaneers launched several attacks on St. Augustine in the 17th and 18th centuries, razing the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Spain built the Castillo de San Marcos in 1672 and Fort Matanzas in 1742 to defend Florida's capital city from attacks, and to maintain its strategic position in the defense of the Captaincy General of Cuba and the Spanish West Indies.

In 1738, the Spanish governor of Florida Manuel de Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near St. Augustine, a fortified town for escaped slaves to whom Montiano granted citizenship and freedom in return for their service in the Florida militia, and which became the first free black settlement legally sanctioned in North America.[24][25]

In 1763, Spain traded Florida to the Kingdom of Great Britain for control of Havana, Cuba, which had been captured by the British during the Seven Years' War. The trade was done as part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris which ended the Seven Years' War. Spain was granted Louisiana from France due to their loss of Florida. A large portion of the Florida population left, taking along large portions of the remaining indigenous population with them to Cuba.[26] The British soon constructed the King's Road connecting St. Augustine to Georgia. The road crossed the St. Johns River at a narrow point called Wacca Pilatka, or the British name "Cow Ford", reflecting the fact that cattle were brought across the river there.[27][28][29]

East Florida and West Florida in British period (1763–1783)

The British divided and consolidated the Florida provinces (Las Floridas) into East Florida and West Florida, a division the Spanish government kept after the brief British period.[30] The British government gave land grants to officers and soldiers who had fought in the French and Indian War in order to encourage settlement. In order to induce settlers to move to Florida, reports of its natural wealth were published in England. A number of British settlers who were described as being "energetic and of good character" moved to Florida, mostly coming from South Carolina, Georgia and England. There was also a group of settlers who came from the colony of Bermuda. This was the first permanent English-speaking population in what is now Duval County, Baker County, St. Johns County and Nassau County. The British constructed good public roads and introduced the cultivation of sugar cane, indigo and fruits, as well as the export of lumber.[31][32]

The British governors were directed to call general assemblies as soon as possible in order to make laws for the Floridas, and in the meantime they were, with the advice of councils, to establish courts. This was the first introduction of the English-derived legal system which Florida still has today, including trial by jury, habeas corpus and county-based government.[31][32] Neither East Florida nor West Florida sent any representatives to Philadelphia to draft the Declaration of Independence. Florida remained a Loyalist stronghold for the duration of the American Revolution.[33]

Spain regained both East and West Florida after Britain's defeat in the Revolutionary War and the subsequent Treaty of Versailles in 1783, and continued the provincial divisions until 1821.[34]

Statehood and Indian removal

A Cracker cowboy, 19th century

Defense of Florida's northern border with the United States was minor during the second Spanish period. The region became a haven for escaped slaves and a base for Indian attacks against U.S. territories, and the U.S. pressed Spain for reform.

Americans of English and Scots-Irish descent began moving into northern Florida from the backwoods of Georgia and South Carolina. Though technically not allowed by the Spanish authorities and the Floridan government, they were never able to effectively police the border region and the backwoods settlers from the United States would continue to immigrate into Florida unchecked. These migrants, mixing with the already present British settlers who had remained in Florida since the British period, would be the progenitors of the population known as Florida Crackers.[35]

These American settlers established a permanent foothold in the area and ignored Spanish authorities. The British settlers who had remained also resented Spanish rule, leading to a rebellion in 1810 and the establishment for ninety days of the so-called Free and Independent Republic of West Florida on September 23. After meetings beginning in June, rebels overcame the garrison at Baton Rouge (now in Louisiana), and unfurled the flag of the new republic: a single white star on a blue field. This flag would later become known as the "Bonnie Blue Flag".

In 1810, parts of West Florida were annexed by the proclamation of President James Madison, who claimed the region as part of the Louisiana Purchase. These parts were incorporated into the newly formed Territory of Orleans. The U.S. annexed the Mobile District of West Florida to the Mississippi Territory in 1812. Spain continued to dispute the area, though the United States gradually increased the area it occupied. In 1812, a group of settlers from Georgia, with de facto support from the U.S. federal government, attempted to overthrow the Floridan government in the province of East Florida. The settlers hoped to convince Floridians to join their cause and proclaim independence from Spain, but the settlers lost their tenuous support from the federal government and abandoned their cause by 1813.[36]

Traditionally, historians argued that Seminoles based in East Florida began raiding Georgia settlements, and offering havens for runaway slaves. The United States Army led increasingly frequent incursions into Spanish territory, including the 1817–1818 campaign against the Seminole Indians by Andrew Jackson that became known as the First Seminole War. The United States now effectively controlled East Florida. Control was necessary according to Secretary of State John Quincy Adams because Florida had become "a derelict open to the occupancy of every enemy, civilized or savage, of the United States, and serving no other earthly purpose than as a post of annoyance to them."[37]

More recent historians describe that after U.S. independence, settlers in Georgia increased pressure on Seminole lands, and skirmishes near the border led to the First Seminole War (1816–19). The United States purchased Florida from Spain by the Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) and took possession in 1821. The Seminole were moved out of their rich farmland in northern Florida and confined to a large reservation in the interior of the Florida peninsula by the Treaty of Moultrie Creek (1823). Passage of the Indian Removal Act (1830) led to the Treaty of Payne's Landing (1832), which called for the relocation of all Seminole to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma).[38] Some resisted, leading to the Second Seminole War, the bloodiest war against Native Americans in United States history. By 1842, however, most Seminoles and Black Seminoles, facing starvation, were removed to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Perhaps fewer than 200 Seminoles remained in Florida after the Third Seminole War (1855–1858), having taken refuge in the Everglades, from where they never surrendered to the US. They fostered a resurgence in traditional customs and a culture of staunch independence.[39]

Florida had become a burden to Spain, which could not afford to send settlers or troops due to the devastation caused by the Peninsular War. Madrid, therefore, decided to cede the territory to the United States through the Adams–Onís Treaty, which took effect in 1821.[40] President James Monroe was authorized on March 3, 1821, to take possession of East Florida and West Florida for the United States and provide for initial governance.[41] Andrew Jackson, on behalf of the U.S. federal government, served as a military commissioner with the powers of governor of the newly acquired territory for a brief period.[42] On March 30, 1822, the U.S. Congress merged East Florida and part of West Florida into the Florida Territory.[43]

A U.S. Marine boat searching the Everglades for Seminoles (hiding in foreground) during the Second Seminole War

By the early 1800s, Indian removal was a significant issue throughout the southeastern U.S. and also in Florida. In 1830, the U.S. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act and as settlement increased, pressure grew on the U.S. government to remove the Indians from Florida. Seminoles offered sanctuary to blacks, and these became known as the Black Seminoles, and clashes between whites and Indians grew with the influx of new settlers. In 1832, the Treaty of Payne's Landing promised to the Seminoles lands west of the Mississippi River if they agreed to leave Florida. Many Seminole left at this time.

Some Seminoles remained, and the U.S. Army arrived in Florida, leading to the Second Seminole War (1835–1842). Following the war, approximately 3,000 Seminole and 800 Black Seminole were removed to Indian Territory. A few hundred Seminole remained in Florida in the Everglades.

The Historic Call-Collins House, the Grove, built by slaves in the 1840s, is an antebellum plantation house in Tallahassee.
1840 advertisement in the Pensacola Gazette offering a $10 ($330 in 2022) reward for the return of a fugitive slave

On March 3, 1845, only one day before the end of President John Tyler's term in office, Florida became the 27th state,[44] admitted as a slave state and no longer a sanctuary for runaway slaves. Initially its population grew slowly.[45]

As European settlers continued to encroach on Seminole lands, the United States intervened to move the remaining Seminoles to the West. The Third Seminole War (1855–58) resulted in the forced removal of most of the remaining Seminoles, although hundreds of Seminole Indians remained in the Everglades.[46]

The first settlements and towns in South Florida were founded much later than those in the northern part of the state. The first permanent European settlers arrived in the early 19th century. People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that ran aground on the treacherous Great Florida Reef. Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves. The area was affected by the Second Seminole War, during which Major William S. Harney led several raids against the Indians. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history, causing almost a total loss of population in Miami.

After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, William English re-established a plantation started by his uncle on the Miami River. He charted the "Village of Miami" on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land. In 1844, Miami became the county seat, and six years later a census reported there were ninety-six residents in the area.[47] The Third Seminole War was not as destructive as the second, but it slowed the settlement of southeast Florida. At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed.

Civil War and Reconstruction

American settlers began to establish cotton plantations in north Florida, which required numerous laborers, which they supplied by buying slaves in the domestic market. By 1860, Florida had only 140,424 people, of whom 44% were enslaved. There were fewer than 1,000 free African Americans before the American Civil War.[48]

On January 10, 1861, nearly all delegates in the Florida Legislature approved an ordinance of secession,[49][50] declaring Florida to be "a sovereign and independent nation"—an apparent reassertion to the preamble in Florida's Constitution of 1838, in which Florida agreed with Congress to be a "Free and Independent State." The ordinance declared Florida's secession from the Union, allowing it to become one of the founding members of the Confederate States.

The Confederacy received little military help from Florida; the 15,000 troops it offered were generally sent elsewhere. Instead of troops and manufactured goods, Florida did provide salt and, more importantly, beef to feed the Confederate armies. This was particularly important after 1864, when the Confederacy lost control of the Mississippi River, thereby losing access to Texas beef.[51][52] The largest engagements in the state were the Battle of Olustee, on February 20, 1864, and the Battle of Natural Bridge, on March 6, 1865. Both were Confederate victories.[53] The war ended in 1865.

Following the American Civil War, Florida's congressional representation was restored on June 25, 1868, albeit forcefully after Reconstruction and the installation of unelected government officials under the final authority of federal military commanders. After the Reconstruction period ended in 1876, white Democrats regained power in the state legislature. In 1885, they created a new constitution, followed by statutes through 1889 that disfranchised most blacks and many poor whites.[54]

In the pre-automobile era, railroads played a key role in the state's development, particularly in coastal areas. In 1883, the Pensacola and Atlantic Railroad connected Pensacola and the rest of the Panhandle to the rest of the state. In 1884 the South Florida Railroad (later absorbed by Atlantic Coast Line Railroad) opened full service to Tampa. In 1894 the Florida East Coast Railway reached West Palm Beach; in 1896 it reached Biscayne Bay near Miami. Numerous other railroads were built all over the interior of the state.

20th and 21st century

People at the newly opened Don Cesar Hotel in St. Pete Beach, Florida in 1928

Historically, Florida's economy has been based primarily upon agricultural products such as citrus fruits, strawberries, nuts, sugarcane and cattle.[55] The boll weevil devastated cotton crops during the early 20th century.

Until the mid-20th century, Florida was the least populous state in the southern United States. In 1900, its population was only 528,542, of whom nearly 44% were African American, the same proportion as before the Civil War.[56] Forty thousand blacks, roughly one-fifth of their 1900 population levels in Florida, left the state in the Great Migration. They left due to lynchings and racial violence, and for better opportunities in the North and the West.[57] Disfranchisement for most African Americans in the state persisted until the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s gained federal legislation in 1965 to enforce protection of their constitutional suffrage.

Black and white photograph of segregationists fighting on a beach
White segregationists (foreground) trying to prevent black people from swimming at a "White only" beach in St. Augustine during the 1964 Monson Motor Lodge protests

In response to racial segregation in Florida, a number of protests occurred in Florida during the 1950s and 1960s as part of the Civil Rights Movement. In 1956–1957, students at Florida A&M University organized a bus boycott in Tallahassee to mimic the Montgomery bus boycott and succeeded in integrating the city's buses.[58] Students also held sit-ins in 1960 in protest of segregated seating at local lunch counters, and in 1964 an incident at a St. Augustine motel pool, in which the owner poured acid into the water during a demonstration, influenced the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.[59]

Economic prosperity in the 1920s stimulated tourism to Florida and related development of hotels and resort communities. Combined with its sudden elevation in profile was the Florida land boom of the 1920s, which brought a brief period of intense land development. In 1925, the Seaboard Air Line broke the FEC's southeast Florida monopoly and extended its freight and passenger service to West Palm Beach; two years later it extended passenger service to Miami. Devastating hurricanes in 1926 and 1928, followed by the Great Depression, brought that period to a halt. Florida's economy did not fully recover until the military buildup for World War II.

