Emmanuel Macron

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Emmanuel Macron
Macron in 2023
25th President of France
Assumed office
14 May 2017
Prime MinisterÉdouard Philippe
Jean Castex
Élisabeth Borne
Preceded byFrançois Hollande
President of the Council of the European Union
In office
1 January 2022 – 30 June 2022
Preceded byJanez Janša
Succeeded byPetr Fiala
Minister of Economics, Industry and Digital Affairs
In office
26 August 2014 – 30 August 2016
Prime MinisterManuel Valls
Preceded byArnaud Montebourg
Succeeded byMichel Sapin
Deputy Secretary-General to the President
In office
15 May 2012 – 15 July 2014
PresidentFrançois Hollande
Preceded byJean Castex
Succeeded byLaurence Boone
Additional positions
Personal details
Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron

(1977-12-21) 21 December 1977 (age 45)
Amiens, Somme, France
Political partyRenaissance
Other political
(m. 2007)
RelativesLaurence Auzière-Jourdan (stepdaughter)
ResidenceÉlysée Palace
Alma mater
AwardsList of honours and decorations
Co-Prince of Andorra[note 1]
Reign14 May 2017 – present
PredecessorFrançois Hollande

Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (French: [emanɥɛl makʁɔ̃]; born 21 December 1977) is a French politician serving as the 25th and current president of France since 2017. Ex officio, he is also one of the two Co-Princes of Andorra. Earlier, he served as the Minister of Economics, Industry and Digital Affairs under President François Hollande from 2014 to 2016 and Deputy Secretary-General to the President from 2012 to 2014.

Born in Amiens, Macron studied philosophy at Paris Nanterre University, later completing a master's degree in public affairs at Sciences Po and graduating from the École nationale d'administration in 2004. He worked as a senior civil servant at the Inspectorate General of Finances and later became an investment banker at Rothschild & Co.

Appointed Élysée deputy secretary-general by President François Hollande shortly after his election in May 2012, Macron was one of Hollande's senior advisers. Appointed Minister of Economics, Industry and Digital Affairs in August of 2014 in the second Valls government, he led a number of business-friendly reforms. He resigned in August 2016, in order to launch his 2017 presidential campaign. A member of the Socialist Party from 2006 to 2009, he ran in the election under the banner of En Marche, a centrist and pro-European political movement he founded in April 2016.

Partly as a result of the Fillon affair which sank The Republicans nominee François Fillon's chances, Macron topped the ballot in the first round of voting, and was elected President of France on 7 May 2017 with 66.1% of the vote in the second round, defeating Marine Le Pen of the National Front. At the age of 39, he became the youngest president in French history. In the 2017 legislative election in June, his party, renamed La République En Marche! (LREM), secured a majority in the National Assembly. He appointed Édouard Philippe as prime minister. When Philippe resigned in 2020, Macron appointed Jean Castex to replace him.

Macron was elected to a second term in the 2022 presidential election, again defeating Le Pen, thus becoming the first French presidential candidate to win reelection since Jacques Chirac defeated Jean-Marie Le Pen in 2002. However, in the 2022 legislative election, his centrist coalition lost its absolute majority, resulting in a hung parliament and the formation of France's first minority government since the fall of the Bérégovoy government in 1993. Macron's current prime minister is Élisabeth Borne, the second female head of government in French history, whom he appointed in May 2022 to replace Castex. He has reshuffled the current cabinet twice since its formation: first in July 2022, and then again in July 2023.

During his presidency, Macron has overseen several reforms to labour laws, taxation, and pensions; and has pursued a renewable energy transition. Dubbed "president of the rich" by political opponents, increasing protests against his domestic reforms and demanding his resignation marked the first years of his presidency, culminating in 2018–2020 with the yellow vests protests and the pension reform strike. From 2020, he led France's response to the COVID-19 pandemic and vaccination rollout. In 2023, the government of his prime minister, Elisabeth Borne, passed legislation raising the retirement age from 62 to 64; the pension reforms proved controversial and led to public sector strikes and violent protests. In foreign policy, he called for reforms to the European Union (EU) and signed bilateral treaties with Italy and Germany. Macron conducted $45-billion trade and business agreements with China during the China–United States trade war and oversaw a dispute with Australia and the United States over the AUKUS security pact. He continued Opération Chammal in the war against the Islamic State and joined in the international condemnation of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.

Early life

Macron was born on 21 December 1977 in Amiens. He is the son of Françoise Macron (née Noguès), a physician, and Jean-Michel Macron, professor of neurology at the University of Picardy.[1][2] The couple divorced in 2010. He has two siblings, Laurent, born in 1979, and Estelle, born in 1982. Françoise and Jean-Michel's first child was stillborn.[3]

The Macron family legacy is traced back to the village of Authie, Picardy.[4] One of his paternal great-grandfathers, George William Robertson, was English, and was born in Bristol, United Kingdom.[5][6] His maternal grandparents, Jean and Germaine Noguès (née Arribet), are from the Pyrenean town of Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Gascony.[7] He commonly visited Bagnères-de-Bigorre to visit his grandmother Germaine, whom he called "Manette".[8] Macron associates his enjoyment of reading[9] and his leftward political leanings to Germaine, who, after coming from a modest upbringing of a stationmaster father and a housekeeping mother, became a teacher then a principal, and died in 2013.[10]

Although raised in a non-religious family, Macron was baptized a Catholic at his own request at age 12; he is agnostic today.[11]

Macron was educated mainly at the Jesuit institute Lycée la Providence[12] in Amiens[13] before his parents sent him to finish his last year of school[14] at the elite Lycée Henri-IV in Paris, where he completed the high school curriculum and the undergraduate program with a "Bac S, Mention Très bien". At the same time, he was nominated for the "Concours général" (most selective national level high school competition) in French literature and received his diploma for his piano studies at Amiens Conservatory.[15] His parents sent him off to Paris due to their alarm at the bond he had formed with Brigitte Auzière, a married teacher with three children at Jésuites de la Providence, who later became his wife.[16]

In Paris, Macron twice failed to gain entry to the École normale supérieure.[17][18][19] He instead studied philosophy at the University of Paris-Ouest Nanterre La Défense, obtaining a DEA degree (a master level degree), with a thesis on Machiavelli and Hegel.[12][20] Around 1999 Macron worked as an editorial assistant to Paul Ricoeur, the French Protestant philosopher who was then writing his last major work, La Mémoire, l'Histoire, l'Oubli. Macron worked mainly on the notes and bibliography.[21][22] Macron became a member of the editorial board of the literary magazine Esprit.[23]

Macron did not perform national service because he was pursuing his graduate studies. Born in December 1977, he belonged to the last cohort for whom military service was mandatory.[24][25]

Macron obtained a master's degree in public affairs at Sciences Po, majoring in "Public Guidance and Economy" before training for a senior civil service career at the selective École nationale d'administration (ENA), training at the French Embassy in Nigeria[26] and at the prefecture of Oise before graduating in 2004.[27]

Professional career

Inspector of Finances

After graduating from ENA in 2004, Macron became an Inspector in the Inspection générale des finances (IGF), a branch of the Finance Ministry.[21] Macron was mentored by Jean-Pierre Jouyet, the then-head of the IGF.[28] During his time as an Inspector of Finances, Macron gave lectures during the summer at the "prep'ENA" (a special cram school for the ENA entrance examination) at IPESUP, an elite private school specializing in preparation for the entrance examinations of the Grandes écoles, such as HEC or Sciences Po.[29][30][31]

In 2006, Laurence Parisot offered him the job of managing director for Mouvement des Entreprises de France, the largest employer federation in France, but he declined.[32]

In August 2007, Macron was appointed deputy rapporteur for Jacques Attali's "Commission to Unleash French Growth".[13] In 2008, Macron paid €50,000 to buy himself out of his government contract.[33] He then became an investment banker in a highly-paid position at Rothschild & Cie Banque.[34][35] In March 2010, he was appointed to the Attali Commission as a member.[36]

Investment banker

In September 2008, Macron left his job as an Inspector of Finances and took a position at Rothschild & Cie Banque.[37] Macron left the government when Nicolas Sarkozy became president. He was originally offered the job by François Henrot. His first responsibility at the bank was assisting with the acquisition of Cofidis by Crédit Mutuel Nord Europe.[38]

Macron formed a relationship with Alain Minc, a businessman on the supervisory board of Le Monde.[39] In 2010, Macron was promoted to partner with the bank after working on the recapitalization of Le Monde and the acquisition by Atos of Siemens IT Solutions and Services.[40] In the same year, Macron was put in charge of Nestlé's acquisition of Pfizer's infant nutrition division for €9 billion, which made him a millionaire.[41][42]

In February 2012, he advised businessman Philippe Tillous-Borde, the CEO of the Avril Group.[43]

Macron reported that he had earned €2 million between December 2010 and May 2012.[44] Official documents show that between 2009 and 2013, Macron had earned almost €3 million.[45] He left Rothschild & Cie in 2012.[46][47]

Political career

In his youth, Macron worked for the Citizen and Republican Movement for two years, but he never applied to be a member.[48][44] Macron was an assistant for Mayor Georges Sarre of the 11th arrondissement of Paris during his time at Sciences Po.[49] Macron had been a member of the Socialist Party since he was 24,[50] but last renewed his membership for the period 2006–2009.[51]

Macron met François Hollande through Jean-Pierre Jouyet in 2006 and joined his staff in 2010.[50] In 2007, Macron attempted to run for a seat in the National Assembly in Picardy under the Socialist Party label in the 2007 legislative elections, however, his application was declined.[52] Macron was offered the chance to be the deputy chief of staff to Prime Minister François Fillon in 2010, though he declined.[53]

Deputy Secretary-General of the Élysée

On 15 May 2012, Macron became the deputy secretary-general of the Élysée, a senior role in President François Hollande's staff.[54][27] Macron served with Nicolas Revel. He served under the secretary-general, Pierre-René Lemas.

