# Developed country

Developed countries
Data unavailable

World map showing country classifications as per the IMF[1] and the UN[2] (last updated 2022). "Developed economies" according to this classification scheme are shown in blue.

A developed country (or industrialized country, high-income country, more economically developed country (MEDC), advanced country[3][4]) is a sovereign state that has a high quality of life, developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living.[5] Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate. A point of reference of US\$20,000 in 2021 USD nominal GDP per capita for the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is a good point of departure, it is a similar level of development to the United States in 1960.[6]

Developed countries have generally more advanced post-industrial economies, meaning the service sector provides more wealth than the industrial sector. They are contrasted with developing countries, which are in the process of industrialisation or are pre-industrial and almost entirely agrarian, some of which might fall into the category of Least Developed Countries. As of 2015, advanced economies comprise 60.8% of global GDP based on nominal values and 42.9% of global GDP based on purchasing-power parity (PPP) according to the IMF.[7]

## Definition and criteria

Countries or territories by GDP (nominal) per capita in 2022.
 >\$60,000   \$50,000 - \$60,000   \$40,000 - \$50,000   \$30,000 - \$40,000 \$20,000 - \$30,000   \$10,000 - \$20,000   \$5,000 - \$10,000   \$2,500 - \$5,000 \$1,000 - \$2,500   \$500 - \$1,000   <\$500   No data

Economic criteria have tended to dominate discussions. One such criterion is income per capita; countries with high gross domestic product (GDP) per capita would thus be described as developed countries. Another economic criterion is industrialisation; countries in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors of industry dominate would thus be described as developed. More recently another measure, the Human Development Index (HDI), which combines an economic measure, national income, with other measures, indices for life expectancy and education has become prominent. This criterion would define developed countries as those with a very high (HDI) rating. The index, however, does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.[8][9]

According to the United Nations Statistics Division:

There is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system.[10]

And it notes that:

The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.[11]

### Similar terms

Terms linked to the concept developed country include "advanced country", "industrialized country", "'more developed country" (MDC), "more economically developed country" (MEDC), "Global North country", "first world country", and "post-industrial country". The term industrialized country may be somewhat ambiguous, as industrialisation is an ongoing process that is hard to define. The first industrialized country was the United Kingdom, followed by Belgium. Later it spread further to Germany, United States, France and other Western European countries. According to some economists such as Jeffrey Sachs, however, the current divide between the developed and developing world is largely a phenomenon of the 20th century.[12]

Mathis Wackernagel calls the binary labeling of countries as "neither descriptive nor explanatory. It is merely a thoughtless and destructive endorsement of GDP fetish. In reality, there are not two types of countries, but over 200 countries, all faced with the same laws of nature, yet each with unique features."[13]

A 2021 analysis proposes the term emerged to describe markets, economies, or countries that have graduated from emerging market status, but have not yet reached the level equivalent to developed countries.[14] Multinational corporations from these emerged markets present unique patterns to overseas expansion and knowledge acquisition from foreign countries.

## Economy lists by various criteria

### Human Development Index (HDI)

Countries ranked in the "Very High" category of the Human Development Index (based on 2019 data, published in 2020)

The UN HDI is a statistical measure that gauges an economy's level of human development. While there is a strong correlation between having a high HDI score and being a prosperous economy, the UN points out that the HDI accounts for more than income or productivity. Unlike GDP per capita or per capita income, the HDI takes into account how income is turned "into education and health opportunities and therefore into higher levels of human development."

Since 1990, Norway (2001–2006, 2009–2019), Japan (1990–1991 and 1993), Canada (1992 and 1994–2000) and Iceland (2007–2008) have had the highest HDI score.

Many economies listed by IMF as "advanced", possess an HDI over 0.800, the threshold for "very high" human development. Many economies[Note 1] possessing an HDI of 0.800 and over are conversely listed by IMF as "advanced". Thus, many "advanced economies" are characterized by an HDI score of 0.800 or higher.[15]

The 2020 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 15 December 2020, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2019. Below is the list of the "very high human development" economies:[16][17]

• = increase.
• = decrease.
• The number in parentheses represents the number of ranks the economy has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the year of 2018.