Miami's Freedom Tower, built in 1925, was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 1979.

In 1939, Florida was described as "still very largely an empty State."[60] Subsequently, the growing availability of air conditioning, the climate, and a low cost of living made the state a haven. Migration from the Rust Belt and the Northeast sharply increased Florida's population after 1945. In the 1960s, many refugees from Cuba fleeing Fidel Castro's communist regime arrived in Miami at the Freedom Tower, where the federal government used the facility to process, document and provide medical and dental services for the newcomers. As a result, the Freedom Tower was also called the "Ellis Island of the South."[61] In recent decades, more migrants have come for the jobs in a developing economy.

With a population of more than 18 million, according to the 2010 census, Florida is the most populous state in the southeastern United States and the third-most populous in the United States.[62] The population of Florida has boomed in recent years with the state being the recipient of the largest number of out-of-state movers in the country as of 2019.[63] Florida's growth has been widespread, as cities throughout the state have continued to see population growth.[64]

Florida was the site of the killing of Trayvon Martin, a young black man killed by George Zimmerman in Sanford. The incident drew national attention to Florida's stand-your-ground laws, and it sparked African American activism nationally, including the Black Lives Matter movement.[65]

After Hurricane Maria devastated Puerto Rico in September 2017, a large population of Puerto Ricans began moving to Florida to escape the widespread destruction. Hundreds of thousands of Puerto Ricans arrived in Florida after Maria dissipated, with nearly half of them arriving in Orlando and large populations also moving to Tampa, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach.[66]

Memorials left on the fence of the Pulse nightclub in Orlando in 2016

A handful of high-profile mass shootings have occurred in Florida in the twenty-first century. In June 2016, a gunman killed 49 people at a gay nightclub in Orlando. It is the deadliest incident in the history of violence against LGBT people in the United States, as well as the deadliest terrorist attack in the U.S. since the September 11 attacks in 2001, and was the deadliest mass shooting by a single gunman in U.S. history until the 2017 Las Vegas shooting. In February 2018, 17 people were killed in a school shooting at Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, leading to new gun control regulations at both the state and federal level.[67]

On June 24, 2021, a condominium in Surfside, Florida near Miami collapsed, killing at least 97 people.[68] The Surfside collapse is tied with the Knickerbocker Theatre collapse as the third-deadliest structural engineering failure in United States history, behind the Hyatt Regency walkway collapse and the collapse of the Pemberton Mill.[69][70]

Geography

Florida is mostly low-lying and flat as this topographic map shows.

Much of Florida is on a peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic Ocean and the Straits of Florida. Spanning two time zones, it extends to the northwest into a panhandle, extending along the northern Gulf of Mexico. It is bordered on the north by Georgia and Alabama, and on the west, at the end of the panhandle, by Alabama. It is the only state that borders both the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Florida also is the southernmost of the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii being the only one of the fifty states reaching farther south. Florida is west of The Bahamas and 90 miles (140 km) north of Cuba. Florida is one of the largest states east of the Mississippi River, and only Alaska and Michigan are larger in water area. The water boundary is 3 nautical miles (3.5 mi; 5.6 km) offshore in the Atlantic Ocean[71] and 9 nautical miles (10 mi; 17 km) offshore in the Gulf of Mexico.[71]

At 345 feet (105 m) above mean sea level, Britton Hill is the highest point in Florida and the lowest highpoint of any U.S. state.[72] Much of the state south of Orlando lies at a lower elevation than northern Florida, and is fairly level. Much of the state is at or near sea level. However, some places such as Clearwater have promontories that rise 50 to 100 ft (15 to 30 m) above the water. Much of Central and North Florida, typically 25 mi (40 km) or more away from the coastline, have rolling hills with elevations ranging from 100 to 250 ft (30 to 76 m). The highest point in peninsular Florida (east and south of the Suwannee River), Sugarloaf Mountain, is a 312-foot (95 m) peak in Lake County.[73] On average, Florida is the flattest state in the United States.[74]

Climate

The state tree, Sabal palmetto, flourishes in Florida's overall warm climate.

The climate of Florida is tempered somewhat by the fact that no part of the state is distant from the ocean. North of Lake Okeechobee, the prevalent climate is humid subtropical (Köppen: Cfa), while areas south of the lake (including the Florida Keys) have a true tropical climate (Köppen: Aw, Am, and Af).[75] Mean high temperatures for late July are primarily in the low 90s Fahrenheit (32–34 °C). Mean low temperatures for early to mid January range from the low 40s Fahrenheit (4–7 °C) in north Florida to above 60 °F (16 °C) from Miami on southward. With an average daily temperature of 70.7 °F (21.5 °C), it is the warmest state in the U.S.[76][77]

In the summer, high temperatures in the state rarely exceed 100 °F (37.8 °C). Several record cold maxima have been in the 30s °F (−1 to 4 °C) and record lows have been in the 10s (−12 to −7 °C). These temperatures normally extend at most a few days at a time in the northern and central parts of Florida. South Florida, however, rarely encounters below freezing temperatures.[78] The hottest temperature ever recorded in Florida was 109 °F (43 °C), which was set on June 29, 1931, in Monticello. The coldest temperature was −2 °F (−19 °C), on February 13, 1899, just 25 miles (40 km) away, in Tallahassee.[79][80]

Due to its subtropical and tropical climate, Florida rarely receives measurable snowfall.[81] However, on rare occasions, a combination of cold moisture and freezing temperatures can result in snowfall in the farthest northern regions like Jacksonville, Gainesville or Pensacola. Frost, which is more common than snow, sometimes occurs in the panhandle.[82] The USDA Plant hardiness zones for the state range from zone 8a (no colder than 10 °F or −12 °C) in the inland western panhandle to zone 11b (no colder than 45 °F or 7 °C) in the lower Florida Keys.[83] Fog also occurs all over the state or climate of Florida.[84]

Average high and low temperatures for various Florida cities
°F Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Jacksonville[85] 65/42 68/45 74/50 79/55 86/63 90/70 92/73 91/73 87/69 80/61 74/51 67/44
Miami[86] 76/60 78/62 80/65 83/68 87/73 89/76 91/77 91/77 89/76 86/73 82/68 78/63
Orlando[87] 71/49 74/52 78/56 83/60 88/66 91/72 92/74 92/74 90/73 85/66 78/59 73/52
Pensacola[88] 61/43 64/46 70/51 76/58 84/66 89/72 90/74 90/74 87/70 80/60 70/50 63/45
Tallahassee[89] 64/39 68/42 74/47 80/52 87/62 91/70 92/72 92/72 89/68 82/57 73/48 66/41
Tampa[90] 70/51 73/54 77/58 81/62 88/69 90/74 90/75 91/76 89/74 85/67 78/60 72/54
°C Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Jacksonville 18/6 20/7 23/10 26/13 30/17 32/21 33/23 33/23 31/21 27/16 23/11 19/7
Miami 24/16 26/17 27/18 28/20 31/23 32/24 33/25 33/25 32/24 30/23 28/20 26/17
Orlando 22/9 23/11 26/13 28/16 31/19 33/22 33/23 33/23 32/23 29/19 26/15 23/11
Pensacola 16/6 18/8 21/11 24/14 29/19 32/22 32/23 32/23 31/21 27/16 21/10 17/7
Tallahassee 18/4 20/6 23/8 27/11 31/17 33/21 33/22 33/22 32/20 28/14 23/9 19/5
Tampa 21/11 23/12 25/14 27/17 31/21 32/23 32/24 33/24 32/23 29/19 26/16 22/12

Florida's nickname is the "Sunshine State", but severe weather is a common occurrence in the state. Central Florida is known as the lightning capital of the United States, as it experiences more lightning strikes than anywhere else in the country.[91] Florida has one of the highest average precipitation levels of any state,[92] in large part because afternoon thunderstorms are common in much of the state from late spring until early autumn.[93] A narrow eastern part of the state including Orlando and Jacksonville receives between 2,400 and 2,800 hours of sunshine annually. The rest of the state, including Miami, receives between 2,800 and 3,200 hours annually.[94]

Florida leads the United States in tornadoes per area (when including waterspouts),[95] but they do not typically reach the intensity of those in the Midwest and Great Plains. Hail often accompanies the most severe thunderstorms.[96]

Hurricanes pose a severe threat each year from June 1 to November 30, particularly from August to October. Florida is the most hurricane-prone state, with subtropical or tropical water on a lengthy coastline. Of the category 4 or higher storms that have struck the United States, 83% have either hit Florida or Texas.[97]

From 1851 to 2006, Florida was struck by 114 hurricanes, 37 of them major—category 3 and above.[97] It is rare for a hurricane season to pass without any impact in the state by at least a tropical storm.[98]

In 1992, Florida was the site of what was then the costliest weather disaster in U.S. history, Hurricane Andrew, which caused more than $25 billion in damages when it struck during August; it held that distinction until 2005, when Hurricane Katrina surpassed it, and it has since been surpassed by six other hurricanes. Andrew is currently the second-costliest hurricane in Florida's history.[99]

Fauna

Florida is host to many types of wildlife including:

As a result of climate change, there have been small numbers of several new species normally native to cooler areas to the north: snowy owls, snow buntings, harlequin ducks, and razorbills. These have been seen in the northern part of the state.[105]

Florida also has more than 500 nonnative animal species and 1,000 nonnative insects found throughout the state.[106] Some exotic species living in Florida include the Burmese python, green iguana, veiled chameleon, Argentine black and white tegu, peacock bass, mayan cichlid, lionfish, White-nosed coati, rhesus macaque, vervet monkey, Cuban tree frog, cane toad, Indian peafowl, monk parakeet, tui parakeet, and many more. Some of these nonnative species do not pose a threat to any native species, but some do threaten the native species of Florida by living in the state and eating them.[107]

Flora

Red mangroves in Everglades National Park

The state has more than 26,000 square miles (67,000 km2) of forests, covering about half of the state's land area.[108]

There are about 3,000 different types of wildflowers in Florida.[109] This is the third-most diverse state in the union, behind California and Texas, both larger states.[110] In Florida, wild populations of coconut palms extend up the East Coast from Key West to Jupiter Inlet, and up the West Coast from Marco Island to Sarasota. Many of the smallest coral islands in the Florida Keys are known to have abundant coconut palms sprouting from coconuts deposited by ocean currents. Coconut palms are cultivated north of south Florida to roughly Cocoa Beach on the East Coast and the Tampa Bay Area on the West Coast.[111]

On the east coast of the state, mangroves have normally dominated the coast from Cocoa Beach southward; salt marshes from St. Augustine northward. From St. Augustine south to Cocoa Beach, the coast fluctuates between the two, depending on the annual weather conditions.[105] All three mangrove species flower in the spring and early summer. Propagules fall from late summer through early autumn.[citation needed] Florida mangrove plant communities covered an estimated 430,000 to 540,000 acres (1,700 to 2,200 km2) in Florida in 1981. Ninety percent of the Florida mangroves are in southern Florida, in Collier, Lee, Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties.

Florida Reef

The Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States.[112] It is also the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world, after the Great Barrier Reef and the Belize Barrier Reef.[113] The reef lies a little bit off of the coast of the Florida Keys. A lot of the reef lies within John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, which was the first underwater park in the United States.[114] The park contains a lot of tropical vegetation, marine life, and seabirds. The Florida Reef extends into other parks and sanctuaries as well including Dry Tortugas National Park, Biscayne National Park, and the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Almost 1,400 species of marine plants and animals, including more than 40 species of stony corals and 500 species of fish, live on the Florida Reef.[115] The Florida Reef, being a delicate ecosystem like other coral reefs, faces many threats including overfishing, plastics in the ocean, coral bleaching, rising sea levels, and changes in sea surface temperature.

