From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

FoundedApril 11, 2013 (official launch)[1]
TypeLobbying group
United States IRS exemption status: 501(c)(4)
Area served
United States
Key people

FWD.us is a 501(c)(4) immigration and criminal justice reform advocacy organization.[3][4][5][6] It is based in the United States and headquartered in Washington, D.C. [7], and it advocates for prison reform, status for undocumented immigrants, particularly for DACA recipients, and higher levels of immigration visas, particularly for H-1B visas for foreign workers in STEM fields.[8][9][10]

The president of FWD.us is Todd Schulte, replacing previous president Joe Green in 2014.[7][11] FWD.us was founded by leaders in Silicon Valley in 2013, including Mark Zuckerberg, who wanted to advance immigration reform.[1] The group aims to build a bipartisan consensus around its proposed policies.[1][12] However, it has garnered criticism for its connections to large technology companies, its support of the Keystone XL pipeline, and what critics have described as its "questionable lobbying practices".[13]

The organization describes itself as "bipartisan"[14] and includes both Republicans and Democrats, however, it has been described as being "backed by liberal-leaning tech CEOs and investors."[15]

FWD.us has an affiliated 501(c)(3) organization, the FWD.us Education Fund.[6][16]


Early history[edit]

The first rumors of the creation of a lobbying group on immigration reform were reported by Evelyn Rusli in The Wall Street Journal on March 26, 2013.[17] On April 4, 2013, Politico obtained a leaked prospectus prepared by Joe Green intended for prospective contributors, with a proposed name of "Human Capital" for the lobbying group. Green admitted that the prospectus was authentic but also stated that many details, including the name of the group, had changed since the time the prospectus was sent out.[18][19]

FWD.us was launched on April 11, 2013. The launch was accompanied by an op-ed by Mark Zuckerberg in The Washington Post laying out the agenda and arguing for the vision of the group.[1] There was extensive media coverage of the launch.[20][21][22][23][24]

Timeline of key developments[edit]

Month and year Key developments
March–April 2013 Early rumors of launch,[17] leaked draft prospectus,[18] official launch (April 11).[1][20]
Late April and May 2013 FWD.us subsidiaries Americans for a Conservative Direction and Council for American Job Growth launch ads (including ads on conservative radio and talk shows) supporting pro-immigration reform politicians' other political positions, including the Keystone XL oil pipeline.[25][26] FWD.us receives considerable media coverage.[27] Environmentalist, liberal, and progressive groups protest the FWD.us strategy.[28] Many pundits opine on whether FWD.us will be a long-term success.[29]
June and July 2013 FWD.us launches tools for grassroots action on immigration reform,[30] releases its Emma video,[31] and launches a Tumblr blog.[32]
September 2013 FWD.us releases a report on its effectiveness.[33] Chris Hughes explains why he is not a member of FWD.us.[34]
October and November 2013 FWD.us announces in October a hackathon for immigration reform, to be held in November.[35] It announces it will work with Grover Norquist on immigration reform.[36] It hires Darius Contractor as Chief Technology Officer.[37]
Late January 2014, continuing through February and March 2014 FWD.us launches a $750,000 ad push to get the House Republicans to pass immigration reform.[38] It also launches an app called Push4Reform to facilitate more grassroots activism.[39] An ad released on March 3, 2014 receives considerable response.[40]
September 2014 Joe Green leaves FWD.us, and Re/code claims that his departure appears forced.[41] A blog post on the FWD.us website confirmed the leadership change.[42]


The main goals of FWD.us, as outlined by Zuckerberg in The Washington Post op-ed[1] and described on the FWD.us website[12] are:

  1. Immigration reform (in the context of immigration to the United States)
  2. Improving the quality of science and technology education (again focused on the United States)
  3. Encouraging more investment in breakthrough technologies in a manner that benefits the public at large.


Zuckerberg's op-ed written at launch[1] as well as the FWD.us website[43] describe the following main aspects of immigration reform that FWD.us will advocate for:

  1. Improved border security.
  2. An immigration policy that is biased in favor of attracting extremely talented and hard-working people.
  3. A path to citizenship for current and prospective immigrants to the United States, including those who are present in the United States illegally.
  4. An improved employment verification system, though not necessarily E-Verify.

