|Standard Model of particle physics|
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a subatomic particle that is not composed of other particles. Particles currently thought to be elementary include electrons, the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons, which generally are matter particles and antimatter particles), as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and the Higgs boson), which generally are force particles that mediate interactions among fermions. A particle containing two or more elementary particles is a composite particle.
Ordinary matter is composed of atoms, once presumed to be elementary particles – atomos meaning "unable to be cut" in Greek – although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1905, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of energy. Subatomic constituents of the atom were first identified in the early 1930s; the electron and the proton, along with the photon, the particle of electromagnetic radiation. At that time, the recent advent of quantum mechanics was radically altering the conception of particles, as a single particle could seemingly span a field as would a wave, a paradox still eluding satisfactory explanation.
Via quantum theory, protons and neutrons were found to contain quarks – up quarks and down quarks – now considered elementary particles. And within a molecule, the electron's three degrees of freedom (charge, spin, orbital) can separate via the wavefunction into three quasiparticles (holon, spinon, and orbiton). Yet a free electron – one that is not orbiting an atomic nucleus and hence lacks orbital motion – appears unsplittable and remains regarded as an elementary particle.
Around 1980, an elementary particle's status as indeed elementary – an ultimate constituent of substance – was mostly discarded for a more practical outlook, embodied in particle physics' Standard Model, known as science's most experimentally successful theory. Many elaborations upon and theories beyond the Standard Model, including supersymmetry, double the number of elementary particles by hypothesizing that each known particle associates with a "shadow" partner far more massive, although all such superpartners remain undiscovered. Meanwhile, an elementary boson mediating gravitation – the graviton – remains hypothetical.
All elementary particles are either bosons or fermions. These classes are distinguished by their quantum statistics: fermions obey Fermi–Dirac statistics and bosons obey Bose–Einstein statistics. Their spin is differentiated via the spin–statistics theorem: it is half-integer for fermions, and integer for bosons.
|Elementary fermionsHalf-integer spinObey the Fermi–Dirac statistics||Elementary bosonsInteger spinObey the Bose–Einstein statistics|
|Quarks and antiquarksSpin = 1/2Have color chargeParticipate in strong interactions||Leptons and antileptonsSpin = 1/2No color chargeElectroweak interactions||Gauge bosonsSpin = 1, 2 [‡] Force carriers||Scalar bosonsSpin = 0|
Higgs boson (
[†] An anti-electron (
) is conventionally called a "positron".
[‡] The known force carrier bosons all have spin = 1. The hypothetical graviton has spin = 2; it is unknown whether it is a gauge boson as well.
In the Standard Model, elementary particles are represented for predictive utility as point particles. Though extremely successful, the Standard Model is limited by its omission of gravitation and has some parameters arbitrarily added but unexplained.
Cosmic abundance of elementary particles
According to the current models of big bang nucleosynthesis, the primordial composition of visible matter of the universe should be about 75% hydrogen and 25% helium-4 (in mass). Neutrons are made up of one up and two down quarks, while protons are made of two up and one down quark. Since the other common elementary particles (such as electrons, neutrinos, or weak bosons) are so light or so rare when compared to atomic nuclei, we can neglect their mass contribution to the observable universe's total mass. Therefore, one can conclude that most of the visible mass of the universe consists of protons and neutrons, which, like all baryons, in turn consist of up quarks and down quarks.
Some estimates imply that there are roughly 1080 baryons (almost entirely protons and neutrons) in the observable universe.
The number of protons in the observable universe is called the Eddington number.
In terms of number of particles, some estimates imply that nearly all the matter, excluding dark matter, occurs in neutrinos, which constitute the majority of the roughly 1086 elementary particles of matter that exist in the visible universe. Other estimates imply that roughly 1097 elementary particles exist in the visible universe (not including dark matter), mostly photons and other massless force carriers.