As a non-UN member, the government of Taiwan calculates its own HDI based on UNDP's 2010 methodology,[18][19] which had a value of 0.916 in 2019,[Note 2] ranked 23 globally. Additionally, while the HDI for the Chinese special administrative region (SAR) of Hong Kong is calculated by the UNDP, it is not applicable for the other SAR of Macau. According to the 2021 annual report published by Statistical Bureau of Macau, its HDI was estimated as 0.922 in 2019.[20] These values place both Taiwan and Macau well within the group of "Very high human development". Furthermore, in 2009 a United Nations project calculated the HDI for all of its members, as well as Taiwan, Macau, and many dependent territories. The HDI values for the countries of San Marino and Monaco, which have not been included in official annual HDI reports, were found to be at 0.961 and 0.956 respectively. This places both countries firmly within the category of countries with "Very high human development" as well. The dependent territories with HDI values equivalent to "Very high human development" were: Jersey, Cayman Islands, Bermuda, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Norfolk Island, Faroe Islands, Isle of Man, British Virgin Islands, Falkland Islands, Aruba, Puerto Rico, Martinique, Greenland, and Guam.[21] Of note, the HDI values in the 2009 report were calculated using the old HDI formula, while HDI values after the year 2010 are calculated with a different formula.

### High-income economies

Some institutions have produced lists of developed countries: the UN (list shown above), the CIA,[22] and some providers of stock market indices (the FTSE Group, MSCI, S&P, Dow Jones, STOXX, etc.). The latter is not included here because its association of developed countries with countries with both high incomes and developed markets is not deemed as directly relevant.[why?][Note 3]

However, many other institutions have created more general lists referred to when discussing developed countries. For example, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identifies 39 "advanced economies".[15][23] The OECD's 37 members are known as the "developed countries club".[24][25][26] The World Bank identifies 81 "high income countries".[27] Other standards, such as the 30-50 Club (GDP per capita over \$30,000 and population over 50 million) have been developed to categorize highly developed and influential countries.

#### World Bank high-income economies

World Bank high-income economies in 2019

According to the World Bank the following 80 countries and territories are classified as "high-income economies". As of the 2022 fiscal year, high-income economies are those that had a GNI per capita of \$12,696 or more in 2020.[27]

36 countries and territories in Europe:

20 countries and territories in the Americas:

15 countries and territories in Asia:

eight countries and territories in Oceania:

one country in Africa:

nine former high-income economies:[28]

* Between 1994 and 2009, as a part of the  Netherlands Antilles.

# Dissolved on 10 October 2010, succeeded by Curaçao and Sint Maarten.

#### High-income OECD members

According to the World Bank, the following 34 members are classified as "OECD High-Income":[29][30]

26 countries in Europe:

three countries in the Americas:

three countries in Asia:

two countries in Oceania:

### Development Assistance Committee members

Member nations of the Development Assistance Committee

There are 29 OECD member countries and the European Union—in the Development Assistance Committee (DAC),[31] a group of the world's major donor countries that discuss issues surrounding development aid and poverty reduction in developing countries.[32] The following OECD member countries are DAC members:

23 countries in Europe:

two countries in the Americas:

two countries in Asia:

two countries in Oceania:

Countries described as Advanced Economies by the IMF

According to the International Monetary Fund, 40 countries and territories are officially listed as "advanced economies",[1][33] with the addition of 7 microstates and dependencies modified by the CIA which were omitted from the IMF version :[22]

28 countries and dependencies in Europe classified by the IMF, 6 others given by the CIA :

Plusd

seven countries and territories in Asia:

three countries and territories in the Americas classified by the IMF, one territory given by the CIA :

two countries in Oceania:

d The CIA has modified an older version of the IMF's list of 38 Advanced Economies, noting that the IMF's Advanced Economies list "would presumably also cover the following nine smaller countries of Andorra, Bermuda, Faroe Islands, Guernsey, Holy See, Jersey, Liechtenstein, Monaco, and San Marino[...]". San Marino (2012) and Andorra (2021) were later included in the IMF's list.[22]

### Paris Club members

Permanent members of the Paris Club

There are 22 permanent members in the Paris Club (French: Club de Paris), a group of officials from major creditor countries whose role is to find coordinated and sustainable solutions to the payment difficulties experienced by debtor countries.