A statement released on April 17, 2013, by Joe Green, the president of FWD.us, expressed approval of the preliminary immigration deal announced by the Gang of Eight.[44]

As of 2020, the FWD.us website advocates against the Trump administration's use of "public charge" legislation to deny entry to those likely to become dependent on the government for cash assistance or long-term institutional care.[45] It advocates a "path to citizenship" for illegal immigrants.[46]



The FWD.us team was initially split between the Silicon Valley, where it was led by the president, Joe Green,[47] and Washington D.C.,[2] where the team includes members such as Rob Jesmer (former executive director of the National Republican Senatorial Committee) and Kate Hansen (who worked as the communications director for the Democratic Governors Association in 2012).[48]

After Joe Green resigned in favor of Todd Schulte, the organization has shifted more to emphasize Washington DC activities, recognizing its repeated failures to achieve reform and its perceived Silicon Valley elitism, e.g. in condemnations by Jeff Sessions and other lawmakers.[49] Presently, the organization focuses on immigration related ventures, and a "broken criminal justice system".[50]

Key supporters[edit]

Although some earlier reports, including the leaked prospectus by Politico, had suggested that Bill Gates and Marc Andreessen would be involved with FWD.us,[18] their names did not appear on the FWD.us site at launch.[23] However, Gates' name was added to the list of founders later.[51]

Elon Musk (CEO of SpaceX and of Tesla Motors) was originally listed as a major contributor, but left the group in May 2013 in the wake of advertisements put out by FWD.us supporting some political activities that conflicted with Musk's environmentalist priorities.[52] David Sacks, who was originally listed as a major contributor, also left the group at around the same time.[27][53][54]


According to news reports, the lobbying group is raising about $50 million (USD) for its lobbying efforts.[17] As of April 2013, information about funds is not available on the official site, though a list of major contributors is available.[55] As a 501(c)(4) organization, FWD.us is not legally obliged to disclose its list of contributors or how much it has received in contributions.[56]


Plans prior to launch[edit]

The leaked prospectus obtained by Politico suggested that the lobbying group was planning to use the tremendous leverage that tech companies and their leaders had in pushing their agenda to the public, similar to the tactics used for the protests against SOPA and PIPA that were coordinated for January 18, 2012. However, in the same Politico article, Joe Green said that the prospectus used misleading language, and that various tech leaders would, "operating solely as individuals", promote the agenda of the lobbying group.[18]

According to the leaked prospectus, the tactics were described as follows:

"grassroots and grasstops" organizing in targeted congressional districts, online advocacy campaigns, paid online and television advertising that will be "critical to creating the political infrastructure we need" and "earned media."[18]

The use of stories and media[edit]

A "Stories" section on the website features videos of FWD.us supporters featuring their personal stories. Featured videos include videos by Ruchi Sanghvi (who worked at Facebook and is now at Dropbox) and Max Levchin (co-founder of PayPal).[57]

In June 2013, FWD.us launched a new video titled "Emma" pictured on the Statue of Liberty, and with a voice-over narrating a somewhat modified version of The New Colossus by Emma Lazarus. The modification replaced lines in the poem that emphasized America as a refuge for immigrants fleeing tyranny and poverty and instead focused on welcoming talented immigrants.[31][58]

Around July 2013, FWD.us launched a blog on Tumblr to showcase its immigration stories.[32]

On March 3, 2014, FWD.us launched a nationwide ad pleading House Republicans to move forward with legislation regarding United States' immigration reform. The ad scolds House leadership for not making moves to bring a comprehensive immigration bill to the House floor. The 60-second commercial asks, "Why are House Republicans cooling, retreating and even privately saying they'd rather do nothing this year? Nothing won't do. Call House Republicans today. Tell them we've waited long enough, pass immigration reform." The commercial is set to run in all 50 states at a cost of $500,000.[40][59][60]