The Standard Model of particle physics contains 12 flavors of elementary fermions, plus their corresponding antiparticles, as well as elementary bosons that mediate the forces and the Higgs boson, which was reported on July 4, 2012, as having been likely detected by the two main experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (ATLAS and CMS). The Standard Model is widely considered to be a provisional theory rather than a truly fundamental one, however, since it is not known if it is compatible with Einstein's general relativity. There may be hypothetical elementary particles not described by the Standard Model, such as the graviton, the particle that would carry the gravitational force, and sparticles, supersymmetric partners of the ordinary particles.
The 12 fundamental fermions are divided into 3 generations of 4 particles each. Half of the fermions are leptons, three of which have an electric charge of −1, called the electron (
), the muon (
), and the tau (
); the other three leptons are neutrinos (
τ), which are the only elementary fermions with neither electric nor color charge. The remaining six particles are quarks (discussed below).
|First generation||Second generation||Third generation|
|First generation||Second generation||Third generation|
|charm quark||c||top quark|
The following table lists current measured masses and mass estimates for all the fermions, using the same scale of measure: millions of electron-volts relative to square of light speed (MeV/c2). For example, the most accurately known quark mass is of the top quark (
) at 172.7 GeV/c2 or 172700 MeV/c2, estimated using the On-shell scheme.
|Particle Symbol||Particle name||Mass Value||Quark mass estimation scheme (point)|
|< 2 eV/c2|
|Up quark||1.9 MeV/c2||MSbar scheme (μMS = 2 GeV)|
|Down quark||4.4 MeV/c2||MSbar scheme (μMS = 2 GeV)|
|Strange quark||87 MeV/c2||MSbar scheme (μMS = 2 GeV)|
|Charm quark||1320 MeV/c2||MSbar scheme (μMS = mc)|
|Tauon (tau lepton)||1780 MeV/c2|
|Bottom quark||4240 MeV/c2||MSbar scheme (μMS = mb)|
|Top quark||172700 MeV/c2||On-shell scheme|
Estimates of the values of quark masses depend on the version of quantum chromodynamics used to describe quark interactions. Quarks are always confined in an envelope of gluons that confer vastly greater mass to the mesons and baryons where quarks occur, so values for quark masses cannot be measured directly. Since their masses are so small compared to the effective mass of the surrounding gluons, slight differences in the calculation make large differences in the masses.
There are also 12 fundamental fermionic antiparticles that correspond to these 12 particles. For example, the antielectron (positron)
is the electron's antiparticle and has an electric charge of +1.
|First generation||Second generation||Third generation|
|First generation||Second generation||Third generation|
Isolated quarks and antiquarks have never been detected, a fact explained by confinement. Every quark carries one of three color charges of the strong interaction; antiquarks similarly carry anticolor. Color-charged particles interact via gluon exchange in the same way that charged particles interact via photon exchange. Gluons are themselves color-charged, however, resulting in an amplification of the strong force as color-charged particles are separated. Unlike the electromagnetic force, which diminishes as charged particles separate, color-charged particles feel increasing force.
Nonetheless, color-charged particles may combine to form color neutral composite particles called hadrons. A quark may pair up with an antiquark: the quark has a color and the antiquark has the corresponding anticolor. The color and anticolor cancel out, forming a color neutral meson. Alternatively, three quarks can exist together, one quark being "red", another "blue", another "green". These three colored quarks together form a color-neutral baryon. Symmetrically, three antiquarks with the colors "antired", "antiblue" and "antigreen" can form a color-neutral antibaryon.
Quarks also carry fractional electric charges, but, since they are confined within hadrons whose charges are all integral, fractional charges have never been isolated. Note that quarks have electric charges of either +2⁄3 or −1⁄3, whereas antiquarks have corresponding electric charges of either −2⁄3 or +1⁄3.
Evidence for the existence of quarks comes from deep inelastic scattering: firing electrons at nuclei to determine the distribution of charge within nucleons (which are baryons). If the charge is uniform, the electric field around the proton should be uniform and the electron should scatter elastically. Low-energy electrons do scatter in this way, but, above a particular energy, the protons deflect some electrons through large angles. The recoiling electron has much less energy and a jet of particles is emitted. This inelastic scattering suggests that the charge in the proton is not uniform but split among smaller charged particles: quarks.