15 countries in Europe:

three countries in the Americas:

three countries in Asia:

one country in Oceania:

## Comparative table (2022)

Comparative table of countries with a "very high" human development (0.800 or higher), according to UNDP; OECD members; "advanced" economies, according to the IMF; "high income" economies, according to the World Bank; and income per capita (purchasing power parity) higher than \$22,000, according to the IMF.

Developed Countries
Countries HDI[17] OECD[34] IMF[35] WB[36] Per capita PPP 2021[37]
2018
Lithuania Yes since 2005 Yes since 2018 Yes since 2015 Yes since 2012 Yes since 2011
2016
Latvia Yes since 2005 Yes since 2016 Yes since 2014 Yes since 2012 Yes since 2013
2011
Estonia Yes since 2003 Yes since 2010 Yes since 2011 Yes since 2006 Yes since 2010
2010
Israel Yes since 1991 Yes since 2010 Yes since 1997[38] Yes since 1987 Yes since 2004
Slovenia Yes since 1998 Yes since 2010 Yes since 2007 Yes since 1997 Yes since 2004
2009
Czech Republic Yes since 2001 Yes since 1995 Yes since 2009 Yes since 2006 Yes since 2005
Slovakia Yes since 2006 Yes since 2000 Yes since 2009 Yes since 2007 Yes since 2007
2005
Portugal Yes since 2005 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1989[39] Yes since 1994 Yes since 2004
South Korea Yes since 1999 Yes since 1996 Yes since 1997[40] Yes since 2001 Yes since 2005
2003
Greece Yes since 2001 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1989[39] Yes since 1996 Yes since 2003
2000
New Zealand Yes before 1990 Yes since 1973 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 2000
1999
Spain Yes since 1995 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1999
1997
Finland Yes since 1994 Yes since 1969 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1997
Ireland Yes since 1996 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1997
United Kingdom Yes since 1992 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1997
1996
Iceland Yes before 1990 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1996
1995
Italy Yes since 1995 Yes since 1962 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1993
Sweden Yes before 1990 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1995
1994
Australia Yes before 1990 Yes since 1971 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1994
Belgium Yes before 1990 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1994
Canada Yes before 1990 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1994
France Yes since 1993 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1994
1992
Austria Yes since 1992 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1992
Germany Yes before 1990 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1992
Japan Yes before 1990 Yes since 1964 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1992
Luxembourg Yes since 1992 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1985
1991
Denmark Yes since 1991 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1991
Netherlands Yes before 1990 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1991
1989
United States Yes before 1990 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1989
1987
Norway Yes before 1990 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1985
Switzerland Yes before 1990 Yes since 1961 Yes since 1945 Yes since 1987 Yes since 1984
Countries to be considered developed (1 pending recognition)
Countries HDI[17] OECD[34] IMF[35] WB[36] Per capita PPP 2021[37]
Andorra Yes since 2003 No Yes since 2021 Yes since 1990 Yes before 2010
Chile Yes since 2007 Yes since 2010 No Yes since 2012 Yes since 2013
Hungary Yes since 2005 Yes since 1996 No Yes since 2014 Yes since 2010
Poland Yes since 2003 Yes since 1996 No Yes since 2009 Yes since 2011
Malta Yes since 2003 No Yes since 2008 Yes since 2002 Yes since 2005
Cyprus Yes since 2001 No Yes since 2001 Yes since 1988 Yes since 2000
Singapore Yes since 1999 No Yes since 1997[40] Yes since 1987 Yes since 1990
In process (2 pending recognitions)
Countries HDI[17] OECD[34] IMF[35] WB[36] per capita PPP 2021[37]
Costa Rica Yes since 2019 Yes since 2021 No No Yes since 2021
Croatia Yes since 2007 No No Yes since 2017 Yes since 2014
Uruguay Yes since 2014 No No Yes since 2012 Yes since 2016
Bahamas Yes since 2016 No No Yes since 1987 Yes since 1996
Turkey Yes since 2015 Yes since 1961 No No Yes since 2013
Kuwait Yes since 2014 No No Yes since 1987 Yes before 1980
Oman Yes since 2012 No No Yes since 2007 Yes since 1990
San Marino No data No Yes since 2012 Yes since 2000 Yes before 2004
Romania Yes since 2013 No No Yes since 2021 Yes since 2016
Panama Yes since 2019 No No Yes since 2021 Yes since 2014
Bahrain Yes since 2012 No No Yes since 2001 Yes since 1981
Saudi Arabia Yes since 2010 No No Yes since 2004 Yes before 1980
United Arab Emirates Yes since 2004 No No Yes since 1987 Yes before 1980
Taiwan No data No Yes since 1997[40] Yes since 1987 Yes since 2002
Brunei Yes since 1999 No No Yes since 1990 Yes before 1985
Qatar Yes since 1996 No No Yes since 1987 Yes before 1980
Other recognitions
Countries HDI[17] OECD[34] IMF[35] WB[36] per capita PPP 2021[37]
Mauritius Yes since 2019 No No No Yes since 2021
Argentina Yes since 2006 No No No Yes since 2021
Montenegro Yes since 2013 No No No Yes since 2021
Palau Yes since 2013 No No Yes since 2020 No
Bulgaria Yes since 2015 No No No Yes since 2018
Malaysia Yes since 2016 No No No Yes since 2012
Kazakhstan Yes since 2015 No No No Yes since 2013
Saint Kitts and Nevis No No No Yes since 2012 Yes since 2014
Seychelles No No No Yes since 2014 Yes since 2013
Russia Yes since 2013 No No No Yes since 2011
Barbados Yes since 2011 No No Yes since 2006 No
Trinidad and Tobago No No No Yes since 2006 Yes since 2005
Liechtenstein Yes since 2000 No No Yes since 1994 No data
Guyana No No No No Yes since 2021
Maldives No No No No Yes since 2021
Colombia No Yes since 2020 No No No
Georgia Yes since 2019 No No No No
Serbia Yes since 2019 No No No No
Nauru No No No Yes since 2019 No
Antigua and Barbuda No No No Yes since 2012 No
Belarus Yes since 2012 No No No No
Mexico No Yes since 1994 No No No
Monaco No data No No Yes since 1994 No data