During the summer of 2012, Macron put forward a proposal that would increase the 35-hour work week to 37 hours until 2014. He also tried to hold back the large tax increases on the highest earners that were planned by the government. Hollande refused Macron's proposals.[55] In 2013, his was one of the deciding votes against regulating the salaries of CEOs.[56] Nicolas Revel, the other deputy secretary-general of the Élysée opposed Macron on a proposed budget responsibility pact favoured by the Medef.[57]

On 10 June 2014, it was announced that Macron had resigned from his role and was replaced by Laurence Boone.[58] Reasons given for his departure included his disappointment at not being included in the first Government of Manuel Valls and his frustration with his lack of influence on the reforms proposed by the government.[57] This was following the appointment of Jean-Pierre Jouyet as chief of staff.[59]

Jouyet said that Macron left to "continue personal aspirations"[60] and create his own financial consultancy firm.[61] It was later reported that he was planning to create an investment firm that would attempt to fund educational projects.[48] Shortly afterwards he was hired as a research fellow at the University of Berlin with the help of businessman Alain Minc. He had also sought a position at Harvard University.[62]

Offered a chance to be a candidate in the municipal elections in 2014 in his hometown of Amiens, Macron declined,[63] leading François Hollande to reject Manuel Valls idea of appointing him Budget Minister, as he had never been elected to public office.[59]

Minister of Economics and Industry

Macron as the French Minister of Economics and Industry

He was appointed as the Minister of Economics and Industry in the second Valls Cabinet on 26 August 2014, replacing Arnaud Montebourg.[64] He was the youngest Minister of Economics since Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in 1962.[65] Macron was branded by the media as the "Anti-Montebourg" due to being pro-EU and much more moderate, while Montebourg was eurosceptic and left-wing.[66] As Minister of Economics, Macron was at the forefront of pushing through business-friendly reforms. On 17 February 2015, prime minister Manuel Valls pushed Macron's signature law package through a reluctant parliament using the special 49.3 procedure.[67]

Macron increased the French share in the company Renault from 15% to 20% and then enforced the Florange law which grants double voting rights on shares registered for more than two years unless two-thirds of shareholders vote to overturn it.[68] This gave the French state a minority share in the company though Macron later stated that the government would limit its powers within Renault.[69]

Macron was widely criticized for being unable to prevent the closing down of an Ecopla factory in Isère.[70]

In August 2015, Macron said that he was no longer a member of the Socialist Party and was an independent.[51]

Macron Law

A law which had originally been sponsored by Arnaud Montebourg before he left the government, and which had focused on "purchasing power", grew into the Macron law [fr], a grab bag of measures liberalizing: laws prohibiting work on Sunday and at night; restrictions on coaches for public transportation; reglementation for debt collectors, barristers, and auctioneers; and rules concerning the military renting equipment from private companies. The law also sought to simplify many processes, including the obtention of driving licences.[71][72] Manuel Valls, fearing that it would not pass in the National Assembly, decided to push the law through with the 49.3 procedure[73][67] and so it was adopted on 10 April 2015.[74]

Estimates of the increase in GDP the law might generate ranged from 0.3% to 0.5%.[75][76]

2017 presidential campaign

Formation of En Marche and resignation from government

Macron first became known to the French public after his appearance on the French TV programme Des Paroles Et Des Actes in March 2015.[77] Before forming his political party En Marche!, he gave a number of speeches, his first one in March 2015 in Val-de-Marne.[78] He threatened to leave Manuel Valls' second government over the proposed removal of dual-nationality from terrorists.[79][80] He also took various foreign trips, including one to Israel where he spoke on the advancement of digital technology.[81]

Tensions around the question of Macron's loyalty to the Valls government and Hollande increased when they turned down a bill he put forward dubbed "Macron 2", which had a larger scope than his original law.[82][83] Macron was given the chance to help draft into the El Khomri law and put specific parts of "Macron 2" into the law though El Khomri was able to overturn these with the help of other ministers.[citation needed][clarification needed]

Amid tensions and deterioration of relations with the current government, Macron founded an independent political party, En Marche, in Amiens on 6 April 2016.[84] A liberal,[85] progressive[86][87] political movement that gathered huge media coverage when it was first established,[88] the party and Macron were both reprimanded by President Hollande and the question of Macron's loyalty to the government was raised.[89][90] Several MEPs spoke out in support for the movement[91] though the majority of the Socialist Party spoke against En Marche including Manuel Valls,[92] Michel Sapin,[93] Axelle Lemaire and Christian Eckert.[94]

In June 2016, support for Macron and his movement, En Marche, began to grow in the media with Libération reporting that L'Express, Les Échos, Le 1 [fr], and L'Opinion had begun to support him.[95] Following several controversies surrounding trade unionists and their protests, Acrimed [fr] reported that major newspapers began to run front-page stories about Macron and En Marche.[96] Criticized by both the far-left and the far-right, these pro-Macron influencers in the press were dubbed "Macronites".[97][98]

In May 2016, Orleans mayor Olivier Carré invited Macron to the festival commemorating the 587th anniversary of Joan of Arc's efforts during the Siege of Orléans.[99][100] LCI reported that Macron was trying to take back the symbol of Joan of Arc from the far-right. [101] Macron later went to Puy du Fou and declared he was "not a socialist" in a speech amid rumours he was going to leave the current government.[102] On 30 August 2016, Macron resigned from the government ahead of the 2017 presidential election,[103][104] to devote himself to his En Marche movement.[105][106] There had been rising tensions and several reports that he had wanted to leave the Valls government since early 2015.[107] He initially planned to leave after the cancellation[clarification needed] of his "Macron 2" law[83] but decided to stay on temporarily after a meeting with President François Hollande.[108] Michel Sapin was announced as Macron's replacement,[109] while Hollande said he felt Macron had "methodically betrayed" him.[110] An IFOP poll showed that 84% of those surveyed agreed with his decision to resign.[111]

First round of the presidential election

Macron first showed his intention to run by forming En Marche, but following his resignation from the government, he was able to dedicate more time to his movement. He first announced that he was considering running for president in April 2016,[112] and after his resignation from the position of economy minister, media sources began to identify patterns in his fundraising indicating he would run.[113] In October 2016, Macron criticized Hollande's goal of being a "normal" president, saying that France needed a more "Jupiterian presidency".[114]

On 16 November 2016, Macron formally declared his candidacy for the French presidency after months of speculation. In his announcement speech, he called for a "democratic revolution" and promised to "unblock France".[115] He had expressed hope that Hollande would run several months earlier, saying that—as the sitting president—he was the legitimate Socialist party candidate.[116][117] Macron's book Révolution was published on 24 November 2016 and reached fifth position on the French best-seller list in December 2016.[118]

Shortly after announcing his run, Jean-Christophe Cambadélis and Manuel Valls both asked Macron to run in the Socialist Party presidential primary, which he ultimately refused to do.[119][120] Jean-Christophe Cambadélis began to threaten to exclude members who associated or supported Macron following Lyon mayor Gérard Collomb throwing his support behind him.[121]

Macron's campaign, headed by French economist Sophie Ferracci,[122] announced in December 2016 that it had raised 3.7 million euros in donations,[123] three times the budget of then-front runner Alain Juppé.[124] Macron came under criticism from several individuals, including Benoît Hamon−who requested he reveal a list of his donors and accused him of conflicts of interest due to the time he spent at Rothschilds,[125] which Macron dismissed as "demagogy".[126] Journalists Marion L'Hour and Frédéric Says later reported that he had spent €120,000 on setting up dinners and meetings with various personalities within the media and in French popular culture while at Bercy.[127] Christian Jacob and Philippe Vigier accused him of using this money to campaign without campaigning.[128] His successor, Michel Sapin, saw nothing illegal about his actions, saying that he had the right to spend the funds.[129] Macron called the allegations "defamatory" and said that none of the ministerial budget had been spent on his party.[127]

Macron's campaign enjoyed considerable coverage from the media.[130] Mediapart reported that over fifty magazine covers were dedicated purely to him.[131] Friends with the owners of Le Monde[132] and Claude Perdiel, the former owner of Nouvel Observateur,[133] he was labelled the "media candidate" by the far-left and far-right and was viewed as such in opinion polls.[134][135][136] Many observers compared his campaign to a product being sold[137] due to Maurice Lévy, a former Publicis CEO, using marketing tactics to try to advance his presidential ambitions.[138][139] The magazine Marianne reported that BFM TV, owned by Patrick Drahi, broadcast more coverage of Macron than of all the other main candidates combined.[140] Marianne speculated that this might be due to the campaigns links with Drahi through Bernard Mourad.[141][142]

François Bayrou, with whom Macron had been compared, announced he was not going to stand in the presidential election and instead formed an electoral alliance with Macron,[143][144] whose poll ratings began to rise. After several legal issues surrounding François Fillon were publicized, Macron overtook him in the polls to become the front-runner.[145][146]

Macron attracted criticism for the time taken to spell out a formal program during his campaign; despite declaring in November that he had still not released a complete set of proposals by February, attracting both attacks from critics and concern among allies and supporters.[147] He eventually laid out his 150-page formal program on 2 March, publishing it online and discussing it at a marathon press conference that day.[148]