In the Standard Model, vector (spin-1) bosons (gluons, photons, and the W and Z bosons) mediate forces, whereas the Higgs boson (spin-0) is responsible for the intrinsic mass of particles. Bosons differ from fermions in the fact that multiple bosons can occupy the same quantum state (Pauli exclusion principle). Also, bosons can be either elementary, like photons, or a combination, like mesons. The spin of bosons are integers instead of half integers.
Gluons mediate the strong interaction, which join quarks and thereby form hadrons, which are either baryons (three quarks) or mesons (one quark and one antiquark). Protons and neutrons are baryons, joined by gluons to form the atomic nucleus. Like quarks, gluons exhibit color and anticolor – unrelated to the concept of visual color and rather the particles' strong interactions – sometimes in combinations, altogether eight variations of gluons.
There are three weak gauge bosons: W+, W−, and Z0; these mediate the weak interaction. The W bosons are known for their mediation in nuclear decay: The W− converts a neutron into a proton then decays into an electron and electron-antineutrino pair. The Z0 does not convert particle flavor or charges, but rather changes momentum; it is the only mechanism for elastically scattering neutrinos. The weak gauge bosons were discovered due to momentum change in electrons from neutrino-Z exchange. The massless photon mediates the electromagnetic interaction. These four gauge bosons form the electroweak interaction among elementary particles.
Although the weak and electromagnetic forces appear quite different to us at everyday energies, the two forces are theorized to unify as a single electroweak force at high energies. This prediction was clearly confirmed by measurements of cross-sections for high-energy electron-proton scattering at the HERA collider at DESY. The differences at low energies is a consequence of the high masses of the W and Z bosons, which in turn are a consequence of the Higgs mechanism. Through the process of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Higgs selects a special direction in electroweak space that causes three electroweak particles to become very heavy (the weak bosons) and one to remain with an undefined rest mass as it is always in motion (the photon). On 4 July 2012, after many years of experimentally searching for evidence of its existence, the Higgs boson was announced to have been observed at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. Peter Higgs who first posited the existence of the Higgs boson was present at the announcement. The Higgs boson is believed to have a mass of approximately 125 GeV. The statistical significance of this discovery was reported as 5 sigma, which implies a certainty of roughly 99.99994%. In particle physics, this is the level of significance required to officially label experimental observations as a discovery. Research into the properties of the newly discovered particle continues.
The graviton is a hypothetical elementary spin-2 particle proposed to mediate gravitation. While it remains undiscovered due to the difficulty inherent in its detection, it is sometimes included in tables of elementary particles. The conventional graviton is massless, although some models containing massive Kaluza–Klein gravitons exist.
Beyond the Standard Model
Although experimental evidence overwhelmingly confirms the predictions derived from the Standard Model, some of its parameters were added arbitrarily, not determined by a particular explanation, which remain mysterious, for instance the hierarchy problem. Theories beyond the Standard Model attempt to resolve these shortcomings.
One extension of the Standard Model attempts to combine the electroweak interaction with the strong interaction into a single 'grand unified theory' (GUT). Such a force would be spontaneously broken into the three forces by a Higgs-like mechanism. This breakdown is theorized to occur at high energies, making it difficult to observe unification in a laboratory. The most dramatic prediction of grand unification is the existence of X and Y bosons, which cause proton decay. The non-observation of proton decay at the Super-Kamiokande neutrino observatory rules out the simplest GUTs, however, including SU(5) and SO(10).
Supersymmetry extends the Standard Model by adding another class of symmetries to the Lagrangian. These symmetries exchange fermionic particles with bosonic ones. Such a symmetry predicts the existence of supersymmetric particles, abbreviated as sparticles, which include the sleptons, squarks, neutralinos, and charginos. Each particle in the Standard Model would have a superpartner whose spin differs by 1⁄2 from the ordinary particle. Due to the breaking of supersymmetry, the sparticles are much heavier than their ordinary counterparts; they are so heavy that existing particle colliders would not be powerful enough to produce them. Some physicists believe that sparticles will be detected by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.