Political lobbying and subsidiaries[edit]

The lobbying firm Fierce, Isakowitz and Blalock reported that FWD.us had paid it 30,000 USD in March 2013 (prior to the official launch of FWD.us) to lobby for immigration reform.[61] A blog post by the Sunlight Foundation sought to put FWD.us in the context of the existing state of immigration lobbying.[62]

On April 23, 2013, Politico reported that FWD.us had created a front group called "Americans for a Conservative Direction" that would air political ads in support of Republican politicians who supported immigration policies similar to those desired by FWD.us. Video advertisements were already being aired in favor of pro-immigration and pro-amnesty conservative politicians Lindsey Graham and Marco Rubio.[25][63][64] The Politico report also indicated that FWD.us was planning to open another front group called "Council for American Job Growth" designed to appeal to people with progressive political sensibilities.[25] The pro-conservative advertisements met with considerable backlash from progressive friends and erstwhile supporters of Zuckerberg and the cause.[65][66][67]

In May 2013, The New York Times called the ads a "sophisticated lobbying campaign being waged by technology companies and their executives."[68]

In July 2013, Roll Call reported that FWD.us had paid $90,000 each to lobbying firms Fierce, Isakowitz and Blalock and Peck Madigan Jones in the second quarter of 2013, triple of what it had paid to each firm in the first quarter of 2013. The report was based on filings by the lobbying firms. The same article used media reports (not official filings) to estimate that FWD.us had spent about $5 million in political advertising over the period.[56]

On January 31, 2014, a number of media outlets reported that the FWD.us subsidiary Americans for a Conservative Direction was launching a $750,000 USD campaign to fund the Republican Party's "immigration reform" campaign and encourage a bipartisan deal on immigration reform.[38][69][70] It was also reported that the group had distributed a 30-page memo arguing in favor of immigration reform and critiquing the "real motivations" behind anti-immigrant groups Center for Immigration Studies, Federation for American Immigration Reform, and NumbersUSA.[71]

Op-eds and articles in mainstream publications[edit]

At launch, principal founder Mark Zuckerberg wrote an op-ed in The Washington Post outlining the goals of the group.[1] After the passage of a proposed immigration bill in the US Senate, FWD.us President Joe Green wrote an opinion piece on the CNN website urging the US House of Representatives to pass the bill as well.[72]

Facilitating grassroots activism[edit]

On June 6, 2013, FWD.us launched tools that enabled US residents to phone their senators and representatives to express views on the immigration bill that would soon be put to a vote.[30]

On October 18, 2013, FWD.us announced a hackathon for November 2013 where the participants would be either DREAMers or mentors, where DREAMer was the FWD.us jargon for undocumented immigrants in the United States. The hackathon would be hosted by Reid Hoffman at LinkedIn's office and Mark Zuckerberg would be one of the mentors.[73] The announcement was covered by BuzzFeed and the Los Angeles Times.[35][74] The event itself received coverage in PandoDaily, The Week, and CNet.[75][76][77]

In late October 2013, it was announced that FWD.us was teaming up with pro-amnesty advocate Grover Norquist as well as evangelical groups to push its immigration agenda.[36]

In January 2014, FWD.us launched Push4Reform, an app aimed at helping supporters connect with their elected representatives and urge them to take action.[39][78][79]

Report on effectiveness[edit]

In September 2013, FWD.us released a report with some hard numbers on its impact and effectiveness.[33]


Parallels drawn with other present and past groups[edit]

The first report in The Wall Street Journal that reported rumors of the lobbying group that would eventually become FWD.us considered its possible overlap in goals and methods with Michael Bloomberg's group called the Partnership for a New American Economy as well as with the March for Innovation, a "virtual march for immigration reform."[17] An in-depth article in The New Republic likened FWD.us to the Technology CEO Council, founded 24 years before FWD.us by the heads of first-generation computing companies like Dell, Intel, Xerox, and Hewlett-Packard.[80]

Viability of the approach[edit]

