Electoral history of John Quincy Adams

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American politician John Quincy Adams served as President of the United States (1825–1829) and United States Secretary of State (1817–1825). Prior to being president, he had served as United States Senator from Massachusetts (1803–1808) and had diplomatic experience as United States Minister to United Kingdom (1815–1817), Russia (1809–1814), Prussia (1797–1801) and the Netherlands (1794–1797). After losing the 1828 presidential election, he served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts for 17 years. He is the only American president to be elected to the House of Representatives after leaving office.[1][2]

Early political career[edit]

John Quincy Adams was appointed as United States Minister to the Netherlands and ambassador to the Netherlands by George Washington.[3][4] He was also appointed as ambassador to Prussia by his father, John Adams.[5] He was elected to the Massachusetts Senate in 1802. He ran for election for the United States House of Representatives from the Suffolk district, but narrowly lost the election. Soon, he resigned from the Massachusetts Senate on his election to the United States Senate from Massachusetts.

United States Senate elections[edit]

1803[edit]

1803 United States Senate election in Massachusetts
State Legislature Results[6]
First Ballot
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic-Republican Thompson J. Skinner 71 42.01%
Federalist Timothy Pickering 67 39.64%
Federalist Nicholas Tillinghast 12 7.10%
Federalist John Quincy Adams 12 7.10%
Federalist Henry Knox 7 4.14%
Federalist Samuel Dexter 1 0.59%
Federalist William Ely 1 0.59%
Total votes 169 100.00%
1803 United States Senate election in Massachusetts
State Legislature Results
Second Ballot
Party Candidate Votes %
Federalist Timothy Pickering 79 46.47%
Democratic-Republican Thompson J. Skinner 71 41.76%
Federalist Nicholas Tillinghast 9 5.29%
Federalist John Quincy Adams 6 3.53%
Federalist Henry Knox 5 2.94%
Total votes 170 100.00%
1803 United States Senate election in Massachusetts
State Legislature Results
Third Ballot
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic-Republican Thompson J. Skinner 71 41.52%
Federalist John Quincy Adams 56 32.75%
Federalist Timothy Pickering 33 19.30%
Federalist Nicholas Tillinghast 10 5.85%
Federalist Henry Knox 1 0.58%
Total votes 171 100.00%
1803 United States Senate election in Massachusetts
State Legislature Results
Fourth Ballot
Party Candidate Votes %
Federalist John Quincy Adams 86 50.29%
Democratic-Republican Thompson J. Skinner 70 40.94%
Federalist Nicholas Tillinghast 9 5.26%
Federalist Timothy Pickering 6 3.51%
Total votes 171 100.00%
1803 United States Senate election in Massachusetts
Rectification by the United States Senate
Party Candidate Votes %
Federalist John Quincy Adams 19 100.00%
Total votes 19 100.00%

1808[edit]

1808 United States Senate election in Massachusetts[7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Federalist James Lloyd Jr. 248 53.68%
Federalist John Quincy Adams 213 46.10%
Federalist Laban Wheaton 1 0.22%
Total votes 462 100.00%

1841[edit]

1841 United States Senate election in Massachusetts[8]
Party Candidate Votes %
Whig Isaac C. Bates 280 69.14%
Democratic Marcus Morton 119 29.38%
Whig John Quincy Adams 3 0.74%
Whig George N. Briggs 1 0.25%
Whig Levi Lincoln Jr. 1 0.25%
Whig Franklin Dexter 1 0.25%
Total votes 405 100.00%

Subsequent positions (1808 - 1824)[edit]

After losing the senate election in 1808, he served as United States Minister to Russia from 1809 to 1814 under Madison administration, and United States Minister to United Kingdom from 1815 to 1817 under Madison and Monroe Administration. He duly reported on Napoleon's failed invasion, and among various other events. He headed the Commission that negotiated the Treaty of Ghent in 1814, which ended the War of 1812 with Great Britain.[9] He served as Secretary of State under James Monroe from 1817 to 1825. As Secretary of State, his views about territorial expansion guided President Monroe's policies. His diplomacy with Spain led to the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819. Monroe Doctrine reflected various of Adam's political views.[10]

Presidential elections[edit]

1824[edit]

Immediately upon becoming Secretary of State, Adams emerged as one of Monroe's most likely successors for presidency. Since the Federalist Party had collapsed, all the major contenders for presidency were from Democratic-Republican party. His initial choice for vice presidential candidate was Andrew Jackson, but as the election approached, Jackson entered the race for president.[11] Adams was nominated by Massachusetts legislature as presidential candidate.