Environmental issues

An American alligator and an invasive Burmese python in Everglades National Park

Florida is a low per capita energy user.[116] As of 2008, it is estimated that approximately 4% of energy in the state is generated through renewable resources.[117] Florida's energy production is 6% of the nation's total energy output, while total production of pollutants is lower, with figures of 6% for nitrogen oxide, 5% for carbon dioxide, and 4% for sulfur dioxide.[117] Wildfires in Florida occur at all times of the year.[118]

All potable water resources have been controlled by the state government through five regional water authorities since 1972.[119]

Red tide has been an issue on the southwest coast of Florida, as well as other areas. While there has been a great deal of conjecture over the cause of the toxic algae bloom, there is no evidence that it is being caused by pollution or that there has been an increase in the duration or frequency of red tides.[120] Red tide is now killing off wildlife or Tropical fish and coral reefs putting all in danger.[121]

The Florida panther is close to extinction. A record 23 were killed in 2009, mainly by automobile collisions, leaving about 100 individuals in the wild. The Center for Biological Diversity and others have therefore called for a special protected area for the panther to be established.[122] Manatees are also dying at a rate higher than their reproduction.[123] American flamingos are rare to see in Florida due to being hunted in the 1900s, where it was to a point considered completely extirpated. Now the flamingos are reproducing toward making a comeback to South Florida since it is adamantly considered native to the state and also are now being protected.[124][125]

Much of Florida has an elevation of less than 12 feet (3.7 m), including many populated areas. Therefore, it is susceptible to rising sea levels associated with global warming.[126] The Atlantic beaches that are vital to the state's economy are being washed out to sea due to rising sea levels caused by climate change. The Miami beach area, close to the continental shelf, is running out of accessible offshore sand reserves.[127] Elevated temperatures can damage coral reefs, causing coral bleaching. The first recorded bleaching incident on the Florida Reef was in 1973. Incidents of bleaching have become more frequent in recent decades, in correlation with a rise in sea surface temperatures. White band disease has also adversely affected corals on the Florida Reef.[128]

Geology

The Florida Keys as seen from a satellite[129]

The Florida peninsula is a porous plateau of karst limestone sitting atop bedrock known as the Florida Platform.

The largest deposits of potash in the United States are found in Florida.[130] The largest deposits of rock phosphate in the country are found in Florida.[130] Most of this is in Bone Valley.[131]

Extended systems of underwater caves, sinkholes and springs are found throughout the state and supply most of the water used by residents.[132] The limestone is topped with sandy soils deposited as ancient beaches over millions of years as global sea levels rose and fell. During the last glacial period, lower sea levels and a drier climate revealed a much wider peninsula, largely savanna.[133] While there are sinkholes in much of the state, modern sinkholes have tended to be in West-Central Florida.[134][135] Everglades National Park covers 1,509,000 acres (6,110 km2), throughout Dade, Monroe, and Collier counties in Florida.[citation needed] The Everglades, an enormously wide, slow-flowing river encompasses the southern tip of the peninsula. Sinkhole damage claims on property in the state exceeded a total of $2 billion from 2006 through 2010.[136] Winter Park Sinkhole, in central Florida, appeared May 8, 1981. It was approximately 350 feet (107 m) wide and 75 feet (23 m) deep. It was notable as one of the largest recent sinkholes to form in the United States. It is now known as Lake Rose.[137] The Econlockhatchee River (Econ River for short) is an 87.7-kilometer-long (54.5 mi)[138] north-flowing blackwater tributary of the St. Johns River, the longest river in the U.S. state of Florida. The Econ River flows through Osceola, Orange, and Seminole counties in Central Florida, just east of the Orlando Metropolitan Area (east of State Road 417). It is a designated Outstanding Florida Waters.[139]

Earthquakes are rare because Florida is not located near any tectonic plate boundaries.[140]

Regions

All of the 67 counties in Florida

Cities and towns

The largest metropolitan area in the state as well as the entire southeastern United States is the Miami metropolitan area, with about 6.06 million people. The Tampa Bay Area, with more than 3.02 million, is the second largest; the Orlando metropolitan area, with more than 2.44 million, is third; and the Jacksonville metropolitan area, with more than 1.47 million, is fourth.[141]

Florida has 22 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Forty-three of Florida's 67 counties are in an MSA.

The legal name in Florida for a city, town or village is "municipality". In Florida there is no legal difference between towns, villages and cities.[142]

Florida is a highly urbanized state, with 89 percent of its population living in urban areas in 2000, compared to 79 percent nationally.[143]

In 2012, 75% of the population lived within 10 miles (16 km) of the coastline.[144]

 
 
Largest cities or towns in Florida
Source:[145]
Rank Name County Pop. Rank Name County Pop.
Jacksonville
Jacksonville
Miami
Miami
1 Jacksonville Duval 949,611 11 Pembroke Pines Broward 171,178 Tampa
Tampa
Orlando
Orlando
2 Miami Miami-Dade 442,241 12 Hollywood Broward 153,067
3 Tampa Hillsborough 384,959 13 Gainesville Alachua 141,085
4 Orlando Orange 307,573 14 Miramar Broward 134,721
5 St. Petersburg Pinellas 258,308 15 Coral Springs Broward 134,394
6 Hialeah Miami-Dade 223,109 16 Palm Bay Brevard 119,760
7 Port St. Lucie St. Lucie 204,851 17 West Palm Beach Palm Beach 117,415
8 Tallahassee Leon 196,169 18 Clearwater Pinellas 117,292
9 Cape Coral Lee 194,016 19 Lakeland Polk 112,641
10 Fort Lauderdale Broward 182,760 20 Pompano Beach Broward 112,046

Demographics

Population

Population density of Florida according to the 2020 census
Historical population
Census Pop.
183034,730
184054,47756.9%
185087,44560.5%
1860140,42460.6%
1870187,74833.7%
1880269,49343.5%
1890391,42245.2%
1900528,54235.0%
1910752,61942.4%
1920968,47028.7%
19301,468,21151.6%
19401,897,41429.2%
19502,771,30546.1%
19604,951,56078.7%
19706,789,44337.1%
19809,746,32443.6%
199012,937,92632.7%
200015,982,37823.5%
201018,801,31017.6%
202021,538,18714.6%
Sources: 1910–2020[146]

The United States Census Bureau estimated that the population of Florida was 21,477,737 on July 1, 2019, a 14.24% increase since the 2010 United States census.[147] The population of Florida in the 2010 census was 18,801,310.[148] Florida was the seventh fastest-growing state in the U.S. in the 12-month period ending July 1, 2012.[149] In 2010, the center of population of Florida was located between Fort Meade and Frostproof. The center of population has moved less than 5 miles (8 km) to the east and approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) to the north between 1980 and 2010 and has been located in Polk County since the 1960 census.[150] The population exceeded 19.7 million by December 2014, surpassing the population of the state of New York for the first time, making Florida the third most populous state.[151][152] The Florida population was 21,477,737 residents or people according to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2019 Population Estimates Program.[153] By the 2020 census, its population increased to 21,538,187.

As of 2011, Florida contains the highest percentage of people over 65 (17.3%) in the U.S.[154] There were 186,102 military retirees living in the state in 2008.[155] About two-thirds of the population was born in another state, the second-highest in the U.S.[156]

In 2010, undocumented immigrants constituted an estimated 5.7% of the population. This was the sixth highest percentage of any U.S. state.[157][158] There were an estimated 675,000 illegal immigrants in the state in 2010.[159] Florida has banned sanctuary cities.[160]

Florida racial breakdown
Racial composition 1970[161] 1990[161] 2000[162] 2010[163] 2020[164][165]
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 6.6% 12.2% 16.8% 22.5% 26.5%
Black or African American alone 15.3% 13.6% 14.6% 16.0% 15.1%
Asian alone 0.2% 1.2% 1.7% 2.4% 3.0%
Native American alone 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4%
Two or more races 2.3% 2.5% 16.5%
White alone, not Hispanic or Latino 77.9% 73.2% 65.4% 57.9% 51.5%
White alone 84.2% 83.1% 78.0% 75.0% 57.7%

In 2020, Hispanic and Latinos of any race(s) made up 26.5% of the population, while Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders made up 0.1% of all Broward County residents.[166]

In 2010, 6.9% of the population (1,269,765) considered themselves to be of only American ancestry (regardless of race or ethnicity).[167][168] Many of these were of English or Scotch-Irish descent; however, their families have lived in the state for so long they choose to identify as having "American" ancestry or do not know their ancestry.[169][170][171][172][173][174] In the 1980 United States census, the largest ancestry group reported in Florida was English with 2,232,514 Floridians claiming they were of English or mostly English American ancestry.[175] Some of their ancestry dated to the original thirteen colonies.

As of 2010, those of (non-Hispanic white) European ancestry accounted for 57.9% of Florida's population. Out of the 57.9%, the largest groups were 12.0% German (2,212,391), 10.7% Irish (1,979,058), 8.8% English (1,629,832), 6.6% Italian (1,215,242), 2.8% Polish (511,229), and 2.7% French (504,641).[167][168] White Americans of all European backgrounds are present in all areas of the state. In 1970, non-Hispanic whites constituted nearly 80% of Florida's population.[176] Those of English and Irish ancestry are present in large numbers in all the urban/suburban areas across the state. Some native white Floridians, especially those who have descended from long-time Florida families, may refer to themselves as "Florida crackers"; others see the term as a derogatory one. Like whites in most other states of the southern U.S., they descend mainly from English and Scots-Irish settlers, as well as some other British American settlers.[177]

Cuban men playing dominoes in Miami's Little Havana. In 2010, Cubans made up 34.4% of Miami's population and 6.5% of Florida's.[178][179]

As of 2010, those of Hispanic or Latino ancestry accounted for 22.5% (4,223,806) of Florida's population. Out of the 22.5%, the largest groups were 6.5% (1,213,438) Cuban, and 4.5% (847,550) Puerto Rican.[179] Florida's Hispanic population includes large communities of Cuban Americans in Miami and Tampa, Puerto Ricans in Orlando and Tampa, and Mexican/Central American migrant workers. The Hispanic community continues to grow more affluent and mobile. Florida has a large and diverse Hispanic population, with Cubans and Puerto Ricans being the largest groups in the state. Nearly 80% of Cuban Americans live in Florida, especially South Florida where there is a long-standing and affluent Cuban community.[180] Florida has the second-largest Puerto Rican population after New York, as well as the fastest-growing in the nation.[181] Puerto Ricans are more widespread throughout the state, though the heaviest concentrations are in the Orlando area of Central Florida.[182] Florida has one of the largest and most diverse Hispanic/Latino populations in the country, especially in South Florida around Miami, and to a lesser degree Central Florida. Aside from the dominant Cuban and Puerto Rican populations, there are also large populations of Mexicans, Colombians, Venezuelans and Dominicans, among numerous other groups, as most Latino groups have sizable numbers in the state.

As of 2010, those of African ancestry accounted for 16.0% of Florida's population, which includes African Americans. Out of the 16.0%, 4.0% (741,879) were West Indian or Afro-Caribbean American.[167][168][179] During the early 1900s, black people made up nearly half of the state's population.[183] In response to segregation, disfranchisement and agricultural depression, many African Americans migrated from Florida to northern cities in the Great Migration, in waves from 1910 to 1940, and again starting in the later 1940s. They moved for jobs, better education for their children and the chance to vote and participate in society. By 1960, the proportion of African Americans in the state had declined to 18%.[184] Conversely, large numbers of northern whites moved to the state.[citation needed] Today, large concentrations of black residents can be found in northern and central Florida. Aside from blacks descended from African slaves brought to the southern U.S., there are also large numbers of blacks of West Indian, recent African, and Afro-Latino immigrant origins, especially in the Miami/South Florida area.[185] Florida has the largest West Indian population of any state, originating from many Caribbean countries, with Haitian Americans being the most numerous.

