Energy in India

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Energy consumption by source, India
Development of carbon dioxide emissions

Since 2013, total primary energy consumption in India has been the third highest in the world (see world energy consumption) after China (see energy in China) and United States (see energy in United States).[1][2] India is the second-top coal consumer in the year 2017 after China. India ranks third in oil consumption with 22.1 crore (221 million) tons in 2017 after United States and China.[3] India is net energy importer to meet nearly 47% of its total primary energy in 2019.[4][5]


India: Total primary energy use of 753.7 Mtoe (excluding traditional biomass use) in the calendar year 2017[6]

  424.0 Mtoe Coal (56.26%)
  222.1 Mtoe Petroleum & other liquids (29.47%)
  46.6 Mtoe Natural gas (6.18%)
  8.5 Mtoe Nuclear (1.13%)
  30.7 Mtoe Hydroelectricity (4.07%)
  21.8 Mtoe Other renewables (2.89%)
Energy in India[7]
Prim. energy
2004 1,080 6,662 5,430 1,230 494 1,103
2007 1,123 6,919 5,244 1,745 610 1,324
2008 1,140 7, 222 5,446 1,836 645 1,428
2009 1,155 7,860 5,844 2,116 690 1,586
2010 1,171 8,056 6,032 2,110 755 1,626
2012 1,241 8,716 6,291 2,483 835 1,745
2012R 1,237 9,166 6,333 2,829 940 1,954
2013 1,250 9,018 6,086 2,962 979 1,869
Change 2004–10 8.4% 20.9% 11.1% 72% 53% 47%
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh, Prim. energy includes energy losses that are 2/3 for nuclear power[8]

2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated


Coal production of India

Coal and lignite production was 73.1 crore (731 million) tons in the financial year 2019-2020.[9][10] India was the fourth top coal producer in 2017 with 294.2 Mtoe (7.8% global share).[6] Nearly 80% of total electricity generated (utility and captive) in India is from coal and it is the main source of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions.

According to Greenpeace the largest coal belt in India is at Jharia. Before coal mining Jharia had forests inhabited by tribes. In 1971 the coal mines were nationalised. Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL) took over Jharia coal mines.[11]

India accounts for the world’s greatest concentration of coal seam fires. Mine area suffers from pollution of air, water and land.[11]

As of 2019, coal production was integrated into the Central Government;[12] for example, the Government owned about 75% of Coal India Limited, which supplied about 84% of India's thermal coal.[12]

India imports coking coal as good quality coking coal deposits suitable for iron and steel production are not available. In the financial year 2021 -22, India imported nearly 57.16 million tons (90%) against the consumption of 63.74 MT.[13] Sponge iron route using noncoking coal is also followed to produce iron and steel which does not depend on coke or natural gas.[14][15]

Oil and natural gas[edit]

India was the third top crude oil consumer globally (4.8% of the world) with 221 Mt in 2017. India was the second-top net crude oil (including crude oil products) importer of 205.3 Mt in 2019.[16] India has 49.72 lakh (4.972 million) barrels per day (5.1% of the world) crude oil refining capacity which is ranked 4th globally in 2017.[6]

Liquefied petroleum gas[edit]

Cylinders with LPG in India

Nearly 1 crore (10.937 million) tons Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) was consumed during April to September 2019 (six months) in the domestic sector mainly for cooking.[17] The number of domestic connections are 274 million (one connection for five people) with a circulation of more than 40 crore (400 million) LPG cylinders whose net aggregate length would form a 2,00,000 km long pipe line which is more than the length of total railway track laid in India.[18] India is second largest consumer of LPG globally.[19] Most of the LPG requirement is imported.[20] Piped city gas supply in India is not yet developed on major scale.[21][22]

Biomass and charcoal[edit]

Biomass is a renewable energy source and its use for energy generation is mostly carbon-neutral fuel. Carbon dioxide is first taken up by plants during photosynthesis, and later released when biomass is burned. Presently, only 20% of house holds in India use biomass and charcoal for cooking purpose as LPG use for cooking purpose is rising rapidly.[23][24] In addition biomass is also used marginally in commercial cooking, electricity generation, process industries, etc. The total biomass use in India is nearly 177 Mtoe in the year 2013.[1] Substantial surplus crop residue is also burnt in agriculture fields to clear the land for the next crop. Nearly 75 crore (750 million) tons of non edible (by cattle) biomass is available annually in India which can be put to use for higher value addition without CO2 emissions.[25][26]

Huge quantity of imported coal is being used in pulverised coal-fired power stations. Raw biomass is not suitable for use in the pulverised coal mills as they are difficult to grind into fine powder due to caking problem. However 100% biomass can be fired after torrefaction in the pulverised coal mills for replacing imported coal.[27] Torrefied biomass plants can be integrated with existing pulverised coal-fired power stations using the available hot flue gas as heat source. Cofiring dry biomass up to 20% heat input with coal is also possible directly in pulverised coal-fired power stations without facing caking problem.[28] North west and southern regions can replace imported coal use with biomass where surplus agriculture/crop residue biomass is burnt in the fields causing pollution problems.[29] As traditional use of biomass is being replaced by LPG at a faster pace, biomass burning in agriculture fields would become major source for causing higher level air pollution.[30]

Biogas which is mainly methane/natural gas can also be used for generating protein-rich cattle, poultry and fish feed in villages economically by cultivating Methylococcus capsulatus bacteria culture with tiny land and water foot print.[31][32][33] The carbon dioxide gas produced as by product from these plants can be put to use in cheaper production of algae oil from algae particularly in tropical countries like India which can displace the prime position of crude oil in near future.[34][35] Union government is implementing many schemes to utilise productively the agro waste or biomass in rural areas to uplift rural economy and job potential.[36][37]