Popular vote and electoral vote[edit]

Electoral college map for the 1824 United States presidential election.

The election of 1824 was the only election in American history in which no presidential candidate received a majority of the votes in the electoral college. Andrew Jackson received 99 electoral votes but was 32 votes short of the amount needed to reach a majority. He won the largest number of popular votes. William H. Crawford received 41 electoral votes, and Henry Clay received 37.

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote[a] Electoral vote
Count Percentage
Andrew Jackson[b] Democratic-Republican Tennessee 151,271 41.36% 99
John Quincy Adams[c] Democratic-Republican Massachusetts 113,122 30.92% 84
William Harris Crawford[d] Democratic-Republican Georgia 40,856 11.21% 41
Henry Clay[e] Democratic-Republican Kentucky 47,531 12.99% 37
Unpledged electors None Massachusetts 6,616 1.81% 0
Other 6,437 1.71% 0
Total 365,833 100.0% 261
Needed to win 131

Contingent election[edit]

Map of House of Representatives delegation votes

Since no candidate received a clear majority votes in electoral college, the responsibility for electing a new president devolved upon the U.S. House of Representatives, which held a contingent election on February 9, 1825. As prescribed in the 12th Amendment, the top three candidates in electoral college vote would be eligible to receive state delegation votes, and the remaining candidates would be eliminated, accordingly, Henry Clay was eliminated.[13] Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House was highly influential. By contrast, Clay viewed Jackson as a dangerous demagogue, and he was unwilling to support Crawford due to the latter's health issues. Adams and Clay met before the contingent election, and Clay agreed to support Adams in the election.[14] Thus, Adams was elected president on the first ballot.[15]

1825 contingent presidential election vote distribution
States for Adams States for Jackson States for Crawford
  • Connecticut
  • Illinois
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Massachusetts
  • Missouri
  • New Hampshire
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Rhode Island
  • Vermont
  • Alabama
  • Indiana
  • Mississippi
  • New Jersey
  • Pennsylvania
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Delaware
  • Georgia
  • North Carolina
  • Virginia
Total: 13 (54%) Total: 7 (29%) Total: 4 (17%)

1828[edit]

Electoral college map for the 1828 United States presidential election.

The 1828 presidential election was a rematch between incumbent president Adams and Andrew Jackson. Adams had selected Richard Rush as his vice presidential running mate in the Anti-Jacksonian Party ticket. Andrew Jackson was nominated by Jacksonian Party ticket with John C. Calhoun as his running mate.[16] Adams lost to Jackson in a landslide, and was able to win only those states which his father John Adams had won in the 1800 presidential election. Adams did not attend Jackson's inauguration, making him one of only four presidents who finished their terms but chose to skip the event.[17]

Electoral results
Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote(a) Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote
Andrew Jackson Democratic Tennessee 638,348 55.33% 178 John Caldwell Calhoun (incumbent) South Carolina 171
William Smith South Carolina 7
John Quincy Adams (incumbent) National Republican Massachusetts 507,440 43.98% 83 Richard Rush Pennsylvania 83
Other 7,991(b) 0.69% Other
Total 1,153,779 100% 261 261
Needed to win 131 131

House of Representatives elections[edit]

Adams contested his first election for House of Representatives in 1802, in which he narrowly lost to William Eustis. After his presidency, he contested the election for House of Representatives from Massachusetts's 11th congressional district. He won the election in a landslide, and wrote in his diary that "my election as President of the United States was not half so gratifying to my inmost soul. No election or appointment conferred upon me ever gave me so much pleasure."[18] He was sworn in on December 5, 1831, and seven days later was appointed chairman of the Committee of Manufactures. He is the only President to be elected in House of Representatives after leaving office.[2] He served nine post-presidential terms in Congress from 1830 until his death in 1848, usually voting in the minority. He supported the rechartering of the Bank of the United States, opposed the annexation of Texas and the war with Mexico.