In 2016, Florida had the highest percentage of West Indians in the United States at 4.5%, with 2.3% (483,874) from Haitian ancestry, 1.5% (303,527) Jamaican, and 0.2% (31,966) Bahamian, with the other West Indian groups making up the rest.[186]

As of 2010, those of Asian ancestry accounted for 2.4% of Florida's population.[167][168]

Languages

In 1988, English was affirmed as the state's official language in the Florida Constitution. Spanish is also widely spoken, especially as immigration has continued from Latin America.[187] About twenty percent of the population speak Spanish as their first language. Twenty-seven percent of Florida's population reports speaking a mother language other than English, and more than 200 first languages other than English are spoken at home in the state.[188][189]

The most common languages spoken in Florida as a first language in 2010 are:[188]

  • 73% English
  • 20% Spanish
  • 2% Haitian Creole
  • Other languages less than 1% each

Religion

Church of the Little Flower in Coral Gables, Florida

Florida is mostly Christian (70%),[190] although there is a large irreligious and relatively significant Jewish community. Protestants account for almost half of the population, but the Catholic Church is the largest single denomination in the state mainly due to its large Hispanic population and other groups like Haitians. Protestants are very diverse, although Baptists, Methodists, Pentecostals and nondenominational Protestants are the largest groups. Smaller Christian groups include The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Jehovah's Witness. There is also a sizable Jewish community in South Florida. This is the largest Jewish population in the southern U.S. and the third-largest in the U.S. behind those of New York and California.[191]

In 2010, the three largest denominations in Florida were the Catholic Church, the Southern Baptist Convention, and the United Methodist Church.[192]

The Pew Research Center survey in 2014 gave the following religious makeup of Florida:[193]

Religion in Florida (2014)[190]
Protestant
46%
Catholic
21%
Mormon
1%
Jehovah's Witness
1%
Other Christian
1%
Nothing in Particular
17%
Agnostic
4%
Atheist
3%
Jewish
3%
Other faiths
(e.g. Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Sikhism)
3%

Governance

Old and New Florida State Capitol, Tallahassee, East view

The basic structure, duties, function, and operations of the government of the State of Florida are defined and established by the Florida Constitution, which establishes the basic law of the state and guarantees various rights and freedoms of the people. The state government consists of three separate branches: judicial, executive, and legislative. The legislature enacts bills, which, if signed by the governor, become law.

The Florida Legislature comprises the Florida Senate, which has 40 members, and the Florida House of Representatives, which has 120 members. The current governor of Florida is Ron DeSantis. The Florida Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and six justices.

Florida has 67 counties. Some reference materials may show only 66 because Duval County is consolidated with the City of Jacksonville. There are 379 cities in Florida (out of 411) that report regularly to the Florida Department of Revenue, but there are other incorporated municipalities that do not. The state government's primary revenue source is sales tax. Florida does not impose a personal income tax. The primary revenue source for cities and counties is property tax; unpaid taxes are subject to tax sales, which are held (at the county level) in May and (due to the extensive use of online bidding sites) are highly popular.

There were 800 federal corruption convictions from 1988 to 2007, more than any other state.[194]

In a 2020 study, Florida was ranked as the 11th hardest state for citizens to vote in.[195] In April 2022, the state prohibited ranked-choice voting in all federal, state and municipal elections.[196]

Elections history

From 1952 to 1964, most voters were registered Democrats, but the state voted for the Republican presidential candidate in every election except for 1964. The following year, Congress passed and President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, providing for oversight of state practices and enforcement of constitutional voting rights for African Americans and other minorities in order to prevent the discrimination and disenfranchisement which had excluded most of them for decades from the political process.

From the 1930s through much of the 1960s, Florida was essentially a one-party state dominated by white conservative Democrats, who together with other Democrats of the Solid South, exercised considerable control in Congress. They have gained slightly less federal money from national programs than they have paid in taxes.[197] Since the 1970s, conservative white voters in the state have largely shifted from the Democratic to the Republican Party. Though the majority of registered voters in Florida are Democrats,[198] it continued to support Republican presidential candidates through 2004, except in 1976 and 1996, when the Democratic nominee was from the South.

In the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections, Barack Obama carried the state as a northern Democrat, attracting high voter turnout, especially among the young, independents, and minority voters, of whom Hispanics comprise an increasingly large proportion. 2008 marked the first time since 1944, when Franklin D. Roosevelt carried the state for the fourth time, that Florida was carried by a Northern Democrat for president.

The first post-Reconstruction era Republican elected to Congress from Florida was William C. Cramer in 1954 from Pinellas County on the Gulf Coast,[199] where demographic changes were underway. In this period, African Americans were still disenfranchised by the state's constitution and discriminatory practices; in the 19th century, they had made up most of the Republican Party. Cramer built a different Republican Party in Florida, attracting local white conservatives and transplants from northern and midwestern states. In 1966, Claude R. Kirk, Jr. was elected as the first post-Reconstruction Republican governor, in an upset election.[200] In 1968, Edward J. Gurney, also a white conservative, was elected as the state's first post-reconstruction Republican US senator.[201] In 1970, Democrats took the governorship and the open US Senate seat and maintained dominance for years.

Florida is sometimes considered a bellwether state in presidential elections because every candidate who won the state from 1996 until 2020 won the election.[202] The 2020 election broke that streak when Donald Trump won Florida but lost the election.

In 1998, Democratic voters dominated areas of the state with a high percentage of racial minorities and transplanted white liberals from the northeastern United States, known colloquially as "snowbirds".[203] South Florida and the Miami metropolitan area are dominated by both racial minorities and white liberals. Because of this, the area has consistently voted as one of the most Democratic areas of the state. The Daytona Beach area is similar demographically and the city of Orlando has a large Hispanic population, which has often favored Democrats. Republicans, made up mostly of white conservatives, have dominated throughout much of the rest of Florida, particularly in the more rural and suburban areas. This is characteristic of its voter base throughout the Deep South.[203]

The fast-growing I-4 corridor area, which runs through Central Florida and connects the cities of Daytona Beach, Orlando, and Tampa/St. Petersburg, has had a fairly even breakdown of Republican and Democratic voters. The area is often seen as a merging point of the conservative northern portion of the state and the liberal southern portion, making it the biggest swing area in the state. Since the late 20th century, the voting results in this area, containing 40% of Florida voters, has often determined who will win the state in federal presidential elections.[204]

The Democratic Party maintained an edge in voter registration, both statewide and in 18 of the 67 counties, including Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties, the state's three most populous.[205][when?]

2000–present

In 2000, George W. Bush won the U.S. presidential election by a margin of 271–266 in the Electoral College.[206] Of the 271 electoral votes for Bush, 25 were cast by electors from Florida.[207] The Florida results were contested and a recount was ordered by the court, with the results settled in a Supreme Court decision, Bush v. Gore.

Reapportionment following the 2010 United States Census gave the state two more seats in the House of Representatives.[208] The legislature's redistricting, announced in 2012, was quickly challenged in court, on the grounds that it had unfairly benefited Republican interests. In 2015, the Florida Supreme Court ruled on appeal that the congressional districts had to be redrawn because of the legislature's violation of the Fair District Amendments to the state constitution passed in 2010; it accepted a new map in early December 2015.

The political make-up of congressional and legislative districts has enabled Republicans to control the governorship and most statewide elective offices, and 17 of the state's 27 seats in the 2012 House of Representatives.[209] Florida has been listed as a swing state in presidential elections since 1952, voting for the losing candidate only twice in that period of time.[210]

Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election

In the closely contested 2000 election, the state played a pivotal role.[206][207][211][212][213][214] Out of more than 5.8 million votes for the two main contenders Bush and Al Gore, around 500 votes separated the two candidates for the all-decisive Florida electoral votes that landed Bush the election win. Florida's felony disenfranchisement law is more severe than most European nations or other American states. A 2002 study in the American Sociological Review concluded that "if the state's 827,000 disenfranchised felons had voted at the same rate as other Floridians, Democratic candidate Al Gore would have won Florida—and the presidency—by more than 80,000 votes."[215]

In 2008, delegates of both the Republican Florida primary election and Democratic Florida primary election were stripped of half of their votes when the conventions met in August due to violation of both parties' national rules.

In the 2010 elections, Republicans solidified their dominance statewide, by winning the governor's mansion, and maintaining firm majorities in both houses of the state legislature. They won four previously Democratic-held seats to create a 19–6 Republican majority delegation representing Florida in the federal House of Representatives.

In 2010, more than 63% of state voters approved the initiated Amendments 5 and 6 to the state constitution, to ensure more fairness in districting. These have become known as the Fair District Amendments. As a result of the 2010 United States Census, Florida gained two House of Representative seats in 2012.[208] The legislature issued revised congressional districts in 2012, which were immediately challenged in court by supporters of the above amendments.

The court ruled in 2014, after lengthy testimony, that at least two districts had to be redrawn because of gerrymandering. After this was appealed, in July 2015 the Florida Supreme Court ruled that lawmakers had followed an illegal and unconstitutional process overly influenced by party operatives, and ruled that at least eight districts had to be redrawn. On December 2, 2015, a 5–2 majority of the Court accepted a new map of congressional districts, some of which was drawn by challengers. Their ruling affirmed the map previously approved by Leon County Judge Terry Lewis, who had overseen the original trial. It particularly makes changes in South Florida. There are likely to be additional challenges to the map and districts.[216]

Voter registration totals as of June 30, 2022[217]
Party Registered voters Percentage
Republican 5,157,343 36.18%
Democratic 4,955,022 34.75%
Unaffiliated 3,887,406 27.27%
Minor parties 256,413 1.80%
Total 14,256,184 100%

According to The Sentencing Project, the effect of Florida's felony disenfranchisement law is such that in 2014, "[m]ore than one in ten Floridians—and nearly one in four African-American Floridians—are [were] shut out of the polls because of felony convictions", although they had completed sentences and parole/probation requirements.[218]

The state switched back to the GOP in the 2016 presidential election, and again in 2020, when Donald Trump headed the party's ticket both times. 2020 marked the first time Florida sided with the eventual loser of the national election since 1992.

In the 2018 elections, the ratio of Republican to Democratic representation fell from 16:11 to 14:13. The U.S. Senate election between Democratic incumbent senator Bill Nelson and then governor Rick Scott was close, with 49.93% voting for the incumbent and 50.06% voting for the former governor. Republicans also held onto the governorship in a close race between Republican candidate Ron DeSantis and Democratic candidate Andrew Gillum, with 49.6% voting for DeSantis and 49.3% voting for Gillum.

In November 2021, for the first time in Florida's history, the total number of registered Republican voters exceeded the number of registered Democrats.[219]

Statutes

Florida Supreme Court building in Tallahassee

In 1972, the state made personal injury protection auto insurance mandatory for drivers, becoming the second in the nation to enact a no-fault insurance law.[220] The ease of receiving payments under this law is seen as precipitating a major increase in insurance fraud.[221] Auto insurance fraud was the highest in the nation in 2011, estimated at close to $1 billion.[222] Fraud is particularly centered in the Miami-Dade and Tampa areas.[223][224][225]

Capital punishment is applied in Florida.[226] If a person committing a predicate felony directly contributed to the death of the victim then the person will be charged with murder in the first degree. The only two sentences available for that statute are life imprisonment and the death penalty.[227][228] If a person commits a predicate felony, but was not the direct contributor to the death of the victim then the person will be charged with murder in the second degree. The maximum prison term is life.[227][228] In 1995, the legislature modified Chapter 921 to provide that felons should serve at least 85% of their sentence.[229][230]

Florida approved its lottery by amending the constitution in 1984. It approved slot machines in Broward and Miami-Dade County in 2004. It has disapproved casinos (outside of sovereign Seminole and Miccosukee tribal areas) three times: 1978, 1986, and 1994.[231]

Taxation

Tax is collected by the Florida Department of Revenue.