String theory is a model of physics whereby all "particles" that make up matter are composed of strings (measuring at the Planck length) that exist in an 11-dimensional (according to M-theory, the leading version) or 12-dimensional (according to F-theory) universe. These strings vibrate at different frequencies that determine mass, electric charge, color charge, and spin. A "string" can be open (a line) or closed in a loop (a one-dimensional sphere, that is, a circle). As a string moves through space it sweeps out something called a world sheet. String theory predicts 1- to 10-branes (a 1-brane being a string and a 10-brane being a 10-dimensional object) that prevent tears in the "fabric" of space using the uncertainty principle (e.g., the electron orbiting a hydrogen atom has the probability, albeit small, that it could be anywhere else in the universe at any given moment).
String theory proposes that our universe is merely a 4-brane, inside which exist the 3 space dimensions and the 1 time dimension that we observe. The remaining 7 theoretical dimensions either are very tiny and curled up (and too small to be macroscopically accessible) or simply do not/cannot exist in our universe (because they exist in a grander scheme called the "multiverse" outside our known universe).
Some predictions of the string theory include existence of extremely massive counterparts of ordinary particles due to vibrational excitations of the fundamental string and existence of a massless spin-2 particle behaving like the graviton.
Technicolor theories try to modify the Standard Model in a minimal way by introducing a new QCD-like interaction. This means one adds a new theory of so-called Techniquarks, interacting via so called Technigluons. The main idea is that the Higgs boson is not an elementary particle but a bound state of these objects.
According to preon theory there are one or more orders of particles more fundamental than those (or most of those) found in the Standard Model. The most fundamental of these are normally called preons, which is derived from "pre-quarks". In essence, preon theory tries to do for the Standard Model what the Standard Model did for the particle zoo that came before it. Most models assume that almost everything in the Standard Model can be explained in terms of three to six more fundamental particles and the rules that govern their interactions. Interest in preons has waned since the simplest models were experimentally ruled out in the 1980s.
Accelerons are the hypothetical subatomic particles that integrally link the newfound mass of the neutrino to the dark energy conjectured to be accelerating the expansion of the universe.
In this theory, neutrinos are influenced by a new force resulting from their interactions with accelerons, leading to dark energy. Dark energy results as the universe tries to pull neutrinos apart. Accelerons are thought to interact with matter more infrequently than they do with neutrinos.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Braibant, Sylvie; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Spurio, Maurizio (2012). Particles and Fundamental Interactions: An introduction to particle physics (2nd ed.). Springer. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-94-007-2463-1.
- ^ Newburgh, Ronald; Peidle, Joseph; Rueckner, Wolfgang (2006). "Einstein, Perrin, and the reality of atoms: 1905 revisited" (PDF). American Journal of Physics. 74 (6): 478–481. Bibcode:2006AmJPh..74..478N. doi:10.1119/1.2188962. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- ^ Weinert, Friedel (2004). The Scientist as Philosopher: Philosophical consequences of great scientific discoveries. Springer. pp. 43, 57–59. Bibcode:2004sapp.book.....W. ISBN 978-3-540-20580-7.
- ^ a b Kuhlmann, Meinard (24 July 2013). "Physicists debate whether the world is made of particles or fields – or something else entirely". Scientific American.
- ^ a b Merali, Zeeya (18 Apr 2012). "Not-quite-so elementary, my dear electron: Fundamental particle 'splits' into quasiparticles, including the new 'orbiton'". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2012.10471.
- ^ a b O'Neill, Ian (24 July 2013). "LHC discovery maims supersymmetry, again". Discovery News. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- ^ "Unsolved mysteries: Supersymmetry". The Particle Adventure. Berkeley Lab. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- ^ Revealing the Hidden Nature of Space and Time: Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics. National Academies Press. 2006. p. 68. Bibcode:2006rhns.book....... ISBN 978-0-309-66039-6.
- ^ "CERN latest data shows no sign of supersymmetry – yet". Phys.Org. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- ^ Braibant, Giacomelli, & Spurio 2012, p. 384
- ^ Heile, Frank (2014). "Is the total number of particles in the universe stable over long periods of time?". Huffington Post.