Macron's supporters celebrating his victory at the Louvre on 7 May 2017

Macron accumulated a wide array of supporters, securing endorsements from François Bayrou of the Democratic Movement (MoDem), MEP Daniel Cohn-Bendit, the ecologist candidate François de Rugy of the primary of the left, and Socialist MP Richard Ferrand, secretary-general of En Marche, as well as numerous others – many of them from the Socialist Party, but also a significant number of centrist and centre-right politicians.[149] The Grand Mosque of Paris urged French Muslims to vote en masse for Macron.[150]

On 23 April 2017, Macron received the most votes in the first round of the presidential election, with more than 8 million votes (24%) and faced Marine Le Pen in the second round, with the support of former candidates François Fillon and Benoît Hamon[151] and the sitting president François Hollande.[152]

Second round of the presidential election

Many foreign politicians supported Macron in his bid against right-wing populist candidate Marine Le Pen, including European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker, German Chancellor Angela Merkel,[153] and former US President Barack Obama.[154]

A debate was arranged between Macron and Le Pen on 3 May 2017. The debate lasted for two hours and opinion polls showed that he was perceived to have won.[155]

In March 2017, Macron's digital campaign manager, Mounir Mahjoubi, told Britain's Sky News that Russia is behind "high level attacks" on Macron, and said that its state media are "the first source of false information". He said: "We are accusing RT (formerly known as Russia Today) and Sputnik News (of being) the first source of false information shared about our candidate ...".[156]

Two days before the French presidential election on 7 May, it was reported that nine gigabytes of Macron's campaign emails had been anonymously posted to Pastebin, a document-sharing site. These documents were then spread onto the imageboard 4chan, which led to the hashtag "#macronleaks" trending on Twitter.[157][158] In a statement the same evening, Macron's political movement, En Marche, said: "The En Marche movement has been the victim of a massive and coordinated hack this evening which has given rise to the diffusion on social media of various internal information".[159] Macron's campaign had previously been presented a report in March 2017 by the Japanese cyber security firm Trend Micro detailing how En Marche had been the target of phishing attacks.[160] Trend Micro said that the group conducting these attacks was the Russian hacking group Fancy Bear, also accused of hacking the Democratic National Committee on 22 July 2016.[160] These emails were verified and released in July 2017 by WikiLeaks.[161] This followed Le Pen accusing Macron of tax avoidance.[162]

On 7 May 2017, Macron was elected President of France with 66.1% of the vote to Marine Le Pen's 33.9%. The election had record abstention at 25.4%, and 8% of ballots were blank or spoiled.[163] Macron resigned from his role as president of En Marche[164] and Catherine Barbaroux became interim leader.[165]

President of France

First term

Macron qualified for the runoff after the first round of the election on 23 April 2017. He won the second round of the presidential election on 7 May 2017 by a landslide according to preliminary results,[166] making the candidate of the National Front, Marine Le Pen, concede.[167] At 39, he became the youngest president in French history and the youngest French head of state since Napoleon.[168][169] He is also the first president of France born after the establishment of the Fifth Republic in 1958.

Macron formally became president on 14 May.[170] He appointed Patrick Strzoda as his chief of staff[171] and Ismaël Emelien as his special advisor for strategy, communication and speeches.[172] On 15 May, he appointed Édouard Philippe of the Republicans as Prime Minister.[173][174] On the same day, he made his first official foreign visit, meeting in Berlin with Angela Merkel, the Chancellor of Germany. The two leaders emphasised the importance of France–Germany relations to the European Union.[175] They agreed to draw up a "common road map" for Europe, insisting that neither was against changes to the Treaties of the European Union.[176]

In the 2017 legislative election, Macron's party La République En Marche and its Democratic Movement allies secured a comfortable majority, winning 350 seats out of 577.[177] After The Republicans emerged as the winners of the Senate elections, government spokesman Christophe Castaner stated the elections were a "failure" for his party.[178]

On 3 July 2020, Macron appointed the centre-right Jean Castex as the Prime Minister of France. Castex, described as a social conservative, was a member of The Republicans.[179] The appointment was described as "doubling down on a course that is widely seen as centre-right in economic terms".[180]

Domestic policy

In his first few months as president, Macron pressed for the enactment of a package of reforms on public ethics, labour laws, taxes, and law enforcement agency powers.[citation needed]


In response to Penelopegate, the National Assembly passed a part of Macron's proposed law to stop mass corruption in French politics by July 2017, banning elected representatives from hiring family members.[181] Meanwhile, the second part of the law scrapping a constituency fund was scheduled for voting after Senate objections.[182]

Macron's plan to give his wife an official role within government came under fire with criticisms ranging from its being undemocratic to what critics perceive as a contradiction to his fight against nepotism.[183] Following an online petition of nearly 290,000 signatures on change.org Macron abandoned the plan.[184] On 9 August, the National Assembly adopted the bill on public ethics, a key theme of Macron's campaign, after debates on the scrapping the constituency funds.[185]

Labour policy and unions

Macron aims to shift union-management relations away from the adversarial lines of the current French system and toward a more flexible, consensus-driven system modelled after Germany and Scandinavia.[186][187] He has also pledged to act against companies employing cheaper labour from eastern Europe and in return affecting jobs of French workers, what he has termed as "social dumping". Under the Posted Workers Directive 1996, eastern European workers can be employed for a limited time at the salary level in eastern European countries, which has led to dispute between the EU states.[188]

The French government announced the proposed changes to France's labour rules ("Code du Travail"), being among the first steps taken by Macron and his government to galvanize the French economy.[189] Macron's reform efforts have encountered resistance from some French trade unions.[190] The largest trade union, the CFDT, has taken a conciliatory approach to Macron's push and has engaged in negotiations with the president, while the more militant CGT is more hostile to reforms.[186][187] Macron's labour minister, Muriel Pénicaud, is overseeing the effort.[191]

The National Assembly including the Senate approved the proposal, allowing the government to loosen the labour laws after negotiations with unions and employers' groups.[192] The reforms, which were discussed with unions, limit payouts for dismissals deemed unfair and give companies greater freedom to hire and fire employees as well as to define acceptable working conditions. The president signed five decrees reforming the labour rules on 22 September.[193] Government figures released in October 2017 revealed that during the legislative push to reform the labour code, the unemployment rate had dropped 1.8%, the biggest since 2001.[194]

Migrant crisis

Speaking on refugees and, specifically, the Calais Jungle, Macron said on 16 January 2018 that he would not allow another refugee camp to form in Paris before outlining the government policy towards immigration and asylum.[195] He has also announced plans to speed up asylum applications and deportations but give refugees better housing.[196]

On 23 June 2018, President Macron said: "The reality is that Europe is not experiencing a migration crisis of the same magnitude as the one it experienced in 2015", "a country like Italy has not at all the same migratory pressure as last year. The crisis we are experiencing today in Europe is a political crisis".[197] In November 2019, Macron introduced new immigration rules to restrict the number of refugees reaching France, while stating to "take back control" of the immigration policy.[198]

Economic policy

Pierre de Villiers, then-Chief of the General Staff of the Armies, stepped down on 19 July 2017 following a confrontation with Macron.[199] De Villiers cited the military budget cut of €850 million as the main reason he was stepping down. Le Monde later reported that De Villiers told a parliamentary group, "I will not let myself be fucked like this."[200] Macron named François Lecointre as De Villiers' replacement.[201]

Macron's government presented its first budget on 27 September, the terms of which reduced taxes as well as spending to bring the public deficit in line with the EU's fiscal rules.[202] The budget replaced the wealth tax with one targeting real estate, fulfilling Macron's campaign pledge to scrap the wealth tax.[203] Before it was replaced, the tax collected up to 1.5% of the wealth of French residents whose global worth exceeded €1.3m.[204]

In February 2018, Macron announced a plan to offer voluntary redundancy in an attempt to further cut jobs from the French civil service.[205]

In December 2019, Macron announced that he would scrap the 20th-century pension system and introduce a single national pension system managed by the state.[206] In January 2020, after weeks of public transport shutdown and vandalism across Paris against the new pension plan, Macron compromised on the plan by revising the retirement age.[207] In February, the pension overhaul was adopted by decree using Article 49 of the French constitution.[208] However, on 16 March 2020, Macron announced that the draft legislation would be pulled as France went into lockdown to slow the spread of COVID-19.[209]


In July 2017, the Senate approved its first reading of a controversial bill with stricter anti-terror laws, a campaign pledge of Macron. The National Assembly voted on 3 October to pass t bill 415–127, with 19 abstentions. Interior Minister Gérard Collomb described France as being "still in a state of war" ahead of the vote, with the 1 October Marseille stabbing having taken place two days prior. The Senate then passed the bill on its second reading by a 244–22 margin on 18 October. Later that day Macron stated that 13 terror plots had been foiled since early 2017. The law replaced the state of emergency in France and made some of its provisions permanent.[210]

The bill was criticized by human rights advocates. A public poll by Le Figaro showed 57% of the respondents approved of it even though 62% thought it would encroach on personal freedoms.[211]

The law gives authorities expanded power to search homes, restrict movement, close places of worship,[212] and search areas around train stations and international ports and airports. It was passed after modifications to address concerns about civil liberties. The most punitive measures will be reviewed annually and were scheduled to lapse by the end of 2020.[213] The bill was signed into law by Macron on 30 October 2017. He announced that starting 1 November, it would bring an end to the state of emergency.[214]

Civil rights

Visiting Corsica in February 2018, Macron sparked controversy when he rejected Corsican nationalist wishes for Corsican as an official language[215] but offered to recognize Corsica in the French constitution.[216]

Macron also proposed a plan to "reorganise" the Islamic religion in France saying: "We are working on the structuring of Islam in France and also on how to explain it, which is extremely important – my goal is to rediscover what lies at the heart of laïcité, the possibility of being able to believe as not to believe, in order to preserve national cohesion and the possibility of having free consciousness." He declined to reveal further information about the plan.[217]