### Rankings

The list below features some outstanding countries selected from the comparative table above with average data of quality (best place in rankings) and quantity (considered in how many of the 36 rankings) with an average between quality and quantity greater than 60%.

Outstanding countries
Rank Country QUALITY QUANTITY Democracy Corruption[41] Quality of living[42] Quality of digital living[43] Cost of living[44] HDI[45] per capita PPP[46] Peace[47] Prosperity[48] Economic Freedom Heritage[49] Human Freedom Fraser[50] Politic/Social Freedom House[51] Competitiveness Doing Business[52] Gay friendly[53] Energy transition [54] Environmental Performance[55] Green Future[56] Happiness[57] Social Progress[58] Global Talent[59] PISA science [7] PISA read PISA maths Mobile internet speed[60] Fixed internet speed Resilience [61] Fragile state[62] Growth promise[63] E-gov[64] English skills[65] Cities in motion[66] Press freedom[67] Rule of law[68] Good Government[69] Labor rights[70]
2022 2022 2019 2021 2022 2021 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2019 2019 2021 2021 2022 2022 2022 2021 2021 2020 2020 2020 2022 2022 2022 2021 2019 2020 2021 2021 2022 2021 2022 2022
1-(SUMRanks /(#Ranks

*100))

COUNT.IF (Ranks;

<100)