- ^ Brooks, Jared (2014). "Galaxies and Cosmology" (PDF). p. 4, equation 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014.
- ^ a b c Munafo, Robert (24 July 2013). "Notable Properties of Specific Numbers". Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- ^ Holstein, Barry R. (November 2006). "Graviton physics". American Journal of Physics. 74 (11): 1002–1011. arXiv:gr-qc/0607045. Bibcode:2006AmJPh..74.1002H. doi:10.1119/1.2338547. S2CID 15972735.
- ^ Tanabashi, M.; Hagiwara, K.; Hikasa, K.; Nakamura, K.; Sumino, Y.; Takahashi, F.; et al. (Particle Data Group) (17 August 2018). "Review of Particle Physics". Physical Review D. 98 (3): 030001. Bibcode:2018PhRvD..98c0001T. doi:10.1103/physrevd.98.030001. PMID 10020536.
- ^ Davies, Lizzy (4 July 2014). "Higgs boson announcement live: CERN scientists discover subatomic particle". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- ^ Taylor, Lucas (4 July 2014). "Observation of a new particle with a mass of 125 GeV". CMS. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- ^ Calmet, Xavier; de Aquino, Priscila; Rizzo, Thomas G. (2010). "Massless versus Kaluza-Klein gravitons at the LHC". Physics Letters B. 682 (4–5): 446–449. arXiv:0910.1535. Bibcode:2010PhLB..682..446C. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2009.11.045. hdl:2078/31706. S2CID 16310404.
- ^ Vafa, Cumrun (1996). "Evidence for F-theory". Nuclear Physics B. 469 (3): 403–415. arXiv:hep-th/9602022. Bibcode:1996NuPhB.469..403V. doi:10.1016/0550-3213(96)00172-1. S2CID 6511691.
- ^ a b "New theory links neutrino's slight mass to accelerating Universe expansion". ScienceDaily. 28 July 2004. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- ^ Reddy, Francis (27 July 2004). "Acceleron, anyone?". Astronomy. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
- Feynman, R.P. & Weinberg, S. (1987) Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics: The 1986 Dirac Memorial Lectures. Cambridge Univ. Press.
- Ford, Kenneth W. (2005) The Quantum World. Harvard Univ. Press.
- Greene, Brian (1999). The Elegant Universe. W.W.Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-05858-1.
- John Gribbin (2000) Q is for Quantum – An Encyclopedia of Particle Physics. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-85578-X.
- Oerter, Robert (2006) The Theory of Almost Everything: The Standard Model, the Unsung Triumph of Modern Physics. Plume.
- Schumm, Bruce A. (2004) Deep Down Things: The Breathtaking Beauty of Particle Physics. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-7971-X.
- Veltman, Martinus (2003). Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics. World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-238-149-1.
- Close, Frank (2004). Particle Physics: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280434-1.
- Seiden, Abraham (2005). Particle Physics: A comprehensive introduction. Addison Wesley. ISBN 978-0-8053-8736-0.
- Bettini, Alessandro (2008) Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics. Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88021-3
- Coughlan, G. D., J. E. Dodd, and B. M. Gripaios (2006) The Ideas of Particle Physics: An Introduction for Scientists, 3rd ed. Cambridge Univ. Press. An undergraduate text for those not majoring in physics.
- Griffiths, David J. (1987) Introduction to Elementary Particles. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-60386-4.
- Kane, Gordon L. (1987). Modern Elementary Particle Physics. Perseus Books. ISBN 978-0-201-11749-3.
- Perkins, Donald H. (2000) Introduction to High Energy Physics, 4th ed. Cambridge Univ. Press.
The most important address about the current experimental and theoretical knowledge about elementary particle physics is the Particle Data Group, where different international institutions collect all experimental data and give short reviews over the contemporary theoretical understanding.
other pages are:
- particleadventure.org, a well-made introduction also for non physicists
- CERNCourier: Season of Higgs and melodrama Archived 2008-07-23 at the Wayback Machine
- Interactions.org, particle physics news
- Symmetry Magazine, a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication
- Elementary Particles made thinkable, an interactive visualisation allowing physical properties to be compared