Foreign policy and national defence

Macron at the 2018 G7 summit in Charlevoix, Quebec
Macron shakes hands with US President Donald Trump in September 2018
Macron with US President Joe Biden at the G20 summit in October 2021
Macron and Italian Prime Minister Mario Draghi in 2021, following the signing of the Quirinal Treaty
Macron, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy and German Chancellor Olaf Scholz in Kyiv in 2022

Macron attended the 2017 Brussels summit on 25 May 2017, his first NATO summit as president of France. At the summit, he met US President Donald Trump for the first time. The meeting was widely publicized due to a handshake between the two of them, characterized as a "power-struggle".[218][219]

On 29 May 2017, Macron met with Vladimir Putin at the Palace of Versailles. The meeting sparked controversy when Macron denounced Russia Today and Sputnik, accusing the news agencies of being "organs of influence and propaganda, of lying propaganda".[220][221] Macron also urged cooperation in the conflict against ISIS and warned that France would respond with force in Syria if chemical weapons were used.[222] In response to the chemical attack in Douma, Syria in 2018, Macron directed French participation in airstrikes against Syrian government sites, coordinated with the United States and the United Kingdom.[223][224]

In his first major foreign policy speech on 29 August, President Macron stated that fighting Islamist terrorism at home and abroad was France's top priority. Macron urged a tough international stance to pressure North Korea into negotiations, on the same day it fired a missile over Japan. He also affirmed his support for the Iranian nuclear deal and criticized Venezuela's government as a "dictatorship". He added that he would announce his new initiatives on the future of the European Union after the German elections in September.[225] At the 56th Munich Security Conference in February, Macron presented his 10-year vision policy to strengthen the European Union. Macron remarked that larger budget, integrated capital markets, effective defence policy and quick decision-making held the key for Europe. He added that reliance on NATO and especially the US and the UK was not good for Europe, and a dialogue must be established with Russia.[226]

Prior to the 45th G7 summit in Biarritz, France, Macron hosted Vladimir Putin at the Fort de Brégançon, stating that "Russia fully belongs within a Europe of values."[227] At the summit itself, Macron was invited to attend on the margins by Iranian Foreign Minister Javad Zarif.[clarification needed] Macron, who "attempted a high-risk diplomatic gambit", thought that the Foreign Minister of Iran might be able to defuse the tense situation over the Iranian nuclear programme in spite of the recent uptick in tensions between the Islamic Republic and the United States and Britain.[228]

In March 2019, at a time when China–U.S. economic relations were troubled with a trade war underway, Macron and Chinese leader Xi Jinping signed a series of 15 large-scale trade and business agreements totaling 40 billion euros ($45 billion USD) which covered many sectors over a period of years.[229] This included a €30 billion purchase of airplanes from Airbus. Going beyond aviation, the new trade agreement covered French exports of chicken, a French-built offshore wind farm in China, a Franco-Chinese cooperation fund, as well as billions of Euros of co-financing between BNP Paribas and the Bank of China. Other plans included billions of euros to be spent on modernizing Chinese factories, as well as new ship building.[230]

In July 2020, Macron called for sanctions against Turkey for violating Greece's and Cyprus' sovereignty, saying it is "not acceptable that the maritime space of (EU) member states be violated and threatened."[231] He also criticized Turkish military intervention in Libya.[232][233] Macron said that "We have the right to expect more from Turkey than from Russia, given that it is a member of NATO."[234]

In 2021, Macron was reported as saying Northern Ireland was not truly part of the United Kingdom following disputes with UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson over implementations of the Northern Ireland protocol.[235] He later denied this, saying he was referring to the fact that Great Britain is separated from Northern Ireland by sea in reference to the Irish Sea border.[236][237]

French-U.S. relations became tense in September 2021 due to fallout from the AUKUS security pact between the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. The security pact is directed at countering Chinese power in the Indo-Pacific region. As part of the agreement, the U.S. agreed to provide nuclear-powered submarines to Australia. After entering into AUKUS, the Australian government canceled an agreement that it had made with France for the provision of French conventionally powered submarines, angering the French government.[238] On 17 September, France recalled its ambassadors from Australia and the US for consultations.[239] Despite tension in the past, France had never before withdrawn its ambassador to the United States.[240] After a call between Macron and U.S. President Joe Biden on request from the latter, the two leaders agreed to reduce bilateral tensions, and the White House acknowledged the crisis could have been averted if there had been open consultations between allies.[241][242][unreliable source?]

On 26 November 2021, Macron and Italian Prime Minister Mario Draghi signed the Quirinal Treaty at the Quirinal Palace in Rome.[243] The treaty aimed to promote the convergence and coordination of French and Italian positions in matters of European and foreign policies, security and defence, migration policy, economy, education, research, culture and cross-border cooperation.[244]

During the prelude to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Macron spoke face-to-face and on the phone to Russian President Vladimir Putin.[245] During Macron's campaign for the re-election, nearly two months after the Russian invasion began, Macron called on European leaders to maintain dialogue with Putin.[246]

Approval ratings

Approval and disapproval ratings of Macron

According to an IFOP poll for Le Journal du Dimanche, Macron started his five-year term with a 62% approval rating,[247][248] which rose to 64% by 24 June.[249] One month later, Macron suffered a 10% point drop in popularity, the largest at the beginning of a term for any president since Jacques Chirac in 1995, and by August, his popularity had fallen off 24 percentage points since June.[250] This was attributed to his recent confrontations with former Chief of Defence Staff Pierre de Villiers,[251] the nationalization of the Chantiers de l'Atlantique shipyard owned by the bankrupt STX Offshore & Shipbuilding,[252] and a reduction in housing benefits.[253]

By the end of September 2017, seven out of ten respondents said that they believed Emmanuel Macron was respecting his campaign promises,[254][255] though a majority felt that the policies the government was putting forward were "unfair".[256] Macron's popularity fell sharply again in 2018, reaching about 25% by the end of November during the yellow vests movement.[257][unreliable source?] During the COVID-19 pandemic in France, his popularity increased, reaching 50% at its highest in July 2020.[258][259]

Benalla affair

On 18 July 2018, Le Monde revealed in an article that a member of Macron's staff Alexandre Benalla posed as a police officer and beat a protester during May Day demonstrations in Paris earlier in the year and was suspended for a period of 15 days before only being internally demoted. The Élysée failed to refer the case to the public prosecutor and a preliminary investigation into the case was not opened until the day after the publication of the article, and the lenient penalty served by Benalla raised questions within the opposition about whether the executive deliberately chose not to inform the public prosecutor as required under the code of criminal procedure.[260]

2022 presidential campaign

In the 2022 election, Macron was the first incumbent to be re-elected since Jacques Chirac defeated Jean-Marie Le Pen in the 2002 election.[261] Macron again defeated Marine Le Pen in the runoff, this time by a closer margin, with 58.55% of the votes to Le Pen's 41.45%.[262] Due to near-record abstentions, this represented 38.52% of registered voters, the lowest figure since Georges Pompidou's 37.5% in 1969.[263] The French far-right received their highest vote total since the start of the French Republic, with nationalist candidates (Le Pen, Zemmour and Dupont-Aignan) winning 32.3% of the votes in the first round and Le Pen achieving a record 41.5% of the votes in the second round.[citation needed]

Second term

Though Macron's second inauguration took place on 7 May 2022, his second presidential term officially began on 14 May 2022.

New government

On 16 May 2022, Prime Minister Jean Castex resigned after 22 months as head of government. The same day, President Macron appointed Élisabeth Borne at the Hôtel Matignon, thus making her the second female PM in French history after Édith Cresson between 1991 and 1992. She then formed a new government on 20 May 2022.

June 2022 legislative election

In June 2022, one month into his second term, less than two weeks before the end of the French presidency of the Council of the EU and days after he called for voters to hand him a "solid majority" in a controversial 'tarmac speech',[264] Macron lost his parliamentary majority and was returned a hung parliament in the second round of the 2022 legislative election:[265] Macron's presidential coalition, which had a 115-seat majority going into the election, failed to reach the threshold of 289 seats needed to command an overall majority in the National Assembly, retaining only 251 out of the 346 it had held in the previous Assembly, and falling 38 short of an absolute majority.[266] Crucially, three close political allies to President Macron were defeated in the elections: incumbent President of the National Assembly Richard Ferrand, Macron's own LREM parliamentary party leader Christophe Castaner and MoDem parliamentary group leader Patrick Mignola, thus effectively "decapitating" Macron's parliamentary bloc leadership and further weakening the President's political position in hung parliament territory.[267]

16th National Assembly of France, elected in 2022, is France's current legislature.

