Dera Ghazi Khan

Coordinates: 30°1′59″N 70°38′24″E / 30.03306°N 70.64000°E / 30.03306; 70.64000
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Dera Ghazi Khan
ڈیرہ غازی خان
Clockwise from top: Universal University Dera, Shrine of Ghazi Khan, for whom the city is named, Dera Ghazi Khan International Airport
Dera Ghazi Khan is located in Punjab, Pakistan
Dera Ghazi Khan
Dera Ghazi Khan
Dera Ghazi Khan is located in Pakistan
Dera Ghazi Khan
Dera Ghazi Khan
Coordinates: 30°1′59″N 70°38′24″E / 30.03306°N 70.64000°E / 30.03306; 70.64000
Country Pakistan
ProvincePunjab, Pakistan Punjab
DivisionDera Ghazi Khan
DistrictDera Ghazi Khan
Foundation of Old City1474
Foundation of New City1910
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • Mayor of DG KhanNone (Vacant)[1]
Area
 • City70 km2 (30 sq mi)
 • Metro
11,294 km2 (4,361 sq mi)
Elevation
123 m (404 ft)
Population
 • City399,064
 • Rank19th, Pakistan
 • Density5,700/km2 (15,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+5 (PST)
 • Summer (DST)+6
Postal code
32200
Dialling code064[4]
AcronymDGK
DemonymDigerian, Sulemani Balochs
Websitedgkhan.punjab.gov.pk

Dera Ghazi Khan (ڈیرہ غازی خان), abbreviated as D.G. Khan, is a city in the southwestern part of Punjab, Pakistan. It is the 19th most populous city of Pakistan.[5] Lying west of the Indus River, it is the headquarters of Dera Ghazi Khan District and Dera Ghazi Khan Division.

History[edit]

Foundation[edit]

Dera Ghazi Khan is named after a Dodai chieftain Ghazi Khan, son of Haji Khan Mirani. It was founded at the end of 15th century when Baloch tribes were invited to settle the region by Shah Husein, the second Langah Sultan. Dera Ghazi Khan region was part of Multan province of the Mughal Empire between the 16th and 18th centuries.[6]

Fifteen generations of Miranis ruled the area till 19th century. In the beginning of the 19th century, Zaman Khan was the ruler of Dera Ghazi Khan under Kabul. The area was invaded by the Sikh Army from Multan under the command of Khushal Singh, general of Ranjit Singh in 1819 and thus Dera Ghazi Khan came under the Sikh rule.[7]

Khushal Singh Jamadar, Chamberlain of Sikh Empire

Post independence[edit]

After the success of the Pakistan Movement, which led to the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while many Muslim refugees from India settled down in the Dera Ghazi Khan District. Many Hindus and Sikhs from Dera Ghazi Khan settled in Delhi and founded Derawal Nagar along with the migrants from Dera Ismail Khan.[8]

Geography and climate[edit]

Dera Ghazi Khan is located at 30'03" N and 70'38" E. The overall climate of the city is dry with little rainfall. The winter is mild and dry, but it is very hot in summer. The average high during summer is about 107 °F (42 °C), while during winter the average low is 40 °F (4 °C). The prevailing wind direction is north–south. Due to the barren mountains of Koh-Suleman and the sandy soil of the area, windstorms are common in the summer. During summer, the temperatures are generally amongst the highest in Pakistan. Fort Munro, located on the edge of Punjab Province, has relatively cooler weather. In winter, scattered snowfall has been reported.

