Fermat's Last Theorem in fiction

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The problem in number theory known as "Fermat's Last Theorem" has repeatedly received attention in fiction and popular culture. The theorem was proved by Andrew Wiles in 1994.

Prose fiction[edit]


  • "The Royale", an episode (first aired 27 March 1989) of Star Trek: The Next Generation, begins with Picard attempting to solve the puzzle in his ready room; he remarks to Riker that the theorem had remained unproven for 800 years.[13] The captain ends the episode with the line "Like Fermat's theorem, it is a puzzle we may never solve." Wiles' proof was released five years after the episode aired.[14] The theorem was again mentioned in a subsequent Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode called "Facets" in June 1995,[15] in which Jadzia Dax comments that one of her previous hosts, Tobin Dax, had "the most original approach to the proof since Wiles over 300 years ago."
  • A sum, proved impossible by the theorem, appears in the 1995 episode of The Simpsons, "Treehouse of Horror VI". In the three-dimensional world in "Homer3", the equation is visible, just as the dimension begins to collapse. The joke is that the twelfth root of the sum does evaluate to 1922 due to rounding errors when entered into most handheld calculators.[16] A second "counterexample" appeared in the 1998 episode, "The Wizard of Evergreen Terrace": , again forming a near-miss that appears true when evaluated on a handheld calculator.[17]
  • In the Doctor Who 2010 episode "The Eleventh Hour", the Doctor transmits a proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by typing it in just a few seconds on a laptop, to prove his genius to a collection of world leaders discussing the latest threat to the human race.[18]



  • In Tom Stoppard's 1993 play Arcadia, Septimus Hodge poses the problem of proving Fermat's Last Theorem to the precocious Thomasina Coverly (who is perhaps a mathematical prodigy), in an attempt to keep her busy. Thomasina responds that Fermat had no proof and claimed otherwise in order to torment later generations.[20] Shortly after Arcadia opened in London, Andrew Wiles announced his proof of Fermat's Last Theorem, a coincidence of timing that resulted in news stories about the proof quoting Stoppard.[21]
  • Fermat's Last Tango is a 2000 stage musical by Joanne Sydney Lessner and Joshua Rosenblum.[22] Protagonist "Daniel Keane" is a fictionalized Andrew Wiles.[23] The characters include Fermat, Pythagoras, Euclid, Newton, and Gauss, the singing, dancing mathematicians of "the aftermath".


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  2. ^ "Review of Murder by Mathematics". Scripta Mathematica: 294. 1948. Reprinted in Sharp, John (September 1996). "Mathematics and murder". Newsletter of the British Society for the History of Mathematics. 11 (2): 27. doi:10.1080/09629419608000021.
  3. ^ Kasman, Alex (January 2003). "Mathematics in Fiction: An Interdisciplinary Course". PRIMUS. 13 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1080/10511970308984042. ISSN 1051-1970. S2CID 122365046.
  4. ^ "Devilish Short Story | Simon Singh". simonsingh.net. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  5. ^ Lask, Thomas (October 5, 1979). "Publishing: A Heavy Price for a Heavy Book". The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
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  7. ^ Gray, Mary W. (June 2007). "The Oxford Murders". The Mathematical Intelligencer. 29 (3): 77–78. doi:10.1007/bf02985700. ISSN 0343-6993. S2CID 189888928.
  8. ^ Kasman, Alex. "MathFiction: The Girl Who Played With Fire (Stieg Larsson)". College of Charleston. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  9. ^ Gray, Mary W. (2010-02-17). "A Person of Interest: A Novel by Susan Choi and Fermat's Room (La Habitación de Fermat) directed by Luis Piedrahita and Rodrigo Opeña and No One You Know by Michelle Richmond and Pythagoras' Revenge: A Mathematical Mystery by Arturo Sangalli and Pythagorean Crimes by Tefcros Michaelides and The Girl Who Played with Fire by Stieg Larsson". The Mathematical Intelligencer. 32 (3): 67–71. doi:10.1007/s00283-009-9129-8. ISSN 0343-6993.
  10. ^ Gowers, Timothy (2009-12-20). "Wiles Meets his Match". Gowers's Weblog. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  11. ^ Fraser, Anne. "LibGuides: Mathematics: Maths Fiction". Assumption College. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  12. ^ Berry, Michael (August 10, 2008). "Clarke and Pohl's 'The Last Theorem'". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  13. ^ Moseman, Andrew (2017-09-01). "Here's a Fun Math Goof in 'Star Trek: The Next Generation'". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  14. ^ Knudson, Kevin (2015-08-20). "The Math Of Star Trek: How Trying To Solve Fermat's Last Theorem Revolutionized Mathematics". Forbes. Retrieved 2019-09-03.
  15. ^ a b Garmon, Jay. "Geek Trivia: The math behind the myth". TechRepublic. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
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  17. ^ Singh, Simon (2013). The Simpsons and Their Mathematical Secrets. A&C Black. pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-1-4088-3530-2.
  18. ^ Singh, Simon (2014-10-17). "Homer's Last Theorem". Boing Boing. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  19. ^ Kasman, Alex. "The Oxford Murders (2004)". MathFiction. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  20. ^ Guaspari, David (1996). "Stoppard's Arcadia". The Antioch Review. 54 (2): 222–238. doi:10.2307/4613314. JSTOR 4613314.
  21. ^ Jackson, Allyn (1995). "Love and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Tom Stoppard's Arcadia" (PDF). Notices of the AMS. 42 (11): 1284–1287.
  22. ^ "Math Plus Music Equals Fermat's Last Tango, a World Preem, Opening Dec. 6". Playbill. 2000-12-06. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  23. ^ Emmer, Michele (December 2003). "Fermat's last tango, a musical". The Mathematical Intelligencer. 25 (1): 77–78. doi:10.1007/bf02985645. ISSN 0343-6993. S2CID 119734839.