The launch of FWD.us met with a wide range of reactions. Gregory Ferenstein, writing for TechCrunch, expressed skepticism regarding whether FWD.us was that different from existing lobbying groups and whether it would be able to accomplish anything.[21] Om Malik, writing for GigaOm, also expressed a mixed reaction, albeit for different reasons.[22]

The "cynical" approach taken by FWD.us in its political lobbying and campaigning has met with some criticism.[81] However, an article in The New Republic argued that the cynical approach might be necessary for FWD.us to meet its goals, while noting dissent from "Silicon Valley libertarians" such as Michael Arrington and Peter Thiel (neither of whom was listed as a contributor to FWD.us) from the idea of trying to influence politics and play the political game.[80] Chamath Palihapitiya and Jim Breyer defended the approach used by FWD.us despite the political backlash.[80][82]

Anil Dash wrote a lengthy review of FWD.us describing both the positives and negatives of the group.[83]


Keystone XL oil pipeline support[edit]

At least two key members of the group and several liberal organizations withdrew support from FWD.us after revelations that the group supported the Keystone XL oil pipeline in two major ways. Elon Musk, a founder of the electric carmaker Tesla and rocket company SpaceX, and David O. Sacks, chief executive of Yammer, left the group and withdrew financial support. The Sierra Club, the League of Conservation Voters and MoveOn.org also suspended advertisements on Facebook.[27][53][54]

The controversy stemmed from the fact that FWD.us paid tens of millions of dollars for advertisements supporting three prominent lawmakers who also supported the Keystone XL oil pipeline. The lawmakers were Republican Marco Rubio, Republican Lindsey Graham, and Democrat Mark Begich.[27] In addition, FWD.us ran advertisements praising the Keystone XL pipeline through its subsidiaries. The reaction was mixed among observers.[82][84]

At least five people protesting Zuckerberg's involvement in FWD.us were arrested at Facebook's first shareholder meeting on June 11, 2013.[85]

In September 2013, Chris Hughes, one of the earliest employees at Facebook who had played an important role in the Barack Obama 2008 presidential campaign, explained to Erin Griffith in an interview the reasons for his not being involved with FWD.us despite being close to the founders. He said, "They've taken a stance on all kinds of things, from [the Keystone XL pipeline] to other issues, which are not reflective of my own."[34]

Elitism and endorsement of restrictionism[edit]

An article in The Verge was critical of the adaptation of The New Colossus by FWD.us in its video titled "Emma" on the grounds that the adaptation was elitist and replaced the idealism of the original poem by the self-interested position of the technology lobby.[58] Similar criticisms were echoed in a comment thread on Mark Zuckerberg's Facebook post where he shared the video. Zuckerberg replied at length, concluding with, "The bigger problem we're trying to address is ensuring the 11 million undocumented folks living in this country now and similar folks in the future are treated fairly."[86][87]

An article in The Huffington Post was critical of FWD.us for running advertisements on the radio shows of Sean Hannity and Rush Limbaugh that claimed that US border security was in shambles and endorsed the border security provisions in the immigration bill. The Huffington Post article pointed to record deportation levels under Barack Obama's presidency as well as quoted from a report by the Migration Policy Institute to question the claims made in the advertisements.[26]

Hector Ruiz, former chairman and CEO of Advanced Micro Devices, wrote a piece critical of Mark Zuckerberg arguing that freer migration and a path to citizenship should be extended to all people, not just an elite.[88]