Climate data for Dera Ghazi Khan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.0
(77.0)
30.0
(86.0)
35.0
(95.0)
38.0
(100.4)
42.0
(107.6)
46.0
(114.8)
44.0
(111.2)
42.0
(107.6)
40.0
(104.0)
38.0
(100.4)
32.0
(89.6)
22.0
(71.6)
46.0
(114.8)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 20.3
(68.5)
22.1
(71.8)
26.9
(80.4)
33.5
(92.3)
38.7
(101.7)
41.5
(106.7)
38.5
(101.3)
37.4
(99.3)
36.7
(98.1)
33.4
(92.1)
27.7
(81.9)
21.9
(71.4)
31.5
(88.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.2
(54.0)
14.7
(58.5)
19.9
(67.8)
26.0
(78.8)
30.9
(87.6)
34.2
(93.6)
32.7
(90.9)
31.9
(89.4)
30.2
(86.4)
25.3
(77.5)
19.1
(66.4)
13.6
(56.5)
24.2
(75.6)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 4.2
(39.6)
7.3
(45.1)
12.9
(55.2)
18.5
(65.3)
23.1
(73.6)
26.8
(80.2)
26.9
(80.4)
26.4
(79.5)
23.8
(74.8)
17.3
(63.1)
10.5
(50.9)
5.3
(41.5)
16.9
(62.4)
Record low °C (°F) −2.2
(28.0)
−2.0
(28.4)
4.0
(39.2)
9.5
(49.1)
14.4
(57.9)
17.5
(63.5)
18.6
(65.5)
19.5
(67.1)
15.8
(60.4)
8.0
(46.4)
2.2
(36.0)
−2.8
(27.0)
−2.8
(27.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 10.0
(0.39)
17.5
(0.69)
34.8
(1.37)
21.7
(0.85)
17.2
(0.68)
14.4
(0.57)
60.8
(2.39)
57.5
(2.26)
17.6
(0.69)
4.8
(0.19)
2.1
(0.08)
10.4
(0.41)
268.8
(10.57)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 222.2 206.8 234.3 259.2 290.1 247.7 241.3 261.1 271.1 283.2 249.7 220.4 2,987.1
Source: NOAA (1961–1990)[9]

Civic administration[edit]

Dera Ghazi Khan Municipal Corporation is administratively subdivided into seven Union Councils.[10] The city is also the headquarters of Dera Ghazi Khan District and administrative capital of Dera Ghazi Khan Division.

Education[edit]

Colleges[edit]

  • Ghazi University is a university in Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. The university was established in 2012 at the initiative of the Chief Minister of the Punjab Muhammad Shahbaz Sharif. It is named after Baloch mercenary Ghazi Khan. The university is situated in the center of city near pull daat and college chock. Since its inception, GU has been operated only on additional charge basis. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Tufail (TI) assumed the charge as a permanent Vice Chancellor (VC), on Sept. 18, 2018. Major infrastructure and development process started in university after Chief Minister Usman Buzdar held the CM office in 2018. Multiple projects worth million of rupees were initiated on special initiative of CM Usman Buzdar.
  • Mir Chaker Khan Rind University of Technology MCUT is public sector Engineering University providing Engineering education in various discipline of Technology. It is necessary in public interest to make provisions for the establishment of Mir Chakar Khan Rind University of Technology in Dera Ghazi Khan to promote research and development for purposes of producing high quality technical human resource to cope with the present day requirements. University was established on directions of CM Usman Buzdar
  • College of Agriculture, DG Khan Sub-Campus University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. (CADGK)[11]
  • Indus International Institute: It is affiliated with National College of Business Administration and Economics has been established by private sector.[12] For the needs of remote area students, the institute has its own buses to facilitate the transport availability for the students. Indus has a library and Computer Lab as well.
University of Education, Dera Ghazi Khan campus
  • The College of Education: It was established in 1989 under the affiliation of Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan. The college became a constituent institution of the University of Education in 2002 and is in its new building adjacent to the Shah Faisal (Bihari) Colony. The campus has a hostel for boys and onel for girls. The campus offers teacher education programs like BEd Secondary, MEd, M.A. Education and B.A. BEd's several private sector colleges also exist in this city.
  • Ghazi Khan Medical College: The government decided to establish a medical college in Dera Ghazi Khan to improve the facilities in southern part of the province.[13] Ghazi Khan Medical College classes were started in 2010 in Q.M.C Bahawapur. The foundation stone for Ghazi University and Dera Ghazi Khan Medical College was laid in December 2011.[14] Classes shifted from Q.M.C Bahawalpur to Ghazi Khan Medical College in March 2012. Niaz Ahmed Baloch was appointed as a first principal of the Medical College.
  • The Medical and Dental College has been developed as a state-of-the-art medical institution imparting accredited and approved medical education and research. The D.H. Hospital and Research Institute, which will be a research-oriented teaching hospital, will fulfill the requirement of training and research of medical students. The curriculum of the Medical and Dental College will be in line with the PM&DC regulations and international health standards.