/#Ranks

full > score 70 top 100 > score 0.6 low top 100 > very high >22000 1.8 2nd green on map > mostly free > score 8 > score 90 > score 60 > score 60 > score 7 score 70 > score 60 green > score 6.4 tier 2 < 2nd quartile > score 400 > score 400 > score 400 > 30mb > 80mb > score 90 > green > score 6 > very high > high > relative high < score 20 > score 70 > score 0.6 < rating 2
1  Denmark 0,92 1,00 6 1 8 1 95 10 13 4 1 10 3 6 10 4 5 3 1 2 2 3 5 25 19 13 8 5 1 5 4 1 3 6 2 1 4 9
2  Sweden 0,89 1,00 4 4 23 13 57 7 18 26 3 11 9 3 8 10 5 1 5 9 7 7 4 20 11 17 21 21 7 8 8 6 8 14 3 4 7 9
3  Netherlands 0,86 1,00 11 8 11 11 68 8 14 21 6 8 11 7 4 42 14 11 11 3 5 8 6 16 27 9 5 19 15 12 2 10 1 8 28 6 5 36
4  Norway 0,86 0,97 1 4 25 14 98 1 8 17 2 14 13 1 17 9 18 2 100 5 8 1 9 28 20 19 2 20 8 2 7 13 5 12 1 2 6 9
5  Finland 0,86 0,94 3 1 31 3 100 11 23 14 4 9 6 2 11 20 100 6 3 6 1 2 7 7 6 16 18 34 12 1 6 4 9 22 5 3 1 9
6   Switzerland 0,84 0,94 9 7 2 8 100 2 5 11 5 2 1 13 5 36 14 4 9 14 4 5 1 24 28 11 13 15 2 6 1 16 25 11 14 100 2 36
7  Germany 0,81 0,94 15 10 3 9 59 6 20 16 9 16 15 21 7 22 10 100 13 8 14 10 11 16 21 20 29 100 5 13 11 25 11 7 16 5 8 9
8  New Zealand 0,78 0,92 2 1 3 23 89 14 31 2 8 4 2 4 19 1 14 8 100 100 10 12 16 13 11 28 35 14 19 4 9 8 100 23 11 7 9 36
9  Austria 0,77 0,92 20 13 1 21 100 18 17 5 11 22 21 26 21 27 5 5 8 100 11 14 17 28 28 22 25 100 9 14 19 15 2 18 31 9 12 9
10  Canada 0,75 0,89 12 13 3 20 71 16 25 12 15 15 6 5 14 23 1 100 100 15 15 6 13 9 6 12 15 23 21 9 10 28 100 30 19 12 13 100
11  United Kingdom 0,73 0,89 18 11 41 10 58 13 27 34 13 24 14 25 9 8 5 7 2 4 17 18 12 15 15 17 36 100 13 30 13 100 100 1 24 16 10 100
12  Ireland 0,74 0,86 7 13 33 24 100 2 3 3 12 3 5 9 24 24 18 100 10 12 13 13 15 23 8 20 100 100 18 11 12 27 100 33 6 10 11 9
13  Australia 0,71 0,86 9 18 11 17 88 8 22 27 16 12 8 14 16 14 10 100 17 100 12 11 10 16 17 30 16 100 20 10 15 5 100 17 39 13 17 100
14  Belgium 0,66 0,86 100 18 28 25 62 14 21 22 23 100 23 11 22 46 18 100 100 11 19 16 18 20 23 15 26 38 10 18 16 41 6 41 23 14 21 100
15  France 0,66 0,86 100 22 39 7 90 26 26 100 22 100 34 100 15 32 100 9 12 7 20 19 21 25 23 26 24 25 16 20 21 19 31 3 26 23 16 36
16  Portugal 0,63 0,86 100 100 37 30 44 38 45 6 28 31 18 16 34 39 2 100 100 18 100 25 28 27 25 29 37 18 27 16 27 35 7 52 7 26 25 36
17  Luxembourg 0,65 0,81 14 9 18 15 79 23 1 100 7 5 10 10 18 72 100 100 6 100 6 15 8 34 38 34 14 29 3 7 5 33 13 100 21 8 100 100
18  Estonia 0,63 0,81 100 13 86 19 100 29 40 33 17 7 4 18 31 18 100 100 14 100 100 21 24 5 5 8 28 100 28 28 18 3 22 55 4 11 14 36
19  Singapore 0,68 0,75 100 4 25 6 100 11 2 9 14 1 100 100 1 2 100 100 100 100 27 30 3 2 2 2 19 2 4 15 3 11 4 9 100 17 3 36
20  Japan 0,64 0,78 17 18 49 12 100 19 36 10 19 100 15 12 6 29 100 100 100 19 100 9 19 6 15 6 40 12 24 19 17 14 100 4 100 15 15 36
21  Iceland 0,65 0,75 5 13 100 100 100 4 16 1 10 13 12 17 26 26 10 10 100 1 3 4 14 35 36 26 100 100 100 3 14 12 100 5 15 100 19 9
22  Spain 0,58 0,81 100 100 43 18 42 25 41 29 24 100 25 41 23 30 2 100 100 13 29 20 32 30 100 35 49 11 17 38 31 17 100 25 32 21 26 36
23  South Korea 0,58 0,75 16 100 77 2 60 23 30 42 29 19 100 100 13 5 100 100 100 10 100 17 27 8 9 7 3 22 30 21 23 2 100 19 43 20 19 100
24  Czech Republic 0,55 0,78 100 100 69 28 36 27 38 8 27 21 23 38 32 41 100 100 100 100 18 22 25 22 26 22 100 100 23 27 28 39 27 39 20 22 22 36
25  Lithuania 0,52 0,75 100 100 81 16 100 34 39 37 33 17 19 100 39 11 100 100 100 100 34 27 35 31 33 35 39 39 31 25 30 20 24 100 9 18 29 36
26  Uruguay 0,48 0,78 13 18 78 100 53 55 65 46 37 34 33 8 54 100 5 13 100 100 30 39 51 53 49 59 57 31 100 22 42 26 100 100 44 25 100 36
27  Latvia 0,50 0,75 100 100 90 100 37 37 50 35 30 18 21 100 41 19 100 12 15 100 100 34 33 29 30 24 54 100 42 34 34 49 26 100 22 24 30 36
28  United States 0,54 0,67 100 100 34 5 56 17 9 100 20 25 15 100 2 6 100 100 100 100 16 24 2 19 13 38 22 9 100 37 20 9 100 2 42 100 18 100
29  Italy 0,47 0,72 100 100 41 27 54 29 32 32 31 100 26 43 30 58 100 100 100 17 31 23 36 39 33 32 48 100 29 39 39 37 100 42 100 100 34 9