Shaun Raviv in an article for The Atlantic critiqued Mark Zuckerberg and FWD.us for the modesty of their vision, their focus on high-skilled immigration, and their endorsement of border security.[89]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Zuckerberg, Mark (April 11, 2013). "Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg: Immigration and the knowledge economy". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  2. ^ a b c "Our team". FWD.us. Archived from the original on April 13, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  3. ^ "Texas judge hears DACA challenge: A recipient weighs in". www.wbur.org. Retrieved August 3, 2023.
  4. ^ "'Desperation and anxiety': DACA repeal worries Illinois businesses, could cost state economy $2.3 billion". Chicago Tribune. September 6, 2017. Retrieved August 3, 2023.
  5. ^ "Another report condemns Arizona's swelling prison population and the laws that enable it". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved August 3, 2023.
  6. ^ a b "About". Fwd.us. Retrieved August 3, 2023.
  7. ^ a b Roberts, Andrea Suozzo, Ken Schwencke, Mike Tigas, Sisi Wei, Alec Glassford, Brandon (May 9, 2013). "Fwd Us Inc - Nonprofit Explorer". ProPublica. Retrieved August 3, 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Silva, Chantal Da (April 11, 2018). "H-1B Visa Applications Hit Cap In Just Five Days". Newsweek. Retrieved April 23, 2023.
  9. ^ "House members use rare maneuver to try to force vote on legislation to protect DREAMers". USA Today. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  10. ^ Kelly, Heather (August 15, 2018). "A Mark Zuckerberg-backed nonprofit is helping separated migrant families". CNNMoney. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  11. ^ Quinn |, Michelle (September 22, 2014). "What's next for FWD.us after departure of its president?". The Mercury News. Retrieved August 11, 2023.
  12. ^ a b "About Us". FWD.us. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  13. ^ Sengupta, Somini; Lipton, Eric (May 8, 2013). "Silicon Valley Group's Political Effort Causes Uproar". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  14. ^ "About". FWD.us. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  15. ^ "FWD.us' First Big Call To Action Automatically Phones Your Senator". TechCrunch. June 6, 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  16. ^ Roberts, Andrea Suozzo, Ken Schwencke, Mike Tigas, Sisi Wei, Alec Glassford, Brandon (May 9, 2013). "Fwdus Education Fund Inc, Full Filing - Nonprofit Explorer". ProPublica. Retrieved August 11, 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ a b c d Rusli, Evelyn (March 26, 2013). "Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg Starting Political Group". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  18. ^ a b c d e Epstein, Reid (April 4, 2013). "Mark Zuckerberg immigration group's status: Looking for footing". Politico. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  19. ^ Ferenstein, Gregory (April 5, 2013). "Zuckerberg's Political Lobby Has Nothing To 'Regret' In Leaked Memo". TechCrunch. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  20. ^ a b Constine, Josh (April 11, 2013). "Zuckerberg And A Team Of Tech All-Stars Launch Political Advocacy Group FWD.us". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  21. ^ a b Ferenstein, Gregory (April 11, 2013). "Zuckerberg Launches A Tech Lobby, But What Will It Do Differently?". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  22. ^ a b Malik, Om (April 11, 2013). "Why I have issues with Mark Zuckerberg's FWD.us". GigaOm. Archived from the original on April 16, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  23. ^ a b Brian, Matt (April 11, 2013). "Mark Zuckerberg launches FWD.us with notable Silicon Valley execs in fight for immigration reform". The Verge. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  24. ^ McKenzie, Hamish (April 11, 2013). "Mark Zuckerberg's new political action group: More field organization than lobby shop". PandoDaily. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
  25. ^ a b c Burns, Alexander (April 23, 2013). "Mark Zuckerberg group launches TV blitz". Politico. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
  26. ^ a b Terkel, Amanda (May 30, 2013). "FWD.us Immigration Ad Targets Rush Limbaugh, Sean Hannity Fans". Huffington Post. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
  27. ^ a b c d Sengupta, Somini (May 10, 2013). "Technology Industry Lobbying Group Loses Supporters". The New York Times. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  28. ^ Weiner, Rachel. "Liberal groups boycotting Facebook over immigration push". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 7, 2013.