Economy

The economy of the state of Florida is the fourth-largest in the United States, with a $1.2 trillion gross state product (GSP) as of 2021.[232] If Florida were a sovereign nation (2021), it would rank as the world's 16th-largest economy according to the International Monetary Fund, ahead of Indonesia and behind Mexico.[232][233][234] In the 20th century, tourism, industry, construction, international banking, biomedical and life sciences, healthcare research, simulation training, aerospace and defense, and commercial space travel have contributed to the state's economic development.[citation needed]

Health

Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami, the primary teaching hospital of the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine and the largest hospital in the United States with 1,547 beds[235]

There were 2.7 million Medicaid patients in Florida in 2009. The governor has proposed adding $2.6 billion to care for the expected 300,000 additional patients in 2011.[236] The cost of caring for 2.3 million clients in 2010 was $18.8 billion.[237] This is nearly 30% of Florida's budget.[238] Medicaid paid for 60% of all births in Florida in 2009. The state has a program for those not covered by Medicaid.

In 2013, Florida refused to participate in providing coverage for the uninsured under the Affordable Care Act, colloquially called Obamacare. The Florida legislature also refused to accept additional Federal funding for Medicaid, although this would have helped its constituents at no cost to the state. As a result, Florida is second only to Texas in the percentage of its citizens without health insurance.[citation needed]

Architecture

Miami Art Deco District, built during the 1920s–1930s

Florida has the largest collection of Art Deco and Streamline Moderne buildings, both in the United States and in the entire world, most of which are located in the Miami metropolitan area, especially Miami Beach's Art Deco District, constructed as the city was becoming a resort destination.[239] A unique architectural design found only in Florida is the post-World War II Miami Modern, which can be seen in areas such as Miami's MiMo Historic District.[240]

Being of early importance as a regional center of banking and finance, the architecture of Jacksonville displays a wide variety of styles and design principles. Many of the state's earliest skyscrapers were constructed in Jacksonville, dating as far back as 1902,[241] and last holding a state height record from 1974 to 1981.[242] The city is endowed with one of the largest collections of Prairie School buildings outside of the Midwest.[243] Jacksonville is also noteworthy for its collection of Mid-Century modern architecture.[244]

Some sections of the state feature architectural styles including Spanish revival, Florida vernacular, and Mediterranean Revival.[245] A notable collection of these styles can be found in St. Augustine, the oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement within the borders of the United States.[246]

Education

In 2020, Florida was ranked the third best state in America for K-12 education, outperforming the nation in 15 out of 18 metrics in Education Week's 2020 Quality Counts report.[247] In terms of K-12 Achievement, which measures progress in areas such as academic excellence and graduation rates, the state was graded "B-" compared to a national average of C.[247] Florida's higher education was ranked first and pre-K-12 was ranked 27th best nationwide by U.S. News & World Report.[248]

Primary and secondary education

With an educational system made up of public school districts and independent private institutions, Florida had 2,833,115 students enrolled in 4,269 public primary, secondary, and vocational schools in Florida's 67 regular or seven special school districts as of 2018.[249] Miami-Dade County is the largest of Florida's 67 regular districts with more than 350 thousand students and Jefferson County is the smallest with less than one thousand students. Florida spent $8,920 for each student in 2016, and was 43rd in the nation in expenditures per student.[250]

Florida's primary and secondary school systems are administered by the Florida Department of Education. School districts are organized within county boundaries. Each school district has an elected Board of Education that sets policy, budget, goals, and approves expenditures. Management is the responsibility of a Superintendent of schools.

The Florida Department of Education is required by law to train educators in teaching English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL).[251]

Higher education

The State University System of Florida was founded in 1905, and is governed by the Florida Board of Governors. During the 2019 academic year, 346,604 students attended one of these twelve universities.[252] In 2016, Florida charged the second lowest tuition in the nation for four-year programs, at $26,000 for in-state students and $86,000 for out-of-state students; this compares with an average of $34,800 nationally for in-state students.[253]

As of 2020, four Florida universities are among the top 10 largest universities by enrollment in the United States: The University of Central Florida (1st), Florida International University (4th), the University of Florida (5th), and the University of South Florida (8th).

The Florida College System comprises 28 public community and state colleges with 68 campuses spread out throughout the state. In 2016, enrollment consisted of more than 813,838 students.[254]

The Independent Colleges and Universities of Florida is an association of 30 private, educational institutions in the state.[255] This Association reported that their member institutions served more than 158,000 students in the fall of 2020.[256]

The University of Miami, located in Miami-Dade County and Nova Southeastern University, located in Davie, are some of the top private research institutions in the United States. Florida's first private university, Stetson University, was founded in 1883.

State University System of Florida
Institution Location Established Enrollment
Florida A&M University Tallahassee 1887[a] 10,031
Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton 1961 30,808
Florida Gulf Coast University Fort Myers 1991 15,080
Florida International University Miami 1965 58,787
Florida Polytechnic University Lakeland 2012 1,236
Florida State University Tallahassee 1851[a] 41,551
New College of Florida Sarasota 1960 838
University of Central Florida Orlando 1963 69,525
University of Florida Gainesville 1853[a] 56,567
University of North Florida Jacksonville 1972 17,002
University of South Florida Tampa 1956 51,646
University of West Florida Pensacola 1963 12,850
  1. ^ a b c In 1836, the United States Congress authorized the establishment of a University of Florida in the Florida Territory, to be located on lands reserved in both East and West Florida. In 1851, the Florida legislature voted to establish two seminaries of learning: West Florida Seminary (which later became Florida State University) and East Florida Seminary (which later became the University of Florida).[257] In 1905, when the Buckman Act reorganized higher education in Florida, the three resulting state institutions (Florida, Florida State, and Florida A&M) all adopted 1905 as their founding date. In 1935 the Florida Board of Control changed the founding dates of Florida and Florida State to the years their predecessor Seminaries opened: 1853 and 1857, respectively. In 2000, Florida State declared 1851 to be its founding date, reflecting the date the legislature authorized both seminaries. Florida A&M later declared its founding date to be 1885 to reflect when its predecessor, the State Normal College for Colored Students, was founded.[258]

Transportation

The Sunshine Skyway Bridge over Tampa Bay is a part of Florida's interstate system.

Highways

Florida's highway system contains 1,495 mi (2,406 km) of interstate highway, and 10,601 mi (17,061 km) of non-interstate highway, such as state highways and U.S. Highways. Florida's interstates, state highways, and U.S. Highways are maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation.[259]

In 2011, there were about 9,000 retail gas stations in the state. Floridians consumed 21 million gallons of gasoline daily in 2011, ranking it third in national use behind California and Texas.[260] Motorists have the 45th lowest rate of car insurance in the U.S. 24% are uninsured.[261]

Drivers between 15 and 19 years of age averaged 364 car crashes a year per ten thousand licensed Florida drivers in 2010. Drivers 70 and older averaged 95 per 10,000 during the same time frame. A spokesperson for the non-profit Insurance Institute stated "Older drivers are more of a threat to themselves."[262]

Intercity bus travel, which utilizes Florida's highway system, is provided by Greyhound, Megabus, and Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach.

Before the construction of routes under the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, Florida began construction of a long cross-state toll road, Florida's Turnpike. The first section, from Fort Pierce south to the Golden Glades Interchange was completed in 1957. After a second section north through Orlando to Wildwood (near present-day The Villages), and a southward extension around Miami to Homestead, it was finished in 1974.

Florida's primary interstate routes include:

Airports

Orlando International Airport is the busiest airport in the state with 44.6 million total passengers traveled in 2017.[263]

Florida has 131 public airports.[264] Florida's seven large hub and medium hub airports, as classified by the FAA,[265] are the following:

City served Code Airport name FAA
Category
Enplanements
Orlando MCO Orlando International Airport Large Hub 21,565,448
Miami MIA Miami International Airport Large Hub 20,709,225
Fort Lauderdale FLL Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood Int'l Airport Large Hub 15,817,043
Tampa TPA Tampa International Airport Large Hub 9,548,580
Fort Myers RSW Southwest Florida International Airport Medium Hub 4,364,224
West Palm Beach PBI Palm Beach International Airport Medium Hub 3,110,450
Jacksonville JAX Jacksonville International Airport Medium Hub 2,701,861

Intercity rail

Public transit

The Miami Metrorail is the state's only rapid transit system. About 15% of Miamians use public transit daily.

Sports

Daytona International Speedway is home to various auto racing events.

Florida has three NFL teams, two MLB teams, two NBA teams, two NHL teams, and two MLS teams. Florida gained its first permanent major-league professional sports team in 1966 when the American Football League added the Miami Dolphins. Florida has given professional sports franchises some subsidies in the form of tax breaks since 1991.[274]

About half of all Major League Baseball teams conduct spring training in the state, with teams informally organized into the "Grapefruit League". Throughout MLB history, other teams have held spring training in Florida.

NASCAR (headquartered in Daytona Beach) begins all three of its major auto racing series in Florida at Daytona International Speedway in February, featuring the Daytona 500. Daytona also has the Coke Zero Sugar 400 NASCAR race weekend in August. NASCAR also has a race weekend at Homestead-Miami Speedway in Homestead in October. The 24 Hours of Daytona is one of the world's most prestigious endurance auto races. The Grand Prix of St. Petersburg and Grand Prix of Miami have held IndyCar races as well.

Florida is a major golf hub. The PGA of America is headquartered in Palm Beach Gardens, the PGA Tour is headquartered in Ponte Vedra Beach, and the LPGA is headquartered in Daytona Beach. The Players Championship, WGC-Cadillac Championship, Arnold Palmer Invitational, Honda Classic and Valspar Championship are PGA Tour rounds.

Florida has teams in all five American major league sports. Florida's most recent major-league team, Inter Miami, began play in MLS in 2020.[275]

The Miami Masters is an ATP World Tour Masters 1000 and WTA Premier tennis event, whereas the Delray Beach International Tennis Championships is an ATP World Tour 250 event.

There are minor league baseball, football, basketball, ice hockey, soccer and indoor football teams based in Florida.[276] Ben Hill Griffin Stadium is the largest football stadium in Florida, the 12th largest stadium in American college football, and the 18th largest stadium in the world, as measured by its official seating capacity of 88,548—though, it has often held over 90,000 for Florida's home football games.

Florida's universities have a number of collegiate sport programs. Major college football programs include the Florida State Seminoles and Miami Hurricanes of the Atlantic Coast Conference, and the Florida Gators of the Southeastern Conference.[277] Since 1996, Florida has added four additional teams to the ranks of Division I FBS: UCF Knights, South Florida Bulls, Florida Atlantic Owls and FIU Panthers.