India imports 85% of petroleum products with an import cost of $55 billion in 2020-21, India has set a target of blending 20% ethanol in petrol by 2025 resulting in import substitution saving of US$4 billion or 30,000 crore and India provides financial assistance for manufacturing ethanol from rice, wheat, barley, corn, sorghum, sugarcane, sugar beet, etc.[38] In 2016, ethanol market penetration had reached 3.3% blend rate.[39]


India electricity production

India was the third largest electricity producer in the world with 1,383 TWh generation in FY 2019–2020 and 99.99% of the population having access to power supply.[40] By 2013, India became the world's third largest producer of electricity with 4.8% global share, surpassing Japan and Russia.[41][42] India ranks 6th globally in hydropower generation during the year 2019.[16]

India has 136 GW (38%) installed capacity of renewable energy. It is one of the world leaders in renewable energy investments and installations.[43]

India has set a target of 175 gigawatts (GW) of renewable energy capacity by 2022.[44] This would include 100 GW capacity from solar energy sources, 60 GW from wind power, 10 GW from biopower, and 5 GW from small hydropower.[45]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "India was the third-largest energy consumer in 2013". Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  2. ^ "World energy consumption clock". US debt clock org. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  3. ^ "India energy dashboard". Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  4. ^ "India - Energy Balance 2019, NITI Aayog". Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  5. ^ "Indian energy Statistics 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  6. ^ a b c "BP Statistical Review of world energy 2018" (PDF). Retrieved 17 June 2018.
  7. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2015 Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, 2014 (2012R as in November 2015 Archived 5 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine + 2012 as in March 2014 is comparable to previous years statistical calculation criteria, 2013 Archived 2 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine, 2012 Archived 9 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine, 2011 Archived 27 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 2010 Archived 11 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine, 2009 Archived 7 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, 2006 Archived 12 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  8. ^ Energy in Sweden 2010 Archived 16 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, Table 8 Losses in nuclear power stations Table 9 Nuclear power brutto
  9. ^ "Koyala Darpan / Coal Dashboard". Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  10. ^ "Provisional Coal Statistics 2019-20" (PDF). Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  11. ^ a b "The True Cost of Coal" Greenpeace 27 November 2008 pp. 24–29
  12. ^ a b Gross, Rahul Tongia and Samantha (8 March 2019). "Coal in India". Brookings. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  13. ^ "Import of coal - Trends and issue of self reliance" (PDF). Retrieved 26 December 2022.
  14. ^ "JSPL's 1.8 MTPA coal gasification based DRI plant resumes operations in Angul". Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  15. ^ "Coal Gasification based Production of Direct Reduced Iron". Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  16. ^ a b "Statistical Review of World Energy 2020 (page 31)" (PDF). Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  17. ^ "LPG Profile 2019" (PDF). Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  18. ^ "LPG cylinder now used by 89% households". Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  19. ^ "India becomes world's second-largest LPG consumer". Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  20. ^ "India challenges China as world's biggest LPG importer". Archived from the original on 27 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  21. ^ "PM Modi says 70% of India's population will have city gas facility in 2-3 years". Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  22. ^ "Map of GAIL's Natural Gas Pipelines". Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  23. ^ "Nearly 80% of Indian households now have access to LPG gas". Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  24. ^ "NITI Aayog pitches for round-the-clock power for all electric vehicles". Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  25. ^ "Renewable Methanol" (PDF). Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  26. ^ "Maharashtra, Punjab top producers of green energy from farm waste". Archived from the original on 31 August 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  27. ^ "The upgrading of solid biomasss by means of Torrefaction" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
  28. ^ "Cofiring of biomass in coal-fired power plants – European experience". Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
  29. ^ "CEA has written to all States to use 5-10% of biomass pellets with coal for power generation in thermal power plants". Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  30. ^ "Air Pollution: Delhi sees hope as NTPC steps in to buy crop residue from farmers". Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  31. ^ "BioProtein Production" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  32. ^ "Food made from natural gas will soon feed farm animals – and us". Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  33. ^ "New venture selects Cargill's Tennessee site to produce Calysta FeedKind® Protein". Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  34. ^ "Algenol and Reliance launch algae fuels demonstration project in India". Retrieved 29 May 2017.
  35. ^ "ExxonMobil Announces Breakthrough In Renewable Energy". Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  36. ^ "Indrapratha Gas, Mahindra & Mahindra join hands to stop stubble burning". Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  37. ^ "Modi govt plans Gobar-Dhan scheme to convert cattle dung into energy". Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  38. ^ India wants to use food grain stock for ethanol. That’s a problem in a hungry country, The Print, 1 July 2021.
  39. ^ "USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, GAIN Report" (PDF).
  40. ^ "Households electrification in India". Retrieved 21 August 2018.
  41. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Archived 11 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine p. 27
  42. ^ Energy-efficient buildings – a business case for India? An analysis of incremental costs for four building projects of the Energy-Efficient Homes Programme, 2015
  43. ^ Thomas, Maria (27 November 2018). "India is now a world leader in renewable energy". Quartz India. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  44. ^ "A target of installing 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by the year 2022 has been set". Public Information Bureau. 19 July 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  45. ^ "India to install 54.7 GW wind energy capacity by 2022: Fitch Solutions - ET EnergyWorld". ETEnergyworld. 28 April 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.