  29. ^ McKenzie, Hamish (May 29, 2013). "The talented Mr Green: How FWD.us lost New York, Elon Musk, and the tech moral high ground". PandoDaily. Archived from the original on November 27, 2013. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
  30. ^ a b Constine, Josh (June 6, 2013). "FWD.us' First Big Call To Action Automatically Phones Your Senator". TechCrunch. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
  31. ^ a b "Mark Zuckerberg's FWD.us Releases New Pro-Immigration Ad". WebProNews. June 19, 2013. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
  32. ^ a b "Immigration Stories". FWD.us. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
  33. ^ a b Constine, Josh (September 18, 2013). "FWD.us Gives First Clues To Its Impact On Immigration So Far". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 18, 2013.
  34. ^ a b Griffith, Erin (September 26, 2013). "Why Chris Hughes isn't part of FWD.us". PandoDaily. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
  35. ^ a b Carrasquillo, Adrian (October 18, 2013). "Mark Zuckerberg Will Join LinkedIn, Dropbox Founders At "Dreamer" Hackathon To Reignite Immigration Reform". BuzzFeed. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
  36. ^ a b Marinucci, Carla (October 28, 2013). "Silicon Valley advocacy group fwd.us teams up with evangelicals, business to push immigration reform". SFGate. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
  37. ^ Constine, Josh (November 14, 2013). "FWD.us Hires CTO To Fight For Immigration Reform With Tech, Not Just Money". TechCrunch. Retrieved November 15, 2013.
  38. ^ a b Allen, Mike (January 31, 2014). "Tech group boosts GOP on immigration". Politico. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  39. ^ a b Segall, Laurie (January 23, 2014). "Immigration reform? There's an app for that". CNN Money. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  40. ^ a b Cassata, Donna (March 3, 2014). "Advocacy group targets House GOP on immigration". Yahoo. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  41. ^ Swisher, Kara (September 19, 2014). "Joe Green Pushed Out at FWD.us". Re/code. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
  42. ^ "Leadership change". FWD.us. September 19, 2014. Archived from the original on September 22, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
  43. ^ "Immigration Reform". FWD.us. Archived from the original on April 13, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  44. ^ Green, Joe. "Blog". FWD.us. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
  45. ^ "Tell Congress: Defend Legal Protections for Immigrant Families".
  46. ^ "Create a Pathway for Our 11 Million Undocumented Immigrants".
  47. ^ "Silicon Valley team". FWD.us. Archived from the original on April 13, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  48. ^ "Washington D.C. team". FWD.us. Archived from the original on April 13, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  49. ^ "Social Pro Daily".
  50. ^ "Home". FWD.us. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
  51. ^ Hansen, Kate (April 26, 2013). "We're excited to announce Bill Gates, Brad Smith, Steve Ballmer and Sean Parker have joined FWD.us". Twitter. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  52. ^ McBride, Sarah; Selyukh, Alyna (May 10, 2013). "Exclusive: Elon Musk quits Zuckerberg's immigration advocacy group". Reuters. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  53. ^ a b Isaac, Mike (May 10, 2013). "Elon Musk and David Sacks Depart Fwd.us, Mark Zuckerberg's Political Action Group". AllThingsD. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
  54. ^ a b Fehrenbacher, Katie (May 10, 2013). "Elon Musk, David Sacks ditch Zuckerberg's Fwd.us". GigaOm. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
  55. ^ "Our supporters". FWD.us. Archived from the original on April 16, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  56. ^ a b Cooper, Kent (July 28, 2013). "Zuckerberg's FWD.US Triples Insider Lobbying, but Remains Small". Retrieved July 31, 2013.
  57. ^ "Stories". FWD.us. Archived from the original on April 13, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
  58. ^ a b "Mark Zuckerberg's FWD.us gives the classic Statue of Liberty poem a tone deaf rewrite". The Verge. July 1, 2013. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
  59. ^ Hattem, Julian (March 3, 2014). "Zuckerberg-linked group rips House GOP on immigration reform". The Hill. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  60. ^ "Call a House Republican". FWD.us. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  61. ^ Cooper, Kent (April 20, 2013). "Zuckerberg's FWD.us Spends $30K on Republican Lobbyists for Immigration Reform". Roll Call. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