Three government ministers resigned after losing their seats: Justine Bénin (junior minister for the Sea), Brigitte Bourguignon (Minister for Health and Prevention) and Amélie de Montchalin (Minister for Ecological Transition).[268]

Macron's government, still led by Prime Minister Élisabeth Borne, was reshuffled in early July 2022 and continued as a minority administration, after talks with opposition leaders to form a stable majority government failed.[269]

Domestic affairs

Macron's second presidential term began with two significant political controversies. Hours after the new Borne cabinet was announced, rape accusations against newly-appointed Minister for Solidarity Damien Abad were made public,[270] and on 28 May, the handling of the 2022 UEFA Champions League final chaos at the Stade de France in Saint-Denis drew criticism at home and abroad.[271]

Despite its minority status in the legislature after the 2022 legislative election, Macron's government passed bills to ease the cost-of-living crisis,[272] to repeal the COVID-era "state of health emergency",[273] and to revive the French nuclear energy sector.[274] However, government proposals were defeated several times in the National Assembly[275] and by the end of 2022, the Borne cabinet had had to use the provisions of Article 49.3 of the Constitution ten times in a row to pass the 2023 Government Budget and Social Security Budget.[276]

Pension reform

In March 2023, Macron's government passed a law raising the retirement age from 62 to 64, partly bypassing Parliament by again resorting to Article 49.3 to break the parliamentary deadlock.[277] Nationwide protests that had begun when the bill was introduced back in January increased in intensity after the reform was passed without a solemn vote.[citation needed][clarification needed]

Votes of no-confidence in the Borne government

On 20 March 2023, Macron's cabinet, headed by Prime minister Borne, survived a cross-party motion of no-confidence by only nine votes, the slimmest margin for such a vote since 1992.[278]

On 12 June 2023, his government survived its 17th no-confidence motion since the beginning of the 16th legislature; the motion, brought by the left-wing NUPES coalition, fell 50 votes short of the 289 votes needed.[279]

Nahel Merzouk riots

In early summer 2023, French authorities faced riots following the killing of Nahel M., aged 17, by a police officer during a traffic stop. [280][281] To calm widespread unrest, comparable in intensity to the 2005 French riots[citation needed], Macron's administration ramped up government response, with a total of 45,000 police officers deployed on the ground and a ministerial order advising courts to apply harsher sentences and accelerated procedures:[282] this crackdown resulted in over 1,300 arrests on the fourth night of unrest alone, bringing the total number of arrests since the riots' beginning to over 2,000 as of 1 July.[283]

2023 government reshuffle

On 20 July 2023, Macron carried out a government reshuffle at the end of the "hundred days of appeasement and action" he called for in April 2023 following the violent protests surrounding the passage of his pension system reform. Pap Ndiaye and Marlène Schiappa were sacked as part of the reshuffle.[284]

Defence policy

On 1 August 2023, Macron signed into law a multi-year military planning bill, which set the stage for a 40%-increase in military spending to a total of €413 billion between 2024 and 2030, after it was passed by the French parliament on 13 July 2023.[285][286]

Immigration policy

In February 2023, Macron's government introduced an immigration & asylum bill aimed at removing deportation safeguards, fast-tracking asylum application process and immigration litigation, while also facilitating legalization of undocumented workers.[287] His government later pulled the draft legislation amid fears of defeat in Parliament, instead planning to hold talks with centre-right LR party before re-introducing the bill in the autumn.[288]

In August 2023, in a lengthy interview to weekly magazine Le Point, Macron said that France "must significantly reduce immigration, starting with illegal immigration" because the "current situation is not sustainable".[289]

External affairs

Macron with Italian Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni in October 2022
Macron, Ursula von der Leyen and Chinese President Xi Jinping at the 2023 France–China Summit

On 16 June 2022, Macron visited Ukraine alongside German Chancellor Olaf Scholz and Italy's Prime Minister Mario Draghi. He met with Ukraine's President Volodymyr Zelenskyy and expressed "European Unity" for Ukraine.[290][291] He said that the nations that remained neutral in the Russo-Ukrainian War made a historic mistake and were complicit in the new imperialism.[292]

Macron with Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in May 2023

In September 2022, Macron criticized the United States, Norway and other "friendly" natural gas supplier states for the extremely high prices of their supplies,[293] saying in October 2022 that Europeans are "paying four times more than the price you sell to your industry. That is not exactly the meaning of friendship."[294]

Macron and his wife attended the state funeral of Queen Elizabeth II in Westminster Abbey, London, on 19 September 2022.

On 23 October 2022, Macron became the first foreign leader to meet new Italian President of the Council Giorgia Meloni, just a day after she and her ministers were sworn into office.[295]

During a summit to China with European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen, which included a formal meeting with Xi Jinping, the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and President of China, Macron called for Europe to reduce its dependence on the United States in general and to stay neutral and avoid being drawn into any possible confrontation between the U.S. and China over Taiwan. Speaking after a three-day state visit to China, Macron emphasised his theory of strategic autonomy, suggesting that Europe could become a "third superpower". He argued that Europe should focus on boosting its own defence industries and additionally reduce its dependence on the United States dollar (USD).[296] in a follow-up speech in The Hague to further outline his vision of strategic autonomy for Europe.[297] On 7 June 2023, a report by the pan-European think tank European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR) found that most Europeans agree with Macron's views on China and the United States.[298]

In February 2023, he welcomed Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed in Paris to normalize relations between France and Ethiopia, strained by the Tigray War between the Ethiopian government and Tigray rebels.[299]

Macron at the NATO Summit in Vilnius on 12 July 2023

On 31 May 2023 Macron visited the GLOBSEC forum in Bratislava, where he again delivered a speech on European sovereignty.[300] During the question and answer session that followed the Bratislava speech,[301] he said that negotiating with Putin may have to take priority over any war crimes tribunal which some others, including Zelensky, wish to see.[302]

On 12 June 2023, Macron promised to deliver more ammunition, weapons and armed vehicles to help Ukrainian forces with the ongoing counter-offensive to liberate Russian-occupied southeastern Ukraine.[303] At the NATO Summit in Vilnius, he promised to supply Ukraine with Scalp long-range cruise missiles to hit Russian targets deep behind the front lines.[304]

In June 2023 Macron hosted a global climate finance conference described by many as the new Bretton Woods Conference. The purpose is to adjust the global economy to the contemporary threats of climate change and hunger. One of the proposition is to offer to low income countries help instead of credits so they can use their resource for stopping climate change and poverty instead of debt payments. Macron supported the idea, but a climate activist from Uganda remarked that the promises were meaningless if at the same time Makron supported projects like the East African Crude Oil Pipeline, a major threat to the climate and to the drinking water of 40 million people.[305] At the summit Macron proposed an international taxation system and debt restructuring but stressed it can have an effect only with international cooperation.[306]

In July 2023, Macron postponed his planned state visit to Germany due to the ongoing Nahel M. riots.[307]


Uber Files

On 10 July 2022, The Guardian revealed that Macron had assisted Uber in lobbying during his term as the Minister of Economics and Industry,[308] leading to calls from opposition lawmakers for a parliamentary inquiry.[309][310] In his own defence, Macron expressed that he "did his job" and that he would "do it again tomorrow and the day after tomorrow".[310] He stated, "I'm proud of it".[310]

Political positions

Macron (sitting far left) and French President François Hollande at the G20 summit in Mexico, 19 June 2012

Macron positions himself as a centrist.[115] Some observers describe him as a social liberal,[66][85][92] while others call him a social democrat.[311] During his time in the French Socialist Party, he supported the party's centrist wing,[312] whose political stance has been associated with Third Way policies advanced by Bill Clinton, Tony Blair, and Gerhard Schröder, and whose leading spokesman has been former prime minister Manuel Valls.[313][314][315][316]

Macron is accused by some members of the yellow vests of being an "ultra-liberal president for the rich".[317] Macron was dubbed the "president of the very rich" by former Socialist French president François Hollande.[318] In the past, Macron has called himself a "socialist",[319] but he has labelled himself as a "centrist liberal" since August 2015, refusing observations by critics that he is an "ultra-liberal" economically.[320] During a visit to Vendée in August 2016, he said that he was not a socialist and merely served in a "left-wing government".[321] He has called himself both a "man of the left" and "liberal" in his book Révolution.[322] Macron has since been labelled an economic neoliberal with a socio-cultural liberal viewpoint.[323]

Macron created the centrist political party En Marche in an attempt to create a party that could cross partisan lines.[324] Speaking on why he formed En Marche, he said there is a real divide in France between "conservatives and progressives".[325] His political platform during the 2017 French presidential election contained stances from both the left and right,[326] which led to him being positioned as a radical centrist by Le Figaro.[327] Macron has rejected centrist as a label,[328] although political scientist Luc Rouban has compared his platform to former centrist president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, who is the only other French president to have been elected on a centrist platform.[329]

Macron has been compared to former president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing due to their ability to win a presidential election on a centrist platform and for their similar governing styles. Both were inspectors of finance, were given responsibilities based around tax and revenue, both were very ambitious about running for the position of president, showing their keenness early in their careers and both were seen as figures of renewal in French political life.[330][331][332][333][334][335] In 2016, d'Estaing said himself that he was "a little like Macron".[336] Observers have noted that while they are alike ideologically, d'Estaing had ministerial experience and time in Parliament to show for his political life while Macron had never been elected before.[337]


Macron addressing the World Economic Forum 2018 in Davos, Switzerland

Macron has advocated in favour of the free market and reducing the public-finances deficit.[338] He first publicly used the word liberal to describe himself in a 2015 interview with Le Monde. He added that he is "neither right nor left" and that he advocates a "collective solidarity".[320][339] During a visit to the Puy du Fou in Vendée with Philippe de Villiers in August 2016, he stated: "Honesty compels me to say that I am not a socialist."[340] Macron explained that he was part of the "left government" because he wanted to "serve the public interest" as any minister would.[321] In his book Révolution, published in November 2016, Macron presents himself as both a "leftist" and a "liberal ... if by liberalism one means trust in man".[341]

With his party En Marche, Macron's stated aim is to transcend the left–right divide in a manner similar to that of François Bayrou or Jacques Chaban-Delmas, asserting that "the real divide in our country ... is between progressives and conservatives". With the launch of his independent candidacy and his use of anti-establishment rhetoric, Macron has been labelled a populist by some observers, notably Valls, but Macron has rejected this term.[342][343]

Macron is a supporter of the El Khomri law. He became the most vocal proponent of the economic overhaul of the country.[344] Macron has stated that he wants to go further than the El Khomri law in reforming the labour code.[345]

Macron is in favour of tax cuts. During the 2017 presidential election, Macron proposed cutting the corporate tax rate from 33.3% to 25%. Macron also wanted to remove investment income from the wealth tax so that it is solely a tax on high-value property.[346] Macron also wanted to exempt 18 million households from local residence tax, branding the tax as "unfair" during his 2017 presidential campaign.[347][348][349]

Macron is against raising taxes on the highest earners. When asked about François Hollande's proposal to raise income tax on the upper class to 75%, Macron compared the policy to the Cuban taxation system.[350] Macron supports stopping tax avoidance.[311]

On 8 June 2021, Macron was slapped in the face during a visit to the town of Tain-l'Hermitage. The attacker was identified as Damien Tarel, who stated that he was associated with the yellow vest movement and the far-right, though he was also described as an "ideological mush".[351][352] Tarel was sentenced to four months of imprisonment plus a suspended sentence of fourteen months.[353]

Protest against President Macron and his economic policies in Paris on 5 May 2018

Macron has advocated for the end of the 35-hour work week;[354][355] however, his view has changed over time and he now seeks reforms that aim to preserve the 35-hour work week while increasing France's competitiveness.[356] He has said that he wants to return flexibility to companies without ending the 35-hour work week.[357] This would include companies renegotiating work hours and overtime payments with employees.