State symbols

In God We Trust motto on Florida license plate with a orange blossom the state flower

The majority of the symbols were chosen after 1950; only the two oldest symbols—the state flower (chosen in 1909), and the state bird (chosen in 1927), and the state nickname (chosen in 1970)—are not listed in the 2010 Florida Statutes.[278]

Sister states

Sister jurisdiction Country Year[279]
Languedoc-Roussillon  France 1989
Taiwan Province Taiwan, R.O.C. 1992
Wakayama Prefecture  Japan 1995
Western Cape  South Africa 1995
Nueva Esparta  Venezuela 1999
Kyonggi  South Korea 2000

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Florida | Map, Population, History, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on July 5, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  2. ^ "Florida | State Facts & History". www.infoplease.com. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  3. ^ "Florida". www.americaslibrary.gov. Archived from the original on April 27, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  4. ^ "State Motto". Florida Department of State. Archived from the original on January 21, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  5. ^ "Jacksonville, Fla.: Population, Weather, Demographics, Facts, History, Mayor, Landmarks". www.factmonster.com. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  6. ^ "United States Summary: 2010. Population and Housing Unit Counts. 2010 Census of Population and Housing" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. September 2012. p. 41. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  7. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
  8. ^ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  9. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. January 9, 2020. Archived from the original on June 10, 2020. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
  10. ^ "US Census Bureau QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 9, 2022. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
  11. ^ "Article 2, Section 9, Constitution of the State of Florida". State of Florida. 1988. Archived from the original on September 14, 2018. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  12. ^ "Florida". Modern Language Association. Archived from the original on December 25, 2018. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
  13. ^ a b "SB 230—State Symbols/Fla. Cracker Horse/Loggerhead Turtle [RPCC]". Florida House of Representatives. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
  14. ^ Dunbar, James S. "The pre-Clovis occupation of Florida: The Page-Ladson and Wakulla Springs Lodge Data". Archived from the original on October 12, 2014. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
  15. ^ Jonathan D. Steigman (September 25, 2005). La Florida Del Inca and the Struggle for Social Equality in Colonial Spanish America. University of Alabama Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-8173-5257-8. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  16. ^ From the 1601 publication by the pre-eminent historian of 16th-century Spanish exploration in America, Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas, in Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-1-59017-273-5.
  17. ^ "Michael Francis: La historia entre Florida y España es de las más ricas de Estados Unidos". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
  18. ^ Davidson, James West. After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection Volume 1. Mc Graw Hill, New York 2010, Chapter 1, p. 7.
  19. ^ Proclamation, presented by Dennis O. Freytes, MPA, MHR, BBA, Chair/Facilitator, 500th Florida Discovery Council Round Table, VP NAUS SE Region; Chair Hispanic Achievers Grant Council
  20. ^ Hoffman, Paul E., 1943- (2004). A new Andalucia and a way to the Orient : the American Southeast during the sixteenth century. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. p. 278. ISBN 0-8071-1552-5. OCLC 20594668.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. ^ "Los Floridanos". Los Floridanos. Archived from the original on November 14, 2020. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  22. ^ J. Michael Francis, PhD, Luisa de Abrego: Marriage, Bigamy, and the Spanish Inquisition, University of South Florida, archived from the original on February 4, 2021, retrieved April 5, 2018
  23. ^ Gene Allen Smith, Texas Christian University, Sanctuary in the Spanish Empire: An African American officer earns freedom in Florida, National Park Service, archived from the original on January 10, 2021, retrieved April 5, 2018
  24. ^ Pope, Sarah Dillard. "Aboard the Underground Railroad—Fort Mose Site". Nps.gov. Archived from the original on April 26, 2014. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  25. ^ "Fort Mose Historical Society". Archived from the original on July 7, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
  26. ^ Florida Center for Instructional Technology. "Floripedia: Florida: As a British Colony". Fcit.usf.edu. Archived from the original on December 13, 2012. Retrieved October 2, 2009.
  27. ^ Wood, Wayne (1992). Jacksonville's Architectural Heritage. University Press of Florida. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8130-0953-7.
  28. ^ Beach, William Wallace (1877). The Indian Miscellany. J. Munsel. p. 125.
  29. ^ Wells, Judy (March 2, 2000). "City had humble beginnings on the banks of the St. Johns". The Florida Times-Union. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
  30. ^ A History of Florida. Caroline Mays Brevard, Henry Eastman Bennett p. 77
  31. ^ a b A History of Florida. Caroline Mays Brevard, Henry Eastman Bennett
  32. ^ a b The Land Policy in British East Florida. Charles L. Mowat, 1940
  33. ^ Clark, James C.; "200 Quick Looks at Florida History" p. 20 ISBN 1561642002
  34. ^ "Transfer of Florida". fcit.usf.edu. Archived from the original on December 6, 2020. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  35. ^ Ste Claire, Dana (2006). Cracker: Cracker Culture in Florida History. University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-3028-9
  36. ^ "Florida's Early Constitutions—Florida Memory". Archived from the original on August 27, 2017. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
  37. ^ Alexander Deconde, A History of American Foreign Policy (1963) p. 127
  38. ^ Mahon, pp. 190–191.
  39. ^ Mahon, pp. 201–202
  40. ^ Tebeau, Charlton W. (1971). A History of Florida. Coral Gables, Florida: University of Miami Press. pp. 114–118. ISBN 9780870241499.
  41. ^ "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774–1875". loc.gov. Archived from the original on January 24, 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  42. ^ "Andrew Jackson". Florida Department of State. Archived from the original on June 28, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
  43. ^ "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774–1875". loc.gov. Archived from the original on January 24, 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  44. ^ "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774–1875". loc.gov. Archived from the original on June 19, 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  45. ^ "Florida state population". population.us. Archived from the original on April 18, 2019. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  46. ^ Tindall, George Brown, and David Emory Shi. (edition unknown) America: A Narrative History. W. W. Norton & Company. 412. ISBN 978-0-393-96874-3
  47. ^ History of Miami-Dade county retrieved January 26, 2006 Archived January 10, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ Historical Census Browser, Retrieved October 31, 2007 Archived August 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ "Ordinance of Secession, 1861". Florida Memory. State Library & Archives of Florida. Archived from the original on July 12, 2019. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  50. ^ "Florida Seceded! January 10, 1861|America's Story from America's Library". America's Library. Archived from the original on September 19, 2017. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  51. ^ Florida, State Library and Archives of. "Florida in the Civil War". Florida Memory. Archived from the original on April 2, 2019. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  52. ^ Taylor, R. (1988). Rebel Beef: Florida Cattle and the Confederate Army, 1862-1864. The Florida Historical Quarterly, 67(1), 15-31. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/30147921 Archived April 30, 2019, at the Wayback Machine
  53. ^ Taylor, Paul. (2012) Discovering the Civil War in Florida: A Reader and Guide (2nd edition). pp. 3–4, 59, 127. Sarasota, Fl.: Pineapple Press.
  54. ^ Nancy A. Hewitt (2001). Southern Discomfort: Women's Activism in Tampa, Florida, 1880s–1920s. University of Illinois Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-252-02682-9. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved May 13, 2018.
  55. ^ "Florida Agriculture Overview and Statistics - Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services". www.fdacs.gov. Archived from the original on February 3, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
  56. ^ Historical Census Browser, 1900 Federal Census, University of Virginia [1][dead link]. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
  57. ^ Rogers, Maxine D.; Rivers, Larry E.; Colburn, David R.; Dye, R. Tom & Rogers, William W. (December 1993), "Documented History of the Incident Which Occurred at Rosewood, Florida in January 1923" Archived May 15, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, p. 5. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
  58. ^ "The Tallahassee Bus Boycott 1956-57". Florida Memory. Archived from the original on May 7, 2021. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  59. ^ "The Civil Rights Movement in Florida". Florida Memory. Archived from the original on October 24, 2020. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  60. ^ Federal Writers' Project (1939). Florida. A Guide to the Southernmost State. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 7.
  61. ^ "Freedom Tower—American Latino Heritage: A Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary". Nps.gov. Archived from the original on May 14, 2018. Retrieved May 14, 2018.
  62. ^ Munzenrieder, Kyle (December 23, 2014). "Florida Is Now Officially the Third Most Populous State". Miaminewtimes.com. Archived from the original on May 3, 2022. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  63. ^ Lea, Brittany De (August 9, 2019). "Florida to see population boom over coming years as SALT deductions remain capped". FOXBusiness. Archived from the original on September 6, 2019. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
  64. ^ Millsap, Adam. "Florida's Population Is Booming--But Should We Worry About Income Growth?". Forbes. Archived from the original on September 5, 2019. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
  65. ^ Nicole Chavez (December 5, 2019). "George Zimmerman lawsuit reminds us of how significant the Trayvon Martin case was for a divided country". CNN Digital. Archived from the original on December 5, 2019. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  66. ^ "A Great Migration From Puerto Rico Is Set to Transform Orlando". The New York Times. November 17, 2017. Archived from the original on December 12, 2020. Retrieved May 14, 2018.
  67. ^ Andone, Dakin (February 11, 2019). "Parkland students turned from victims to activists and inspired a wave of new gun safety laws". CNN. Archived from the original on February 9, 2021. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  68. ^ "97 dead as recovery effort at collapsed Florida condo nears end". Al Jazeera. July 16, 2021. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  69. ^ Spocchia, Gina (July 17, 2021). "Hyatt Regency walkway collapse: 40 years ago today one of America's deadliest structural collapses took place". The Independent. Archived from the original on July 25, 2021. Retrieved July 25, 2021.
  70. ^ "The Surfside collapse is reminiscent of other tragic construction failures in the United States". The Baharat Express News. Archived from the original on September 17, 2021. Retrieved July 25, 2021.
  71. ^ a b Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (July 1, 2011). "State Coastal Zone Boundaries" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  72. ^ Main, Martin B.; Allen, Ginger M. (July 2007). "The Florida Environment: An Overview". University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Archived from the original on December 4, 2010. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
  73. ^ "Green Mountain Scenic Byway". Florida Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on March 6, 2008. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
  74. ^ Megan Garber (March 11, 2014). "Science: Several U.S. States, Led by Florida, Are Flatter Than a Pancake". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  75. ^ Ritter, Michael. "Wet/Dry Tropical Climate". University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point. Archived from the original on November 24, 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
  76. ^ "Average Annual Temperature for Each US State". Current Results Nexus. Archived from the original on August 27, 2011. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
  77. ^ "Hottest States in the US—Current Results". Currentresults.com. Archived from the original on April 9, 2022. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  78. ^ "Cold Weather Hazards". National Weather Service Miami, Florida. Archived from the original on June 19, 2018. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  79. ^ "Hazardous Weather: A Florida Guide—Temperatures". FloridaDisaster.org. Archived from the original on June 19, 2016. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
  80. ^ "Temperature Extremes". Mymanatee.org. June 11, 2012. Archived from the original on September 7, 2016. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
  81. ^ "Has It Ever Snowed in Florida?". Worldatlas.com. October 25, 2017. Archived from the original on April 9, 2022. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  82. ^ Geggis, Anne. "Brrrrr! South Florida may see frost by week's end". Sun-sentinel.com. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  83. ^ United States National Arboretum. "Florida Hardiness Zones". St Johns River Water Management District. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
  84. ^ "Dense Fog Advisory". miami.cbslocal.com. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  85. ^ "NowData—NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on November 9, 2018. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  86. ^ "NowData—NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on July 12, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  87. ^ "NowData—NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  88. ^ "PENSACOLA FAA ARPT, FLORIDA—Climate Summary". Southeast Regional Climate Center. Archived from the original on January 18, 2008. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
  89. ^ "NowData—NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  90. ^ "NowData—NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on June 16, 2019. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
  91. ^ "Lightning Information Center". National Weather Service. Archived from the original on May 9, 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
  92. ^ "Total Precipitation in inches by month". NOAA. Archived from the original on April 21, 2013. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
  93. ^ "Thunderstorms—Florida Climate Center". climatecenter.fsu.edu. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  94. ^ "united states annual sunshine map" (PDF). HowStuffWorks, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 12, 2019. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  95. ^ Aten, Tim (July 1, 2007). "Waterspouts common off coastal Florida in summer". Naples Daily News. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
  96. ^ "Hail Storm". miami.cbslocal.com. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  97. ^ a b "Florida is US lightning capital". Florida Today Factbook. March 28, 2009. p. 34.
  98. ^ "How Often Hurricanes Make Landfall in Florida". Tripsavvy.com. Archived from the original on April 16, 2021. Retrieved November 6, 2021.