Technology and specialization

  • UAF College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan: It is a constituent college of the University of Agriculture Faisalabad located near the airport imparts training in the degree of BSc (Hons.) Agriculture. The college consists of teaching sections of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Horticulture, Agronomy, Soil and Forestry Range Management and Wildlife, Agricultural Entomology, Plant Pathology, Animal Production and Health, Agricultural Engineering and Technology, and Social Sciences and Rural Development. It aims to develop as a university.
  • Govt. Institute of Technology: It is situated at airport road, and is one of the biggest institutes in the region offering diploma and BTech classes in more than ten technologies in morning and evening shifts. Diploma courses in technologies are Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, Auto-mechanical, Petroleum, Chemical, Petrochemical, I.T. and Computer etc.
  • Cadet college fort munro: It is situated at N-70 Quetta road in fort munro , a only beautiful hill station of south Punjab, state of the art building under PAKISTAN AIR FORCE.

Universities[edit]

The government has established a state-of-the-art Ghazi University in Dera Ghazi Khan since 2011 near airport. For this purpose 1000 acres of land has been acquired for the next 50 years requirement of the university. The foundation stone for Ghazi University and Ghazi Medical College was laid in December 2011.[15] The Govt. Postgraduate College, FAU Agriculture College and Ghazi Medical College will work under this university. Vice Chancellor of Islamia University Bahawalpur Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed has given additional charge of Ghazi University v.c since 11.06.2014. The Virtual University of Pakistan has established its campus here since 2004 which is providing both campus based and distance learning education primarily based on IT tools and technology. Another prominent educational organisation is the Allama Iqbal Open University campus. The government has approved Akhuwat University of Engineering and Technology in Dera Ghazi Khan since 2012.[1].[16] Mir chakar khan rind university of technology.

Demographics[edit]

Most people are Sunni Muslims. The majority of the population is poor but they have been ruled by the rich landlords and chiefs of Baloch tribes which played a significant role in the national and provincial politics.

Some of these feudals use the title Sardar for themselves, including the Chief Minister of Punjab Usman Buzdar, former President of Pakistan Farooq Leghari, Governors of the Punjab Zulfiqar Ali Khosa and Latif Khosa, Mir Badshah Qaisrani, Sardar of the Malghani Balouch tribe, Chief Minister of Punjab Dost Muhammad Khosa, Chief Secretary of Punjab, Nasir Mehmood Khosa, Former Inspector General Police of Punjab, Tariq Khosa, and Supreme Court Judge Asif Khosa.

The city is one of the oldest districts in South Asia. Dera Ghazi Khan did not develop like other cities in Punjab. Based on the surveys of 2004–2005, Dera Ghazi Khan district is considered one of the twenty poorest districts of Pakistan with about 51% of its population living below the poverty line.[17]

Population[edit]

Historical populations of Dera Ghazi Khan city.[18]

National Census Year Population
1972 72,343
1981 102,007
1998 190,542
2017 399,064

Religion[edit]

Religion in the city of Dera Ghazi Khan
Religion Population (1901)[19] Percentage (1901) Population (1941) [20] Percentage (1941)
Islam 13,295 55.7% 18,810 58.53%
Hinduism [a] 9,988 41.84% 12,989 40.42%
Sikhism 165 0.69% 157 0.49%
Jainism 143 0.6% 106 0.33%
Christianity 140 0.59% 37 0.12%
Others 40 0.12%
Total 23,871 100% 32,139 100%

Transport[edit]

Airport[edit]

Dera Ghazi Khan International Airport is located near the city.It carries both domestic and International Flights.