Macron has supported cutting the number of civil servants by 120,000.[358] Macron also supports spending cuts, saying he would cut 60 billion euros in public spending over a span of five years.[359]

He has supported the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada and the European Union and criticized the Walloon government for trying to block it.[360] He believes that CETA should not require the endorsement of national parliaments because "it undermines the EU".[361] Macron supports the idea of the Eurozone having a common budget.[362][363][359]

Regarding the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), Macron stated in June 2016 that "the conditions [to sign the treaty] are not met", adding that "we mustn't close the door entirely" and "need a strong link with the US".[364]

In April 2017, Macron called for a "rebalancing" of Germany's trade surplus, saying that "Germany benefits from the imbalances within the Eurozone and achieves very high trade surpluses".[365]

In March 2018, Macron announced that the government would spend 1.5 billion euros ($1.9 billion) on artificial intelligence to boost innovation. The money would be used to sponsor research projects and scientific laboratories, as well as to finance startup companies whose focus is AI within the country.[366]

Foreign policy

The G7 leaders, 26 May 2017
Macron with Chadian president Idriss Déby in N'Djamena, December 2018
Macron with Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida, European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen and NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg, 24 March 2022

In 2017, Macron described France's colonization of Algeria as a "crime against humanity".[367][368] He also said: "It's truly barbarous and it's part of a past that we need to confront by apologizing to those against whom we committed these acts."[369] Polls following his remarks reflected a decrease in his support.[367] In January 2021, Macron stated there would be "no repentance nor apologies" for the French colonization of Algeria, colonial abuses or French involvement during the Algerian independence war.[370][371][372] Instead efforts would be devoted toward reconciliation.[370][371][372]

Macron described the 2011 military intervention in Libya as a "historic error".[373]

In 2012, Macron was a Young Leader with the French-American Foundation.[374]

In January 2017, he said France needed a more "balanced" policy toward Syria, including talks with Bashar al-Assad.[375] In April 2017, following the chemical attack in Khan Shaykhun, Macron proposed a possible military intervention against the Assad regime, preferably under United Nations auspices.[376] He has warned if the Syrian regime uses chemical weapons during his presidency he will act unilaterally to punish it.[373]

He supports the continuation of President Hollande's policies on Israel, opposes the BDS movement, and has refused to state a position on recognition of the State of Palestine.[377] In May 2018, Macron condemned "the violence of Israeli armed forces" against Palestinians in Gaza border protests.[378]

He criticized the Franco-Swiss construction firm LafargeHolcim for competing to build the wall on the Mexico–United States border promised by U.S. President Donald Trump.[379]

Macron has called for a peaceful solution during the 2017 North Korea crisis,[380] though he agreed to work with US President Trump against North Korea.[381] Macron and Trump apparently conducted a phone call on 12 August 2017 where they discussed confronting North Korea, denuclearizing the Korean Peninsula and enforcing new sanctions.[382]

Macron condemned the persecution of Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar. He described the situation as "genocide" and "ethnic purification", and alluded to the prospect of UN-led intervention.[383]

In response to the Turkish invasion of northern Syria aimed at ousting U.S.-backed Syrian Kurds from the enclave of Afrin, Macron said that Turkey must respect Syria's sovereignty, despite his condemnation of Bashar al-Assad.[384]

Macron has voiced support for the Saudi Arabian-led military campaign against Yemen's Shiite rebels.[385] He also defended France's arms sales to the Saudi-led coalition.[386] Some rights groups have argued that France is violating national and international law by selling weapons to members of the Saudi-led coalition fighting in Yemen.[387][388]

In response to the death of Chinese Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo, who died of organ failure while in government custody, Macron praised Liu as "a freedom fighter". Macron also described as "extremely fruitful and positive" his first contacts with President Xi Jinping.[389]

Macron expressed concerns over Turkey's "rash and dangerous" statements regarding the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war between the armed forces of Azerbaijan and Armenia, further stating that he was "extremely concerned by the warlike messages".[390] He also said: "A red line has been crossed, which is unacceptable. I urge all NATO partners to face up to the behaviour of a NATO member."[391]

European Union

In June 2019, representatives of EU and Mercosur announced they had reached an EU–Mercosur Free Trade Agreement

An article in the New York Times described Emmanuel Macron as "ardently pro-Europe" and stated that he "has proudly embraced an unpopular European Union."[392]

Macron has been described by some as Europhile[327][393] and federalist[394][395] but he describes himself as "neither pro-European, eurosceptic nor a federalist in the classical sense",[396] and his party as "the only pro-European political force in France".[397]

In June 2015, Macron and his German counterpart Sigmar Gabriel published a platform advocating a continuation of European integration. They advocated the continuation "of structural reforms (such as labor markets), institutional reforms (including the area of economic governance)."[82]

He also advocated the creation of a post of EU Commissioner that would be responsible for the Eurozone and the Eurozone's Parliament and common budget.[398]

In addition, Macron stated: "I'm in favour of strengthening anti-dumping measures which have to be faster and more powerful like those in the United States. We also need to establish a monitoring of foreign investments in strategic sectors at the EU level in order to protect a vital industry and to ensure our sovereignty and the European superiority."[320] Macron also stated that, if elected, he would seek to renegotiate the Treaty of Le Touquet with the United Kingdom which has caused a build-up of economic migrants in Calais. When Macron served as economy minister he had suggested the Treaty could be scrapped if the UK left the European Union.[399]

On 1 May 2017, Macron said the EU needed to reform or face Frexit.[400] On 26 September, he unveiled his proposals for the EU, intending to deepen the bloc politically and harmonize its rules. He argued for institutional changes, initiatives to promote EU, along with new ventures in the technology, defence and energy sectors. His proposals also included setting up a rapid reaction force working along with national armies while establishing a finance minister, budget and parliament for the Eurozone. He also called for a new tax on technology giants, an EU-wide asylum agency to deal with the refugee crisis, and changes to the Common Agricultural Policy.[401]

Following the declaration of independence by Catalonia, Macron joined the EU in supporting Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy.[402] In a conversation with BBC's Andrew Marr, Macron stated that theoretically if France should choose to withdraw from the EU, it would do so through a national popular vote.[403] In November 2019, Macron blocked EU accession talks with Albania and North Macedonia, proposing changes to the EU Enlargement policy. In an interview with The Economist, Macron said that the EU was too reliant on NATO and the US, and that it should initiate "strategic dialogue" with Russia.[404]

After the European elections in 2019, it was Macron in particular who prevented the leading candidate of the European People's Party, Manfred Weber, from becoming president of the European Commission. Previously it had been a tradition that the top candidate of the largest party always took over this post. Critics accused Macron of having by his actions ignored the democratic decision of the voters for political reasons, sacrificing democratic principles for his own interests.[405]


In July 2015, as economy minister, Macron stated in an interview that any bailout package for Greece must also ease its burden by including reductions in the country's overall debt.[406] In July 2015, while challenging the "loaded question" of the 2015 Greek referendum, Macron called for resisting the "automatic ejection" of Greece from the Eurozone and avoiding "the Versailles Treaty of the Eurozone", in which case the "No" side would win. He believed that the Greek and European leaders co-produced the Greek government-debt crisis,[407] and that the agreement reached in summer 2015 between Greece and its creditors, notably driven by François Hollande, would not help Greece deal with its debt, and at the same time criticized the International Monetary Fund.[408]

In June 2016, he criticized the austerity policies imposed on Greece as unsustainable, and called for the joint establishment of "fiscal and financial solidarity mechanisms" and a mechanism for restructuring the debt of Eurozone member states.[408] Yanis Varoufakis, minister of finance in the First Cabinet of Alexis Tsipras, praised Macron, calling him "the only French Minister in the François Hollande's administration that seemed to understand what was at stake in the Eurozone" and who, according to him, "tried to play the intermediary between us [Greece] and the troika of our creditors, the EC, IMF, ECB even if they don't allow him to play the role".[409]

Macron with Russian President Vladimir Putin at the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum on 24 May 2018

President Macron has supported NATO and its role in the security of eastern European states and also pressure on NATO partners like Poland to uphold what he called "European values". He said in April 2017 that "in the three months after I'm elected, there will be a decision on Poland. You cannot have a European Union which argues over every single decimal place on the issue of budgets with each country, and which, when you have an EU member which acts like Poland or Hungary on issues linked to universities and learning, or refugees, or fundamental values, decides to do nothing."[410] Polish Foreign Minister Witold Waszczykowski said in response that Macron "violated European standards and the principles of friendship with Poland".[411]