  99. ^ "The 25th Anniversary of Hurricane Andrew". Aoml.noaa.gov. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  100. ^ "Leatherback Nesting in Florida". myfwc.com. Archived from the original on October 31, 2020. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  101. ^ Morgan, Curtis (April 9, 2012). "Crocs crawl back to coast". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 8B. Archived from the original on April 10, 2012.
  102. ^ Winston, Keith (December 24, 2013). "Predator animals rebound". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 7B. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  103. ^ "Surprising Origin of American Flamingos Discovered". News.mationalgeographic.com. March 10, 2018. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  104. ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2008. Wild turkey: Meleagris gallopavo, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg Archived July 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
  105. ^ a b Winsten, Keith (January 7, 2014). "'Snow' bird species in South". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 7B. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
  106. ^ "BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF INVASIVE INSECT PESTS OF CROPS AND NATIVE FLORA IN FLORIDA". Usda.gov/. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  107. ^ "Nonnative Species". myfwc.com. Archived from the original on February 13, 2021. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
  108. ^ Waymer, Jim (April 1, 2020). "Florida forests help roll out toilet paper". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 1A, 10A. Archived from the original on April 3, 2020. Retrieved April 4, 2020.
  109. ^ "Native Plants—University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences". gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu. Archived from the original on February 1, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  110. ^ Sonnenberg, Maria (September 21, 2013). "Florida's flowers". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. p. 1D. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  111. ^ Crane, Timothy K. Broschat and Jonathan H. (April 4, 2018). "The Coconut Palm in Florida". edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Archived from the original on February 9, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  112. ^ "The biggest coral reef in the continental U.S. is dissolving into the ocean". Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  113. ^ US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "NOAA CoRIS—Regional Portal—Florida". www.coris.noaa.gov. Archived from the original on June 5, 2019. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  114. ^ "About—Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park". pennekamppark.com. Archived from the original on February 6, 2015. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  115. ^ "SOFIA—Circular 1134—the Natural System—Florida Reef Tract". archive.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on July 31, 2020. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  116. ^ "Energy Consumption by Source and Total Consumption per Capita, Ranked by State, 2004" (PDF). U.S. Department of Energy. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 15, 2010. Retrieved January 27, 2008.
  117. ^ a b "State Energy Profiles: Florida". U.S. Department of Energy. Archived from the original on January 7, 2008. Retrieved January 27, 2008.
  118. ^ "Current Wildfire Conditions / Wildland Fire / Florida Forest Service / Divisions & Offices / Home—Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services". Freshfromflorida.com. Archived from the original on February 2, 2019. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  119. ^ "Florida Statutes". Leg.state.fl.us. Archived from the original on October 31, 2005. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
  120. ^ Daley, Beth (March 28, 2005). "Tide's toxins trouble lungs ashore". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on February 16, 2012. Retrieved December 3, 2007.
  121. ^ "Why Florida's red tide is killing fish, manatees, and turtles". Vox.com. August 30, 2018. Archived from the original on April 16, 2022. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  122. ^ Williams Hale, Leslie (December 29, 2009). "Record number of panthers killed by vehicles in 2009". Naples News. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  123. ^ "More manatees have died in Florida so far this year than in all of 2017. Here's why". Miamiherald.com. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  124. ^ "Florida's Long-Lost Wild Flamingos Were Hiding in Plain Sight". Npr.org. Archived from the original on April 9, 2022. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  125. ^ "Now that we agree these flamingos are Florida natives, it's time to protect them, experts say". Miamiherald.com. Archived from the original on August 27, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  126. ^ Jeff Goodell (June 20, 2013). "Goodbye, Miami". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on May 10, 2018. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
  127. ^ "Where Sand Is Gold, the Reserves Are Running Dry". The New York Times. August 25, 2013. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
  128. ^ Precht and Miller:243–44, 245, 247–48, 249
    The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Florida Keys Archived August 11, 2010, at the Wayback Machine Accessed December 17, 2010
  129. ^ Wilkinson, Jerry. "History of Keys Geology". Keyshistory.org. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  130. ^ a b "Industry overview". First research. Hoover's. March 25, 2010. Archived from the original on February 14, 2010.
  131. ^ Parsons, Victoria (Spring 2011). "The Real Cost of Fertilizer". Bay Soundings. Archived from the original on March 24, 2015. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
  132. ^ "Florida Springs, Springs in Florida, Florida Cave Diving—Florida's Springs: Protecting Nature's Gems—Florida DEP—Springshed Map". February 11, 2011. Archived from the original on February 11, 2011. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  133. ^ Allen, Ginger M.; Main, Martin B (May 2005). "Florida's Geological History". Florida Cooperative Extension Service. University of Florida. Archived from the original on December 4, 2010. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
  134. ^ Tihansky, Ann B. "Sinkholes, West-Central Florida. A link between surface water and ground water" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey, Tampa, Florida. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 25, 2011. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
  135. ^ "Sinkhole Maps of Florida Counties". Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education. University of South Florida. 2007. Archived from the original on April 10, 2013. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
  136. ^ "State Farm seeks 28% rate hike". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. February 16, 2011. p. 8B. Archived from the original on February 19, 2011.
  137. ^ Huber, Red (November 13, 2012). "Looking back at Winter Park's famous sinkhole". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on January 17, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  138. ^ U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data. The National Map Archived March 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, accessed April 21, 2011
  139. ^ (2013-01-02). "Econlockhatchee River" Archived July 5, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Saint Johns River Water Management District. Retrieved on August 4, 2014.
  140. ^ "Florida's Earthquake History and Tectonic Setting". Decodedscience.org. January 23, 2015. Archived from the original on September 3, 2018. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  141. ^ Millsap, Adam. "Big Metro Areas in Florida Keep Getting Bigger". Forbes.com. Archived from the original on April 9, 2022. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  142. ^ "Local Government Vocabulary". Florida League of Cities. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved May 15, 2012.
  143. ^ "Population data" (PDF). bebr.ufl.edu. 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 12, 2019. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  144. ^ Fishkind, Hank (November 9, 2013). "Beaches are critically important to us". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 4B. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
  145. ^ "2020 Decennial US Census". 2020 US Census. November 2021. Archived from the original on December 8, 2021. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  146. ^ "Historical Population Change Data (1910-2020)". Census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 29, 2021. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
  147. ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019". U.S. Census Bureau. January 29, 2019. Archived from the original on June 10, 2020. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  148. ^ Website Services & Coordination Staff (WSCS). "2010 Census Interactive Population Search". census.gov. Archived from the original on August 14, 2013. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  149. ^ Weissmann, Jordan (December 22, 2012). "The Fastest-Growing States in America (and Why They're Booming)". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
  150. ^ "Florida's Population Center Migrates through History". University of Florida Bureau of Economic and Business Research. Archived from the original on August 14, 2013. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
  151. ^ "Florida Leaves New York Behind in Its Rear-View Mirror—National Review". Nationalreview.com. December 23, 2014. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  152. ^ Pramuk, Jacob (December 23, 2014). "Move over, NY: This state now 3rd most populous". Cnbc.com. Archived from the original on April 5, 2019. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  153. ^ "Florida Demographics—Get Current Census Data for Florida". www.florida-demographics.com. Archived from the original on October 24, 2018. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  154. ^ Michael B. Sauter; Douglas A. McIntyre (May 10, 2011). "The States with the Oldest And Youngest Residents". wallst.com. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
  155. ^ "Retired Military Personnel". The Intercom. Patrick Air Force Base, Florida: Military Officers Association of Cape Canaveral. June 2009. p. 4.
  156. ^ Amy Goodman (April 6, 2009). ""A Ponzi State"—Univ. of South Florida Professor Examines the Economic Crisis in Florida". Democracy Now!. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  157. ^ Slevin, Peter (April 30, 2010). "New Arizona law puts police in 'tenuous' spot". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. p. A4. Archived from the original on November 10, 2012.
  158. ^ behind Nevada, Arizona, New Jersey, California and Texas
  159. ^ Reed, Matt (January 18, 2011). "E-Verify best way to find illegals". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. p. 1B. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014.
  160. ^ Shoichet, Catherine E. (May 9, 2019). "Florida is about to ban sanctuary cities. At least 11 other states have, too". CNN. Archived from the original on June 16, 2019. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  161. ^ a b Population Division, Laura K. Yax. "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Archived from the original on December 24, 2014.
  162. ^ [2][permanent dead link]
  163. ^ Center for New Media and Promotions(C2PO). "2010 Census Data". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 22, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
  164. ^ Bureau, US Census. "Race and Ethnicity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census". Census.gov. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  165. ^ Bureau, US Census. "The Chance That Two People Chosen at Random Are of Different Race or Ethnicity Groups Has Increased Since 2010". Census.gov. Archived from the original on April 12, 2022. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  166. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Florida". Census Bureau QuickFacts. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
  167. ^ a b c d "Florida Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 27, 1996. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  168. ^ a b c d "Florida: SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES—2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 27, 1996. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  169. ^ "Florida Factstreet". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved December 3, 2007.
  170. ^ Pulera, Dominic (October 20, 2004). Sharing the Dream: White Males in Multicultural America. A&C Black. ISBN 9780826416438. Archived from the original on September 7, 2015. Retrieved October 23, 2018 – via Google Books.
  171. ^ Reynolds Farley, 'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.
  172. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44–6.
  173. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, 'Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82–86.
  174. ^ Mary C. Waters, Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), p. 36.
  175. ^ "Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980—Table 3" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 24, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
  176. ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
  177. ^ David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp.633–639
  178. ^ "Miami, Florida Race and Hispanic or Latino Origin: 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder. US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  179. ^ a b c "Florida Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010 Census Summary File 1". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 27, 1996. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
  180. ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder—Results". census.gov. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  181. ^ "Thedailyjournal—Puerto Rico's population exodus is all about jobs". usatoday.com. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  182. ^ Brinkmann, Paul. "How many Puerto Ricans have moved to Florida? State's numbers questioned". Orlandosentinel.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2019. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  183. ^ "Compendium of the Ninth Census:Population, with race" (PDF). US Census Bureau. p. 14. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 8, 2010. Retrieved December 3, 2007.
  184. ^ "Historical Census Browser: 1960 US Census". University of Virginia, Geospatial and Statistical Data Center. University of Virginia Library. 2004. Archived from the original on August 8, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2008.
  185. ^ "As Caribbean immigration rises, Miami's black population becomes more foreign". Miamiherald.com. Archived from the original on September 12, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  186. ^ "Grid View: Table B04006—Census Reporter". censusreporter.org. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  187. ^ "Immigrants in Florida". Americanmigrationcouncil.org. January 1, 2015. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  188. ^ a b "Florida". Modern Language Association. Archived from the original on December 1, 2007. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
  189. ^ MacDonald, Victoria M. (April 2004). "The Status of English Language Learners in Florida: Trends and Prospects" (PDF). Education Policy Research Unit, Arizona State University. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 9, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2013.
  190. ^ a b "Religious Landscape Study". Pew Forum. May 11, 2015. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
  191. ^ "Jewish Population of the United States, by State (2011)". Jewish Virtual Library. Archived from the original on January 21, 2017. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  192. ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Archived from the original on December 2, 2013. Retrieved November 15, 2013.