Culture[edit]

Fairs and festivals[edit]

  • Sangh Mela, is a Vaisakhi fair during March and April, and has been celebrated in Sakhi Sarwar by people coming from Jhang and Faisalabad for centuries. This festival is celebrated by Hindus and Muslims, especially at the time of wheat harvesting. In some places it is known as Basant. Throughout history, a large number of followers coming from different religions became the followers of Sakhi Sarwar. Max Arthur Macauliffe, a colonial office appointed in Punjab, observed in 1875 that not only Muslims but Hindus also visited the shrines during the urs. In the 1911 census of India, 79,085 Sikhs reported to be followers of Sakhi Sarwar.[21]

Cuisine[edit]

  • Sohan Halwa is a traditional sweet made by boiling a mixture of water, sugar, milk and wheatflour (coarse pieces)/cornflour until it becomes solid.[22]

Notable people[edit]

Press and media[edit]

Daily Jang is published from Dera Ghazi Khan[23] along with many local newspapers in Urdu, Saraiki and Balochi languages. The Daily Kasak is also published in the city.

Bibliography[edit]

  • "How Pakistan Made Nuclear Fuel" by Munir Ahmad Khan, former chairperson of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission: Islamabad The Nation 7 February 1998, page 7 [Pakistan: Article on How Pakistan Made Nuclear Fuel: FBIS-NES-98-042 : 11 February 1998].

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 1941 census: Including Ad-Dharmis

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Administrators appointed: Dissolution of local govts notified". Dawn (newspaper). 1 January 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  2. ^ "D.G.Khan | Punjab Portal".
  3. ^ "DISTRICT WISE CENSUS RESULTS CENSUS 2017" (PDF). pbscensus.gov.pk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  4. ^ "National Dialing Codes". Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited. Archived from the original on 9 November 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
  5. ^ "Pakistan City & Town Population List". Tageo.com website. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  6. ^ Dasti, Humaira Faiz (1998). Multan, a Province of the Mughal Empire, 1525-1751. Royal Book. ISBN 978-969-407-226-5.
  7. ^ Latif, Syed Muhammad (1891). History Of The Panjab. Calcutta Central Press Company Limited. p. 419. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
  8. ^ "Colonies, posh and model in name only!". NCR Tribune. Retrieved 16 December 2007.
  9. ^ "Dera Ghazi Khan Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  10. ^ "Tehsils & Unions in the District of D.G. Khan – Government of Pakistan". Nrb.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  11. ^ "CADGK – College of Agriculture, D. G. Khan". University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  12. ^ "Indus International Institute". Indusdgk.edu.pk. 11 December 2011. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  13. ^ "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 17 October 2008. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  14. ^ Jafri, Owais (11 December 2011). "Dera visit: Sharif lays medical college's foundation – The Express Tribune". Tribune.com.pk. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  15. ^ "Punjab Assembly: Ghazi University Bill among eight passed". The Express Tribune. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
  16. ^ "Cabinet approves provision of land for 2 universities". The Express Tribune, 22 February 2012. 22 February 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
  17. ^ Haroon Jamal (June 2007). Income Poverty at District Level: An Application of Small Area Estimation Technique (PDF) (Report). Social Policy and Development Centre. pp. 15–18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  18. ^ "Pakistan: Provinces, Major Cities & Urban Areas – Statistics & Maps on City Population". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  19. ^ "Census of India 1901. [Vol. 17A]. Imperial tables, I-VIII, X-XV, XVII and XVIII for the Punjab, with the native states under the political control of the Punjab Government, and for the North-west Frontier Province" (PDF). 24 October 2023. JSTOR saoa.crl.25363739.
  20. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1941 VOLUME VI PUNJAB PROVINCE". p. 36, 37.
  21. ^ Census of India, 1911, Vol. XIV, Punjab, Part I Report, by Pandit Harkishan Singh Kaul, 39
  22. ^ "Sohan Halwa a gift of saints' city". Dawn.com. 16 December 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  23. ^ "Daily Jang Urdu News | Pakistan News | Latest News – Breaking News". Jang.com.pk. Retrieved 8 September 2013.

External links[edit]

External links[edit]