1802[edit]

1802 United States House of Representatives election in Massachusetts
Massachusetts-1 (Suffolk)[19]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic-Republican William Eustis 1,898 50.79%
Federalist John Quincy Adams 1,839 49.21%
Total votes 3,737 100.00%

1830[edit]

1830 United States House of Representatives election in Massachusetts[20]
Massachusetts-11
Party Candidate Votes %
Anti-Jacksonian John Quincy Adams 1,811 74.77%
Jacksonian Ara Tompason 378 15.61%
Unknown William Baylies 233 9.62%
Total votes 2,422 100.00%

1832-33[edit]

1832 United States House of Representatives election in Massachusetts[21]
Massachusetts-12
Party Candidate Votes %
Anti-Masonic John Quincy Adams 2,592 78.40%
Jacksonian Jedediah Lincoln 714 21.60%
Total votes 3,306 100.00%

1834-35[edit]

1834 United States House of Representatives election in Massachusetts[22]
Massachusetts-12
Party Candidate Votes %
Anti-Masonic John Quincy Adams 3,234 86.29%
Unknown Write-in candidates 337 8.99%
Unknown Abel Cushing 117 4.72%
Total votes 3,688 100.00%

1836-37[edit]

1836 United States House of Representatives election in Massachusetts
Massachusetts-12[23]
Party Candidate Votes %
Whig John Quincy Adams 3,125 83.31%
Democratic Solomon Lincoln 260 6.93%
Unknown John Thomas 222 5.92%
Unknown Write-in candidates 144 3.84%
Total votes 3,751 100.00%

1838-39[edit]

1836 United States House of Representatives election in Massachusetts
Massachusetts-12[24]
Party Candidate Votes %
Whig John Quincy Adams 4,100 59.23%
Democratic William M. Jackson 2,822 40.77%
Total votes 6,922 100.00%

1840[edit]

1836 United States House of Representatives election in Massachusetts
Massachusetts-12[25]
Party Candidate Votes %
Whig John Quincy Adams 5,948 54.60%
Democratic William M. Jackson 4,945 45.40%
Total votes 10,893 100.00%
Adams in early 1840s

1842[edit]

1836 United States House of Representatives election in Massachusetts
Massachusetts-8[26]
Party Candidate Votes %
Whig John Quincy Adams 5,996 51.86%
Democratic Ezra Wilkinson 5,418 46.86%
Liberty William M. Jackson 147 1.27%
Total votes 11,561 100.00%

1844[edit]

1844 United States House of Representatives election in Massachusetts
Massachusetts-8[27]
Party Candidate Votes %
Whig John Quincy Adams 8,089 57.12%
Democratic Issac H. Wright 5,340 37.71%
Liberty Appleton Howe 733 5.18%
Total votes 14,162 100.00%

1846[edit]

1836 United States House of Representatives election in Massachusetts
Massachusetts-8[28]
Party Candidate Votes %
Whig John Quincy Adams 5,765 62.63%
Democratic Issac H. Wright 2,617 28.25%
Liberty Appleton Howe 882 9.52%
Total votes 14,162 100.00%

Speaker of the House of Representatives elections[edit]

Adams received votes in two Speaker of the House elections: in an 1834 intra-term election during the 23rd Congress and in a December 1835 election at the start of the 24th Congress.

June 1834[edit]

June 1834 election for speaker[29]
Candidate Votes per ballot
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th
Richard H. Wilde (GA At-large) 64 64 59 49 37 24 16 11 11 11
James K. Polk (TN 9) 42 53 57 59 67 67 73 78 76 78
Joel B. Sutherland (PA 1) 34 30 26 25 16 16 10 9 4 2
John Bell (TN 7) 30 39 47 49 57 65 76 97 104 114
Jesse Speight (NC 4) 18 16 8 4 3 1 3 3 2 1
James M. Wayne (GA At-large) 15 13 15 25 30 36 26 13 8 6
Lewis Williams (NC 13) 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Edward Everett (MA 4) 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Thomas Chilton (KY 6) 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Henry Hubbard (NH At-large) 2 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0
Roger L. Gamble (GA At-large) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
John Gilmore (PA) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
John Quincy Adams (MA 12) 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
Benjamin Hardin (KY 7) 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Amos Lane (IN 4) 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Thomas A. Marshall (KY 12) 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
William S. Archer (VA 3) 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Davy Crockett (TN 12) 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Richard Coulter (PA 19) 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Blank 4 2 4 7 5 5 10 8 6 6
Total votes 220 223 219 221 217 216 214 219 211 218
Votes necessary 111 112 110 111 109 109 108 110 106 110

December 1835[edit]

December 1835 election for speaker[30]
Party Candidate Votes %
Jacksonian James K. Polk (TN 9) 132 58.67
Anti-Jacksonian John Bell (TN 7) (Incumbent) 84 37.33
Anti-Jacksonian Charles F. Mercer (VA 14) 3 1.33
Anti-Masonic John Quincy Adams (MA 12) 2 0.89
Anti-Jacksonian Francis Granger (NY 26) 1 0.44
    Blank 3 1.33
Total votes 225 100
Votes necessary 113 >50