  193. ^ Pew Research Center, "Religious Landscape Study: Florida" Archived November 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine
  194. ^ "Editorial:Culture of corruption". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. January 7, 2011. p. 1A. Archived from the original on January 7, 2014.
  195. ^ J. Pomante II, Michael; Li, Quan (December 15, 2020). "Cost of Voting in the American States: 2020". Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy. 19 (4): 503–509. doi:10.1089/elj.2020.0666. S2CID 225139517. Archived from the original on October 25, 2021. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  196. ^ Shackford, Scott (April 28, 2022). "Florida, Tennessee Ban Ranked-Choice Voting Despite Citizen Support". Reason. Archived from the original on April 29, 2022. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
  197. ^ "Alabama : Federal Taxes Paid vs. Federal Spending Received : 1981–present" (PDF). Files.taxfoundation.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  198. ^ "Voter Registration—Current by County—Division of Elections—Florida Department of State". October 24, 2016. Archived from the original on October 24, 2016.
  199. ^ Saxon, Wolfgang (October 27, 2003). "William C. Cramer, 81, a Leader of G.O.P. Resurgence in South". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 19, 2008. Retrieved February 26, 2008.
  200. ^ "Claude Roy Kirk, Jr". Office of Cultural and Historic Programs, State of Florida. Archived from the original on August 18, 2007. Retrieved February 26, 2008.
  201. ^ Thomas, Jr, Robert McG (May 23, 1996). "E. J. Gurney, 82, Senator Who Backed Nixon". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 19, 2008. Retrieved February 26, 2008.
  202. ^ Chris, Moody. "Florida is the true US presidential election bellwether state". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on November 17, 2020. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  203. ^ a b Navarro, Mireya (September 21, 1998). "Florida's Split: Will It Play in the Panhandle?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 20, 2021. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  204. ^ Lengell, Sean. "As I-4 corridor goes, so goes Florida". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on January 31, 2008.
  205. ^ "Voter Registration by Party Affiliation and County". Florida Department of State. January 2008. Archived from the original on November 24, 2011. Retrieved February 26, 2008.
  206. ^ a b "U.S. Electoral College". Archived from the original on November 21, 2010.
  207. ^ a b "Florida Certificate of Vote". Archived from the original on September 19, 2011.
  208. ^ a b Leary, Alex: "Florida gains two U.S. House seats in Census" Archived December 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, St. Petersburg Times, December 21, 2010
  209. ^ Pear, Robert. "Elections 2012, State Results". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 20, 2021. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  210. ^ "Florida". 270towin.com. January 2, 2010. Archived from the original on January 28, 2021. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
  211. ^ See Bush v. Gore Archived October 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, 531 U.S. 98 (2000)
  212. ^ See also Bush v. Palm Beach County Canvassing Board Archived January 26, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, 531 U.S. 70 (2000).
  213. ^ Fessenden, Ford; Broder, John M. (November 12, 2001). "Study of Disputed Florida Ballots Finds Justices Did Not Cast the Deciding Vote". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 31, 2016. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
  214. ^ Cf. Fla. Stat. § 103.011 (web version Archived April 9, 2022, at the Wayback Machine) ("Votes cast for the actual candidates for President and Vice President shall be counted as votes cast for the presidential electors supporting such candidates. The Department of State shall certify as elected the presidential electors of the candidates for President and Vice President who receive the highest number of votes.")
  215. ^ Matt Ford, "Restoring Voting Rights for Felons in Maryland" Archived April 21, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The Atlantic, February 9, 2016, accessed March 23, 2016
  216. ^ Mary Ellen Klas, "Florida Supreme Court approves congressional map drawn by challengers" Archived March 14, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Tampa Bay Times, December 2, 2015, accessed December 11, 2016
  217. ^ "Voter Registration—By Party Affiliation". Florida Department of State. Archived from the original on September 8, 2021. Retrieved July 22, 2022.
  218. ^ Brent Staples, "Florida Leads the Pack—in Felon Disenfranchisement", The New York Times, November 7, 2014, accessed March 23, 2016
  219. ^ "The Collapse of the Florida Democratic Party" Archived January 4, 2022, at the Wayback Machine, Florida Political Review, January 4, 2022, accessed January 12, 2022
  220. ^ "Florida's Motor Vehicle : No-Fault Law : Report Number 2006-102" (PDF). Archive.flsenate.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 29, 2018. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  221. ^ "Personal Injury Protection (PIP)" (PDF). The Florida Senate, Committee on Banking and Insurance. August 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 5, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
  222. ^ "Corruption at Miami-Dade auto accident clinics creates huge financial burden on drivers". United Auto Courts Report. United Auto Insurance Co. January 15, 2012. Archived from the original on May 15, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
  223. ^ Deslatte, Aaron (January 26, 2012). "Scott says PIP program 'has to be fixed'". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017.
  224. ^ Mitchell, Tia (January 25, 2012). "Scott-backed bill to combat fraud advances in House". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012.
  225. ^ "House version of PIP reform gets Scott endorsement". Tampa Bay Times. January 25, 2012. Archived from the original on March 23, 2013.
  226. ^ "Facts about capital punishment—the death penalty". www.religioustolerance.org. Archived from the original on July 13, 2017. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  227. ^ a b The Florida Statutes.
  228. ^ a b "FL sentencing guidelines". FL Senate. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  229. ^ Knapp, Andrew (October 16, 2010). "Crime rate decreases 5.5%". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 1B. Archived from the original on July 12, 2014.
  230. ^ "The 2010 Florida Statutes". State of Florida. October 16, 2010. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  231. ^ Haridopolos, Mike (March 11, 2014). "Legislature aims to rewrite gaming rules. 'Complex' issue affects billions of dollars in state revenue". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 1A. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
  232. ^ a b "GDP by State". GDP by State | U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). Bureau of Economic Analysis. Archived from the original on August 17, 2018. Retrieved March 26, 2021.https://www.bea.gov/sites/default/files/2021-06/qgdpstate0621.pdf Archived August 20, 2021, at the Wayback Machine Bureau of Economic Analysis - Full release and tables - Gross Domestic Product by State, 1st Quarter 2021. Retrieved July 4, 2021.
  233. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. October 2021. Archived from the original on January 3, 2022. Retrieved January 10, 2022.
  234. ^ "GDP (Current US$)". The World Bank. Archived from the original on July 28, 2021. Retrieved July 28, 2021.
  235. ^ "100 of the largest hospitals and health systems in America," Becker's Hospital Review
  236. ^ Hobson, Will (January 16, 2010). "County Medicaid tab rises, could get worse". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on August 17, 2011.
  237. ^ Ryan, MacKenzie (December 26, 2010). "Qualifying for care a minefield" (PDF). Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. p. 3A. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 5, 2010.
  238. ^ Marshal, James (December 26, 2010). "Sunday debate: No: Longtime official lost touch with voters". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. p. 19A. Archived from the original on August 21, 2013.
  239. ^ "Miami Beach". Bass Museum of Art. Archived from the original on November 22, 2010.
  240. ^ "Tour Miami's Art Deco District—MiamiAndBeaches.com—Miami and The Beaches". September 18, 2018. Archived from the original on September 18, 2018. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  241. ^ Ennis Davis (March 6, 2008). "A Century of Florida's Tallest Skyscrapers". Metro Jacksonville. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
  242. ^ "Wells Fargo Center, Jacksonville". Emporis. Archived from the original on May 9, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
  243. ^ Wayne W. Wood. "Jacksonville's Lost Treasures". Prairie School Traveler. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  244. ^ "When Does Modern Architecture Become Historic?". Jacksonville Historical Society. Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  245. ^ "Official: Design rules haven't cost Palm Bay new businesses". Florida Today. Archived from the original on August 25, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
  246. ^ "Florida: St. Augustine Town Plan Historic District". National Park Service. Archived from the original on April 30, 2015. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  247. ^ a b Solodev (October 16, 2020). "Florida Moves Up in National Ranking". www.fldoe.org. Retrieved June 28, 2022.
  248. ^ "Rankings". www.usnews.com. Archived from the original on April 13, 2021. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  249. ^ "SAS® Logon Manager". edstats.fldoe.org.
  250. ^ "Education Spending Per Student by State". Governing.com. February 9, 2012. Archived from the original on July 2, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  251. ^ "League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) et al. vs. State Board of Education et al. Consent Decree". United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida. August 14, 1990. Archived from the original on June 17, 2013. Retrieved May 24, 2013.
  252. ^ "Accountability plan" (PDF). www.flbog.edu. 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 17, 2021. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  253. ^ "Higher education in Britain is still good value compared with America". Economist. March 2, 2017. Archived from the original on March 2, 2017. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
  254. ^ "Factbook" (PDF). www.fldoe.org. 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 15, 2021. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  255. ^ "Official website of ICUF". Icuf.org. Archived from the original on May 29, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
  256. ^ "ICUF – Independent Colleges and Universities of Florida". Archived from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  257. ^ "Timeline". The Florida Memory Project. State Library and Archives of Florida. 1851. Archived from the original on August 1, 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  258. ^ Memorial of the Trustees of the University of Florida (R.K. Call, John G. Gamble, Thomas Randall, Louis M. Goldsborough, Thos. Eston Randolph, F. Eppes, E. Loockerman, Benjamin Chaires, Turbutt R. Betton, Fitch W. Taylor, J. Loring Woart, Ashbeel Steele, J. Edwin Stewart), p. cxxiii. United States Congress. December 7, 1835. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved December 13, 2013.
  259. ^ "Transportation Data and Analytics Office". Florida Department of Transportation. September 4, 2018. Archived from the original on September 14, 2018. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  260. ^ Moody, R. Norman (January 30, 2011). "Guidelines tight to drive a fuel tanker". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. p. 2A. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
  261. ^ "Recession Marked by Bump in Uninsured Motorists" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 2, 2011. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
  262. ^ Kennerley, Britt (September 18, 2011). "Olde drivers take fewer risks". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. p. 11A. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011.
  263. ^ "Orlando International Airport Busiest in Florida with Record Passenger Traffic in 2017". Orlando International Airport (MCO). Greater Orlando Aviation Authority. February 6, 2018. Archived from the original on January 4, 2020. Retrieved March 28, 2020.
  264. ^ "Florida Drug Threat Assessment-Overview". National Drug Intelligence Center. Archived from the original on August 31, 2009. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
  265. ^ "Calendar Year 2017 Enplanements at All Airports (Primary, Non-primary Commercial Service, and General Aviation) by State and Airport, Updated 7 October 2018" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  266. ^ "All Aboard Florida—Miami to Orlando Passenger Rail Service". Federal Railroad Authority. Archived from the original on June 28, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2015.
  267. ^ Broadt, Lisa (January 12, 2018). "First ride: Aboard Florida's new Brightline train". King5. Archived from the original on January 16, 2018. Retrieved January 15, 2018.
  268. ^ "Amtrak Fact Sheet, Fiscal Year 2011, State of Florida" (PDF). Amtrak. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 16, 2016. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  269. ^ Services, Miami-Dade County Online. "Metrorail—Miami-Dade County". Miamidade.gov. Archived from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  270. ^ "SunRail—A Better Way To Go". sunrail.com. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  271. ^ "Home—Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority". Gohart.org. Archived from the original on February 14, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  272. ^ "Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority—PSTA". Psta.net. Archived from the original on April 23, 2022. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  273. ^ "Jacksonville Transportation Authority—Skyway". Jtafla.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  274. ^ Peltier, Michael (November 5, 2011). "Lawmaker's bill would fine teams that black out games". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 4B. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013.
  275. ^ "Miami MLS expansion team to begin play in 2020" Archived February 4, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, MLSsoccer.com, January 29, 2018.
  276. ^ "State of Florida.com—Florida Professional Sports Teams". Stateofflorida.com. Archived from the original on October 23, 2018. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  277. ^ "Florida's 7 FBS head coaches explain college football's most chaotic state". Sbnation.com. August 22, 2018. Archived from the original on April 9, 2022. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  278. ^ "The 2010 Florida Statutes". Florida Legislature. Archived from the original on May 17, 2011. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
  279. ^ "Florida Sister City/Sister State Directory 2001" (PDF). State of Florida. 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 27, 2008. Retrieved August 19, 2010.

M

  • Mahon, John K.; Brent R. Weisman (1996). "Florida's Seminole and Miccosukee Peoples". In Gannon, Michael (Ed.). The New History of Florida, pp. 183–206. University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1415-8.

Bibliography

  • Viviana Díaz Balsera and Rachel A. May (eds.), La Florida: Five Hundred Years of Hispanic Presence. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2014.
  • Michael Gannon (ed.), The History of Florida. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2013.

External links


Preceded by List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on March 3, 1845 (27th)
Succeeded by

Coordinates: 28°N 82°W / 28°N 82°W / 28; -82 (State of Florida)