## Notes

1. ^ Namely sovereign states, i.e., excluding Macau: In 2003, the government of Macau calculated its HDI as being 0.909 (the UN does not calculate Macau's HDI); In January 2007, the People's Daily Archived 7 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine reported (from China Modernization Report 2007): "In 2004... Macau... had reached the level of developed countries". The UNCTAD Archived 10 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine organisation (of the UN), as well as the CIA Archived 9 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine, classify Macau as a "developing" territory. The World Bank Archived 28 August 2019 at the Wayback Machine classifies Macau as a high income economy (along with developed economies as well as with few developing economies).
2. ^ In the 2018 Subnational Human Development Index (SHDI) Database, Taiwan's HDI was given as 0.880 among China's data.[1] However, from 2019 onward, Taiwan and Hong Kong are no longer included in the SHDI Database among Chinese divisions.[2] By contrast, the HDIs which published by the Statistical Bureau of Taiwan in its 2019 [3] and 2020 [4] reports were displayed as 0.911 in 2018, and 0.916 in 2019 respectively. The reason for the discrepancy was due to lack of available national data for Taiwan in the UNDP database, and Taiwan is also excluded from its HDI data for China.[5] The SHDI claimed that the data collection for Taiwan was also derived from the Taiwanese Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics [6]; the latter source is used as primary data in this article.
3. ^ The Developed Countries Glossary Archived 20 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine entry reads: "The following countries are classified by FTSE as developed countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium/Luxembourg, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong (China), Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the United States."
4. ^ Geographically a part of Asia, geopolitically a part of Europe.

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