During a press conference with Vladimir Putin at the Palace of Versailles in May 2017, he condemned the Russian state media as "lying propaganda".[412] The same month, he said: "we all know who Le Pen's allies are. The regimes of Orbán, Kaczyński, Putin. These aren't the regimes with an open and free democracy. Every day they break many democratic freedoms."[413]

Macron has said that the European Commission needs to do more to stop the influx of low-paid temporary workers from Central and Eastern Europe into France.[414]


Macron supported the open-door policy toward migrants from the Middle East and Africa pursued by Angela Merkel in Germany during the 2017 election campaign and promoted tolerance towards immigrants and Muslims.[415][392] Macron expressed confidence in France's ability to absorb more immigrants and welcomed their arrival into Europe, asserting that the influx will have a positive economic impact.[416] However, he later stated that France could "not hold everyone" and cited migration as a major concern of voters. New migration measures were introduced which toughened controls on asylum and fixed quotas for foreign workers.[417][418]

However, he believes that Frontex (the European Border and Coast Guard Agency) is "not a sufficiently ambitious program" and has called for more investment in coast and border guards, "because anyone who enters [Europe] at Lampedusa or elsewhere is a concern for all European countries".[361]

In June 2018 the Aquarius (NGO ship) carrying 629 migrants rescued near Libya was denied entry to Sicilian ports by Italy's new interior minister Matteo Salvini.[419] Italian PM Giuseppe Conte accused France of hypocrisy after Macron said Italy was acting "irresponsibly" by refusing entry to migrants and suggested it had violated international maritime law.[420] Italy's deputy PM Luigi Di Maio said: "I am happy the French have discovered responsibility . . . they should open their ports and we will send a few people to France."[421]

Security and terrorism

Macron believed that the proposed reform bill on deprivation of citizenship for French-born and naturalized citizens convicted on terrorism charges was not a "concrete solution" and believed that "the endless prolongation of the state of emergency raises legitimate questions". He advocated an increase in state funding of intelligence agencies.[422]

Macron called for a restoration of community policing and considered that "the management of some major risks must be delegated to the associations or the private sector".[423]

He considered that his proposal to provide each young adult a "Culture Pass" of €500 might encourage young people to discover the culture of France and deter terrorism.[424]

Macron has endorsed proposals to make it mandatory for Internet companies to allow the government to access encrypted communications from customers.[425]

Macron expressed deep regret at US President Trump's decision to withdraw U.S. armed forces from Syria.[426]

In October 2019, Macron warned that Turkey would be responsible for helping the Islamic State to re-establish a Caliphate in Syria as he called on Turkey to stop its military offensive against Kurdish forces in the north of Syria.[427]


Macron with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, former U.S. Vice President Al Gore, Ambassador Jane Hartley and actor Robert Redford at the U.S. Ambassador's residence in Paris, 7 December 2015 amid the COP21 Climate Summit

Ahead of the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, Macron called for acceleration of the ecological transition and advocated a "balance between ecological imperatives and economic requirements", an objective that the French government sought to achieve by fighting on "five fronts": "innovation", "simplification", "strengthening of our energy efficiency and [...] reduction of fossil fuel usage", "energy competitiveness" and "action in Europe and worldwide".[428]

During the summer of 2016 in the aftermath of the Volkswagen emissions scandal, Macron, then Minister of the Economy, defended the use of diesel fuel, which he said was "at the heart of the French industrial policy". His position was criticized by several Socialists, including Paris mayor Anne Hidalgo.[429] Macron also promoted using nuclear energy, which he considered "a French choice and a choice for the future".[430] Nevertheless, in 2018, he committed to a policy of reducing the use of nuclear energy to 50% of the energy sources in France by 2035.[431]

In 2016, Macron proposed that France "secures its supplies in the most strategic materials using three levers: the circular economy and the recovery of materials contained in the end of life of the products [...]; the diversification of supplies to overcome geopolitical risks [...] and to bring more competitiveness; the creation of new reasonably-sized mines in France, while following the best social and environmental standards".[432]

Although he was sceptical about the construction of the Aéroport du Grand Ouest, Macron stated he believed the construction should start, since the people backed the project in the 2016 local referendum. However, after Macron's inauguration, Prime Minister Philippe said that plans for construction would be abandoned.[433] He criticized Donald Trump for pulling the United States out of the Paris climate accord on 2 June 2017, and called for scientists to come to France to work together on climate change.[434] On 19 September 2017, he launched a summit on the margins of the 72nd United Nations General Assembly to call for the adoption of a Global Pact for the Environment.[435][436]

In 2018, Macron announced that France would commit €700 million to the International Solar Alliance, a treaty-based alliance to expand solar power infrastructure.[437] The same year, Macron announced that France would phase out coal power, with the target of shutting down all coal-fired power stations (which make up about 1% of French energy generation) by 2021.[438]

Macron, Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro and Saudi crown prince Mohammad bin Salman at the 2019 G20 Osaka summit

In 2018, he pursued a petrol tax, albeit the tax stems from an earlier policy under his predecessor, François Hollande.[439] A burgeoning grassroots movement, the Gilets jaunes protests developed throughout France in November and December, extending even to the overseas territory of Réunion. On 4 December, Prime minister Édouard Philippe announced that the tax increase would be pushed back six months.[440] The following day however, Macron scrapped the fuel tax increase altogether.[441]

On 13 January 2019, he penned a 2,300-word letter[442] addressing the nation in response to nine consecutive weeks of protests by the Gilets jaunes movement, calling for three months of national debate to address grievances.[443]

Macron called the 2019 Brazil wildfires an "international crisis" as the Amazon rainforest produces "20% of the world's oxygen".[444] Macron stated he will refuse to ratify the EU–Mercosur Free Trade Agreement unless Brazil commits to protecting the environment.[445]

Macron publicly supports ecocide being made a crime at the International Criminal Court.[446][447] In 2021 the French government passed the Climate and Resilience Law, making "the most serious cases of environmental damage at national level" a crime.[448][449]


Macron supports the principle of secularism (laïcité). He also said that "we have a duty to let everybody practice their religion with dignity".[450] In July 2016, at the first meeting of En Marche, Macron expressed opposition to banning Muslim headscarves in universities, stating, "Personally, I do not believe we should be inventing new texts, new laws, new standards, in order to hunt down veils at universities and go after people who wear religious symbols during field trips."[451]

In an interview with the French news magazine Marianne, Macron asserted that "secularism is not designed to promote a republican religion", and responded to comments by Valls and Jean-Pierre Chevènement regarding the practice of Islam in French society by condemning the notion that citizens should be "discreet" in their religious practice, stating that "historical precedents when we asked for discretion in matters of religion did not bring honor to the Republic."[452]

In the same interview, Macron said of French Muslims, "I ask one thing: absolutely respect the rules while in public. Religious relationships are about transcendence, and I am not asking people to be moderate – that's not what I'm arguing. My own deep conviction is that a practising Catholic may believe that the laws of his religion go far beyond the laws of the Republic. I simply believe that when one enters the public realm, the laws of the Republic must prevail over religious law." He also condemned "religious schools that teach hatred towards the Republic, with instruction mainly in Arabic or, in other instances, which teach the Torah more than basic fundamentals."[452] This statement triggered an intense negative reaction from the Fonds Social Juif Unifié (FSJU), an organization that runs Jewish religious schools in France.[453]

Regarding support for Macron from religious groups, Jean-Dominique Durand—an expert on the history of contemporary Christianity and a deputy mayor of Lyon—said to The Washington Post: "What we have now is silence from the bishops. Protestants, Muslims, Jews have all mobilized for Macron. Not the Catholics, not in any clear way."

On 2 October 2020, he unveiled a plan to defend France's secular values against what he termed as "Islamist radicalism", saying the religion was "in crisis" all over the world, prompting a backlash from Muslim activists. He announced that the government would present a bill in December to strengthen a 1905 law that officially separated church and state in France.[454] Macron faced further backlash when after the murder of Samuel Paty, he defended the caricatures of Muhammad by Charlie Hebdo. Many Muslims called for French products to be boycotted in their countries, while European leaders supported his remarks.[455]


In 2016 Macron supported stopping what he calls the "compartmentalisation of healthcare" by allowing private practitioners into public hospitals.[398] Macron also supported investing money in medical science to develop new technology and find better ways to treat patients.[456]

In 2017 Macron advocated for national health insurance covering optical, hearing and dental care.[457] According to Les Echos, extending national health insurance coverage to optics, hearing and dental care would cost €4.4 billion a year.[458]


Macron supported giving more autonomy to schools and universities.[459][460] Macron wanted to create a programme to make schools pay experienced teachers higher salaries and give them more educational freedom.[459]

Macron wanted to combat the issue of income inequality in schools by attempting to improve working-class schools and providing incentives to better-off children to persuade them to attend working-class schools.[459]

Macron wanted to make vocational education a priority. He has referred to Germany's system as one that his government would follow when putting forward measures relating to vocational education.[461]

On 2 October 2020, Macron announced his intention to ban homeschooling with medical exceptions by 2021, in order to address separatist Islamic indoctrination, which he saw as conflicting with the secular values of the French Republic.[462]

Macron with Queen Elizabeth II, Donald Trump, Theresa May, Angela Merkel, and other world leaders mark the 75th anniversary of D-Day in June 2019

On responsibility for the Holocaust

In July 2017, while at a ceremony at the site of the Vélodrome d'Hiver where 13,000 Jews had been rounded up for deportation to death camps in July 1942, Macron denounced his country's role in the Holocaust and the historical revisionism that denied France's responsibility for the 1942 Vel' d'Hiv Roundup and the eventual deportation of 76,000 Jews. Earlier that year, Marine Le Pen, leader of the National Front, had stated in speeches that the government during WWII "was not France".[463][464]