  62. ^ Furnas, Alexander (April 11, 2013). "Looking back to predict what FWD.us means for tech and immigration". Sunlight Foundation. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  63. ^ Bump, Philip (April 24, 2013). "Mark Zuckerberg's Immigration Group Has Campaign Ads for Lindsey Graham". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
  64. ^ Jaffe, Alexandra (April 25, 2013). "Conservative Zuckerberg-backed group launching ads on immigration reform". The Hill. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
  65. ^ Ferenstein, Gregory (April 30, 2013). "Zuckerberg's Lobby Can't Stay Silent On Secretive Conservative Political Ads Forever". TechCrunch. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  66. ^ Guynn, Jessica (May 1, 2013). "Mark Zuckerberg's Fwd.us in heated controversy over political ads". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  67. ^ Smith, Kevin (May 9, 2013). "The Fury Over Mark Zuckerberg's Political Committee Is Getting Louder By The Second". SFGate. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  68. ^ Lipton, Eric; Sengupta, Somini (May 4, 2013). "Latest Product From Tech Firms: An Immigration Bill". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  69. ^ Jopson, Barney (January 31, 2014). "Zuckerberg helps fund GOP leaders' immigration campaign". Financial Times. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  70. ^ Izadi, Elahe (January 31, 2014). "Mark Zuckerberg Affiliated Group Blast Airwaves to Back House GOP on Immigration: The $750,000 worth of television ads say "House Republicans want to fix the immigration problem."". National Journal. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  71. ^ "How Everyone Is Trying to Sway the Immigration Debate". National Journal. January 31, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  72. ^ Green, Joe (July 2, 2013). "House, knowledge economy needs immigrants". CNN. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
  73. ^ Green, Joe (October 18, 2013). "A DREAMer Hackathon for Immigration Reform". FWD.us. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
  74. ^ Guynn, Jessica (October 19, 2013). "'Dreamers' to code alongside Mark Zuckerberg in Fwd.us hackathon". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
  75. ^ Deamicis, Carmel (November 20, 2013). "FWD.us helps immigrants realize their dream of promoting FWD.us". PandoDaily. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
  76. ^ Colarusso, Laura (November 21, 2013). "Why Mark Zuckerberg's hackathon won't help immigration reform: Conservative members of the House are seemingly impervious to the Facebook founder's charms — and deep pockets". The Week. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
  77. ^ Martin, James (November 21, 2013). "Hackathon puts immigration reform in the spotlight: Teams consult with Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg, LinkedIn founder Reid Hoffman, and other Silicon Valley visionaries at the FWD.us DREAMer Hackathon". CNet. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
  78. ^ "Where does your representative stand on immigration reform?". FWD.us. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  79. ^ Kopan, Tal (January 24, 2014). "Tech group releases immigration app". Politico. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  80. ^ a b c DePillis, Lydia (May 6, 2013). "Mark Zuckerberg's Cynical, Necessary Washington Strategy". The New Republic. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  81. ^ Herhold, Scott (May 6, 2013). "Herhold: Mark Zuckerberg needs to take Politics 101". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  82. ^ a b Sengupta, Somini; Lipton, Eric (May 9, 2013). "Silicon Valley Group's Political Effort Causes Uproar". The New York Times. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  83. ^ Dash, Anil (May 2, 2013). "Zuckerberg's FWD: Making Sure They Get It Right".
  84. ^ Striland, Sarah Lai (May 1, 2013). "FWD.us, a Silicon Valley Foray Into Politics, Is Baffling Observers". TechPresident. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
  85. ^ "Facebook shareholders meeting draws protests". San Francisco Chronicle. June 12, 2013. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  86. ^ Zuckerberg, Mark (June 19, 2013). "Drawing on our history as a nations of immigrants ..." Facebook. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
  87. ^ Constine, Josh (June 20, 2013). "Zuckerberg Replies To His Facebook Commenters' Questions On Immigration". TechCrunch. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
  88. ^ Ruiz, Hector (May 3, 2013). "Hector Ruiz: U.S. must not reserve citizenship for lucky elite of immigrants". Dallas News. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
  89. ^ Raviv, Shaun (April 26, 2013). "If People Could Immigrate Anywhere, Would Poverty Be Eliminated? Some economists are pushing for "open borders"". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 26, 2013.

External links[edit]