Massachusetts Gubernatorial election[edit]

1833[edit]

1833 Massachusetts gubernatorial election [31]
Party Candidate Votes %
Anti-Jacksonian John Davis 25,149 40.3%
Anti-Masonic John Quincy Adams 18,274 29.3%
Jacksonian Marcus Morton 15,493 24.8%
Unknown Samuel Allen 3,459 5.5%
Total votes 62,375 100.00%

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The popular vote figures exclude Delaware, Georgia, Louisiana, New York, South Carolina, and Vermont. In all of these states, the Electors were chosen by the state legislatures rather than by popular vote.[12]
  2. ^ Jackson was nominated by the Tennessee state legislature and by the Democratic Party of Pennsylvania.
  3. ^ Adams was nominated by the Massachusetts state legislature.
  4. ^ Crawford was nominated by a caucus of 66 congressmen that called itself the "Democratic members of Congress".
  5. ^ Clay was nominated by the Kentucky state legislature.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "John Quincy Adams as a Congressman". www.americaslibrary.gov. Archived from the original on 2021-05-05. Retrieved 2021-05-16.
  2. ^ a b "The Election of John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Archived from the original on 2021-05-17. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  3. ^ Cooper, p. 38.
  4. ^ Cooper, pp. 48–49.
  5. ^ Edel, p. 83.
  6. ^ "Massachusetts 1803 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Archived from the original on August 20, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  7. ^ "Massachusetts 1808 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved February 3, 2018., citing The Pittsfield Sun (Pittsfield, MA). June 11, 1808.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA US Senate Race - Jan 13, 1841". www.ourcampaigns.com. Archived from the original on 2021-05-15. Retrieved 2021-05-15.
  9. ^ "John Quincy Adams - People - Department History - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Archived from the original on 2018-12-05. Retrieved 2021-05-16.
  10. ^ Ford, Worthington C. (1902). "John Quincy Adams and the Monroe Doctrine" (PDF). The American Historical Review. Oxford University. 7 (4): 676–696. doi:10.2307/1834564. JSTOR 1834564.
  11. ^ Kaplan, pp. 386–389.
  12. ^ Leip, David. "1824 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved July 26, 2005.
  13. ^ McNamara, Robert (February 11, 2020). "The Election of 1824 Was Decided in the House of Representatives". thoughtco.com. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  14. ^ Kaplan, pp. 391–393, 398
  15. ^ Adams, John Quincy; Adams, Charles Francis (1874). Memoirs of John Quincy Adams: Comprising Portions of His Diary from 1795 to 1848. J.B. Lippincott & Co. pp. 501–505. ISBN 978-0-8369-5021-2. Retrieved August 2, 2006 – via Internet Archive.
  16. ^ Deskins, Donald Richard; Walton, Hanes; Puckett, Sherman (2010). Presidential Elections, 1789-2008: County, State, and National Mapping of Election Data. University of Michigan Press. pp. 88–90.
  17. ^ Balcerski, Opinion by Thomas. "Opinion: A history lesson on presidents who snub their successors' inaugurations". CNN. Archived from the original on 2021-01-14. Retrieved 2020-11-12.
  18. ^ "John Quincy Adams' Congressional Career / U.S. Capitol History | USCHS". United States Capitol Historical Society. Archived from the original on 2021-05-16. Retrieved 2021-05-16.
  19. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 1 (Suffolk) Race - Nov 01, 1802". www.ourcampaigns.com. Archived from the original on 2021-05-15. Retrieved 2021-05-15.
  20. ^ Guide to US Elections 2010, p. 978.
  21. ^ Guide to US Elections 2010, p. 983.
  22. ^ Guide to US Elections 2010, p. 985.
  23. ^ Guide to US Elections 2010, p. 989.
  24. ^ Guide to US Elections 2010, p. 993.
  25. ^ Guide to US Elections 2010, p. 996.
  26. ^ Guide to US Elections 2010, p. 1000.
  27. ^ Guide to US Elections 2010, p. 1003.
  28. ^ Guide to US Elections 2010, p. 1006.
  29. ^ "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774 - 1875". memory.loc.gov. Archived from the original on 2021-05-16. Retrieved 2021-05-16.
  30. ^ Cong. Globe, 24th Cong., 1st Sess. 3 (1835)
  31. ^ Guide to US Elections 2010, p. 1622.

Books[edit]