Fares Scale of Injuries due to Cluster Munitions

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Fares Scale of Injuries due to Cluster Munitions
SynonymsFares Scale of Injuries
PurposeAssessment of injuries based on functional impairment

The Fares Scale of Injuries due to Cluster Munitions is an anatomical and neuropsychological classification method to identify and describe injury scales for victims of cluster munitions.[1][2] It was published in 2013 by Lebanese physicians, Jawad Fares and Youssef Fares.[1]

Elements of the scale[edit]

Fares Scale of Injuries due to Cluster Munitions[1]
Grade Level Percentage of Functional Disability Anatomical Lesion
Grade I ≤25% Amputation of three fingers: middle finger, ring finger and/or little finger
Partial loss of a hand or foot
Superficial wounds to the body and face
Loss of skin and/or muscles in the extremities
Grade II 50% Amputation of two fingers: one of the two is the thumb
Loss of an eye, leg and/or hand
Wound infection
Recuperable lesion in abdomen and/or thorax
Psychological effects
Grade III 75% Affection of more than two of the four extremities
Partial loss of vision and/or impairment of the auditory system
Mutilation and partial damage to the digestive system and /or lungs
Lesion of the spinal cord
Grade IV >75% Amputation of three extremities
Total loss of vision and/or auditory capacity
Intellectual incapacity


The scale assesses the severity of injuries resulting from cluster munitions based on functional impairment.[1][2] Due to the polytraumatic nature of the injuries and the damage to multiple systems in the body, the scale stratifies cohorts by exploring the limitation in activity resulting from the injury. Following a grading system (I-IV): Grade I shows functional impairment of less than 25%, Grade II shows 50%, Grade III shows 75%, and Grade IV demonstrates more than 75% functional impairment.[1] Grading is done after meticulous and conjoint assessment of symptoms and functioning.[3]


During the 2006 Lebanon War, it was estimated that 4.6 million cluster munitions were released over Lebanese soil, almost one million of which remained unexploded.[4] These unexploded ordnances continued to injure and kill civilians after the war ended. Injuries were polytraumatic and often led to disability and significant neuropsychological effects.[5] Research by Jawad Fares and Youssef Fares led to the development of the “Fares Scale of Injuries due to Cluster Munitions” to assess injuries based on functional impairment. The scale helped in classifying the wounds of victims and determining the best possible treatment.[2][3]


  1. ^ a b c d e Fares, Youssef; Fares, Jawad (2013). "Anatomical and neuropsychological effects of cluster munitions". Neurological Sciences. 34 (12): 2095–2100. doi:10.1007/s10072-013-1343-7. PMID 23456473. S2CID 9810840.
  2. ^ a b c "Jawad Fares". Forbes. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  3. ^ a b Interactive, Prototype. "This Lebanese doctor is bringing hope to the country's cluster bomb survivors". www.almaktouminitiatives.org. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Israel's Use of Cluster Bombs Shows Need for Global Ban". 17 February 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  5. ^ Fares, Jawad; Fares, Youssef (2018). "Cluster munitions: military use and civilian health hazards". World Health Organization. 96 (8): 584–585. doi:10.2471/BLT.17.202481. PMC 6083390. PMID 30104799. Archived from the original on August 15, 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2020.