Federal parliamentary republic

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A federal parliamentary republic refers to a federation of states with a republican form of government that is, more or less, dependent upon the confidence of parliaments at both the national and sub-national levels. It is a combination of the government republic and the parliamentary republic.

Such republics usually possess a bicameral legislature at the federal level out of necessity, so as to allow for a set, often equal number of representatives of the sub-national entities to sit in the upper house; however, the government, headed by a head of government, will be depending upon the lower house of parliament for its stability or legitimacy.

List of federal parliamentary republics[edit]

Federation Style Formerly Head of state elected by Head of state Head of government Established Head of government elected by
 Austria Republic of Austria One-party state
(as part of Nazi Germany)
Direct, by second-round system President of Austria Chancellor of Austria 1945 Parliament, by majority
 Ethiopia Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia One-party state Regions of Ethiopia President of Ethiopia Prime Minister of Ethiopia 1991 Parliament, by two-thirds majority
 Germany Federal Republic of Germany One-party state
(Nazi Germany)
Federal Assembly (parliament and state delegates),

by absolute majority

President of Germany Chancellor of Germany 1949 Parliament, by absolute majority
 India Republic of India Constitutional monarchy
(as the Dominion of India)
States of India President of India Prime Minister of India 1950 Electoral College, parliament and state legislators, by single transferable vote
 Iraq Republic of Iraq One-party state Regions of Iraq President of Iraq Prime Minister 2005 Parliament, by two-thirds majority
 Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia UN Trust Territory (part of
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
Subdivisions of Micronesia 1986 Parliament, by majority
   Nepal Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal Constitutional monarchy Subdivisions of Nepal President of Nepal Prime Minister of Nepal 2015 Parliament and state legislators
 Pakistan Islamic Republic of Pakistan Semi-presidential republic Subdivisions of Pakistan President of Pakistan Prime Minister of Pakistan 2010 Electoral College, by two-thirds majority
 Somalia Federal Republic of Somalia One-party state Subdivisions of Somalia President of Somalia Prime Minister of Somalia 2012 Parliament
  Switzerland Swiss Confederation Confederation Cantons of Switzerland 1848 Federal Assembly (parliament and canton delegates), by absolute majority

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