"It was indeed France that organised this [roundup]", Macron said, French police collaborating with the Nazis. "Not a single German took part," he added. Previous president Jacques Chirac had already stated that the government during the war represented the French state.[465] Macron further stated: "It is convenient to see the Vichy regime as born of nothingness, returned to nothingness. Yes, it's convenient, but it is false. We cannot build pride upon a lie."[466][467]

Macron made a subtle reference to Chirac's 1995 apology when he added, "I say it again here. It was indeed France that organized the roundup, the deportation, and thus, for almost all, death."[468][469]

On anti-Zionism and antisemitism

In a 2017 speech condemning the historical collaboration of France with the Nazis, Macron also termed anti-Zionism as a new form of antisemitism. While addressing Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu, Macron stated that "we will never surrender to the messages of hate; we will not surrender to anti-Zionism because it is a reinvention of anti-Semitism."[470] He also drew parallels between antisemitism in the past and present. He stated, "You only need to stop for a moment," adding, "to see, behind the new façade, the racism of old, the entrenched vein of anti-Semitism."[471]

On nationalism

During a ceremony commemorating the Armistice Day centenary in November 2018, he referred to nationalism as the "exact opposite" of patriotism, and a betrayal of it, characterizing nationalism as "who cares about others".[472] This prompted criticism that his definition was wrong.[473]

On George Floyd

In response to the 2020 George Floyd protests, Macron stated that he opposed racism and acknowledged systemic discrimination existed toward some people in France.[474] He said that unlike other countries, controversial statues of French people from the colonial period would not be removed.[474]

New Caledonian independence

Macron expressed gratitude for the result of the 2020 New Caledonian independence referendum, thanking New Caledonians for their "vote of confidence" in the Republic. He also acknowledged those who had backed independence of the French Pacific territory of New Caledonia, calling for dialogue between all sides to map out the future of the region.[475]

Co-prince of Andorra

As president of France, Macron also serves ex officio as one of the two co-princes of Andorra. His chief of staff Patrick Strzoda serves as his representative in this capacity. Joan Enric Vives i Sicília, appointed as the current Bishop of Urgell on 12 May 2003, serves as Macron's co-prince. During the Covid-19 pandemic, the Andorran government asked France for economic aid, but Macron refused, arguing that the Bank of France could not offer loans to another country without the approval of the European Central Bank.[476]

Personal life

Emmanuel Macron and his wife Brigitte Trogneux in 2017

Macron is married to Brigitte Trogneux,[477] 24 years his senior,[478] and his former La Providence high school teacher in Amiens.[479][480] They met during a theatre workshop that she was giving when he was a 15-year-old student and she was a 39-year-old teacher, but they only became a couple once he was 18.[481][482] His parents initially attempted to separate the couple by sending him away to Paris to finish the final year of his schooling, as they felt his youth made this relationship inappropriate.[14][482] However, the couple reunited after Macron graduated, and were married in 2007.[482] She has three children from a previous marriage; he has no children of his own.[483][unreliable source?] Trogneux's role in Macron's 2017 presidential campaign has been considered pivotal, with close Macron allies stating that Trogneux helped Macron to develop skills like public speaking.[484]

His best man was Henry Hermand (1924–2016), a businessman who loaned €550,000 to Macron for the purchase of his first apartment in Paris when he was Inspector of Finances. Hermand also let Macron use some of his offices on the Avenue des Champs Élysées in Paris for his movement En Marche.[485][486]

In the 2002 French presidential election, Macron voted for souverainist Jean-Pierre Chevènement.[487] In 2007, Macron voted for Ségolène Royal in the second round of the presidential election.[488] During the Socialist Party primary in 2011, Macron voiced his support for François Hollande.[489]

Macron plays the piano,[490] and studied piano for ten years in his youth.[15] He especially enjoys the work of Robert Schumann and Franz Liszt.[491][492] Macron also skis,[493] plays tennis[494] and enjoys boxing.[495] In addition to his native French, Macron speaks fluent English.[496][497]

In August 2017, a photojournalist was arrested and detained by the police for six hours after he entered the private residence where Macron was vacationing in Marseille.[498] Macron subsequently filed a complaint for "harassment".[498] In September 2017, he dropped the complaint "as a gesture of appeasement".[499]

On 27 August 2017, Macron and his wife Brigitte adopted Nemo, a black Labrador Retriever-Griffon dog who lives with them in the Élysée Palace.[500] As a schoolboy, Macron decided to be baptized as a Catholic. In June 2018, prior to meeting Pope Francis, he identified himself as an agnostic Catholic.[501][502] In the same year he agreed to become an honorary canon of St John Lateran, the cathedral of Rome.[502]

Macron celebrating France's victory over Croatia in the 2018 World Cup final in Moscow, Russia

A fan of football, Macron is a supporter of French club Olympique de Marseille.[503] During the 2018 World Cup, he attended the semi-final between France and Belgium with the Belgian King Philippe and Queen Mathilde,[504] and at the World Cup final against Croatia, he sat and celebrated alongside Croatian president Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović. Macron received widespread media attention for his celebrations and his interactions with the Croatian president.[505][506][507][508][509]

On 17 December 2020, Macron tested positive for COVID-19[510] leading to the cancellation of his scheduled trips for the following month, including a visit to Lebanon.[511]

Honours and decorations

National honours

Ribbon bar Honour Date and comment
Grand Master & Grand Cross of the National Order of the Legion of Honour 14 May 2017 – automatic upon taking presidential office
Grand Master & Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit 14 May 2017 – automatic upon taking presidential office

Foreign honours

As President of the French Republic

Ribbon bar Country Honour Date
 Netherlands Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion 11 April 2023[512][513]
 United Arab Emirates Collar of the Order of Zayed 18 July 2022[514]
 Italy Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic 1 July 2021[515]
 United States Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit 8 December 2020[516][failed verification]
 Egypt Collar of the Order of the Nile 7 December 2020[517]
 Ivory Coast Grand Cross of the National Order of the Ivory Coast 20 December 2019[516]
 Belgium Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold 19 November 2018[516]
 South Korea Grand Order of Mugunghwa 8 October 2018[518]
 Finland Grand Cross of the Order of the White Rose with Collar 29 August 2018[519]
 Denmark Knight of the Order of the Elephant 28 August 2018[520]
 Luxembourg Knight of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau 19 March 2018[516]
 Senegal Grand Cross of the National Order of the Lion 2 February 2018[516]
 Tunisia Grand Cordon of the Order of the Republic of Tunisia 31 January 2018[521]
 Lebanon Grand Cross of the Order of Merit 22 September 2017[516]
 Greece Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer 7 September 2017[522]

Prior to his presidency

Ribbon bar Country Honour Date
 Mexico Sash of the Order of the Aztec Eagle 22 September 2016[523]
 United Kingdom Honorary Commander of the Order of the British Empire 5 June 2014[524]
 Brazil Grand Officer of the Order of the Southern Cross 9 December 2012[525]



  • Macron, Emmanuel; Goldberg, Jonathan; Scott, Juliette (2017). Revolution. Brunswick, Victoria, Australia. ISBN 978-1-925322-71-2. OCLC 992124322.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • ——; Fottorino, Éric (2017). Macron par Macron (in French). La Tour d'Aigues, France. ISBN 978-2-8159-2484-9. OCLC 1003593124.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)


  1. ^ Ex-officio Co-Prince


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Further reading

  • Chamorel, Patrick. "Macron versus the yellow vests." Journal of Democracy 30.4 (2019): 48–62. excerpt
  • Chopin, Thierry. "Emmanuel Macron, France and Europe 'France is back in Europe': on which terms." (Fondation Robert Schuman, 2018). online
  • Chopin, Thierry, and Samuel BH Faure. "Presidential Election 2022: A Euroclash Between a "Liberal" and a "Neo-Nationalist" France Is Coming." Intereconomics 2021.2 (2021): 75–81 online.
  • Cole, Alistair. Emmanuel Macron and the two years that changed France. (Manchester University Press, 2020).
  • Elgie, Robert. "The election of Emmanuel Macron and the new French party system: a return to the éternel marais?." Modern & Contemporary France 26.1 (2018): 15–29.
  • Hewlett, Nick. "The phantom revolution. The presidential and parliamentary elections of 2017." Modern & Contemporary France 25.4 (2017): 377–390.
  • Kutsenko, Andrii. "Emmanuel Macron and Franco-Russian relations at the present stage." Political Science and Security Studies Journal 1.1 (2020): 94–100. online
  • Mayaffre, Damon (2021). Macron ou le mystère du verbe: Ses discours décryptés par la machine (in French). La tour d'Aigues: Les éditions de l'Aube. ISBN 978-2-8159-3746-7.
  • Nougayrède, Natalie. "France's Gamble: As America Retreats, Macron Steps up." Foreign Affairs 96 (2017): 2+
  • Pedder, Sophie. Revolution Française: Emmanuel Macron and the quest to reinvent a nation (Bloomsbury, 2018).
  • Perottino, Michel, and Petra Guasti. "Technocratic populism à la française? The roots and mechanisms of Emmanuel Macron's success." Politics and Governance 8.4 (2020): 545–555. online
  • Tiersky, Ronald. "Macron's World: How the New President Is Remaking France." Foreign Affairs. 97 (2018): 87+.

External links

Political offices
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Preceded by Minister of Economics, Industry and
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Preceded by President of France
Party political offices
New political party President of En Marche
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Regnal titles
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as President of the Republic
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