Deputy prime minister

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A deputy prime minister or vice prime minister is, in some countries, a government minister who can take the position of acting prime minister when the prime minister is temporarily absent. The position is often likened to that of a vice president, as both positions are "number two" offices, but there are some differences.

The states of Australia and provinces of Canada each have the analogous office of deputy premier. In the devolved administrations of the United Kingdom, an analogous position is that of the deputy First Minister, albeit the position in Northern Ireland has equivalent powers to the First Minister differing only in the titles of the offices. In Canada, the position of deputy prime minister should not be confused with the Canadian deputy minister of the prime minister of Canada, a nonpolitical civil servant position.

In Austria and Germany, the officeholder is known as vice-chancellor.

A deputy prime minister traditionally serves as acting prime minister when the prime minister is temporarily absent or incapable of exercising power. The deputy prime minister is often asked to succeed to the prime minister's office following the prime minister's sudden death or unexpected resignation, but that is not necessarily mandated by the constitution. This government position is often a job that is held simultaneously with another ministry, and is usually given to one of the most senior or experienced ministers of the cabinet. The holder of this office may also be deputy leader of the governing party, or perhaps the leader of the junior party of a coalition government.

Little scholarly attention has focused on deputy prime ministers, as they are sometimes less involved in the political power plays of government and more focus on the work at hand. A 2009 study in Political Science identified nine 'qualities' of deputy prime ministership: temperament; relationships with their Cabinet and caucus; relationships with their party; popularity with the public; media skills; achievements as deputy prime minister; relationship with the prime minister; leadership ambition; and method of succession.[1]

By contrast, the structure of the Government of Russia[2] and Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine provides for several deputy prime ministers or vice prime ministers.[3] In the case of the Russian government, the prime minister is responsible for defining the scope of the duties for each of their deputies,[4] who also may head a specific ministry: e.g. the former Minister of Finance of Russia, Alexey Kudrin, also serves as one of the deputies of the prime ministers or vice-premiers. One or two of these deputy prime ministers may hold the title of a first deputy prime minister. Russian federal law indicates that in accordance with the order established in advance, one of the deputy prime ministers may temporarily substitute for the prime minister in their absence. Customarily, however, it is to one of the "first" Deputy prime ministers that the prime-ministerial duties may be delegated. At the same time, in the case of prime minister's resignation, the law allows the President of Russia to choose any of the current vice-premiers to serve as an acting prime minister until the confirmation of the new government.[5]

There is also the special case of Belgium: in the Federal Government of Belgium, a deputy prime minister not only replaces the prime minister in the case they are incapacitated, but also acts as the link between the government and their political party. In short, in Belgium, a Deputy prime minister is the voice of their political party in the federal government, and they are the voice of the government in their political party. The prime minister and the deputy prime ministers form what is called the "inner cabinet" (kernkabinet; conseil des ministres restreint or kern), an instance where the most important political decisions are discussed and taken.

Lists of deputy prime ministers[edit]

State Office Officeholder Assumed office
 Afghanistan Deputy prime minister Abdul Ghani Baradar (acting, first) 7 September 2021
Abdul Salam Hanafi (acting, second)
Abdul Kabir (acting, third) 4 October 2021
 Albania Deputy prime minister Arben Ahmetaj 18 September 2021
 Antigua and Barbuda Deputy prime minister Robin Yearwood
 Armenia Deputy prime minister Tigran Avinyan 11 May 2018
Mher Grigoryan
 Australia Deputy prime minister Richard Marles 23 May 2022
 Austria Vice-chancellor Werner Kogler 7 January 2020
 Bahamas Deputy prime minister Chester Cooper 17 September 2021
 Barbados Deputy prime minister Santia Bradshaw 26 January 2022
 Belgium Deputy prime minister Pierre-Yves Dermagne 1 October 2020
Sophie Wilmès
Georges Kilkinet
Vincent Van Peteghem
Frank Vandenbroucke
Petra De Sutter
Vincent Van Quickenborne
 Belize Deputy prime minister Cordel Hyde 16 November 2020
 Cambodia Deputy prime minister Aun Pornmoniroth 6 September 2018
Vongsey Vissoth 22 August 2023
Sar Sokha
Tea Seiha
Hangchuon Naron
Sok Chenda Sophea
Keut Rith
Say Sam Al
Sun Chanthol
Neth Savoeun
 Canada Deputy prime minister Chrystia Freeland 20 November 2019
 China First vice premier Ding Xuexiang 12 March 2023
Second vice premier He Lifeng
Third vice premier Zhang Guoqing
Fourth vice premier Liu Guozhong
 Croatia Deputy prime minister Damir Krstičević 19 October 2016
Predrag Štromar 9 June 2017
Davor Božinović 19 July 2019
Zdravko Marić
 Czech Republic First deputy prime minister Vít Rakušan 17 December 2021
Deputy prime minister Marian Jurečka 17 December 2021
Ivan Bartoš 17 December 2021
Vlastimil Válek 17 December 2021
 Denmark Deputy Prime Minister Jakob Ellemann-Jensen 15 December 2022
 Dominica Deputy Prime Minister Irving McIntyre 13 December 2022
 East Timor Deputy prime minister Armanda Berta dos Santos 29 May 2020
José Maria dos Reis 24 June 2020
 Eswatini Deputy prime minister Themba N. Masuku[6] 4 November 2018
 Ethiopia Deputy Prime Minister of Ethiopia Demeke Mekonnen 21 September 2012
 Fiji Deputy prime minister Biman Prasad 24 Dec 2022
 Finland Deputy prime minister Annika Saarikko 10 September 2020
 Georgia Vice Prime Minister of Georgia Thea Tsulukiani 31 March 2021
Levan Davitashvili 12 July 2021
 Germany Vice-Chancellor Robert Habeck 8 December 2021
 Greece Deputy prime minister Panagiotis Pikrammenos 9 July 2019
 Hungary Deputy prime minister Zsolt Semjén 1 June 2010
Sándor Pintér 18 May 2018
Mihály Varga 18 May 2018
 India Deputy prime minister Vacant (since 2004) N/A
 Ireland Tánaiste Leo Varadkar 27 June 2020
 Israel Deputy prime minister Yariv Levin 29 December 2022
Vice prime minister Vacant (since 2023) N/A
 Italy Deputy prime minister Matteo Salvini 22 October 2022
Antonio Tajani 22 October 2022
 Jamaica Deputy prime minister Horace Chang 7 September 2020
 Japan Deputy prime minister Vacant (since 2021) N/A
 Kazakhstan First deputy prime minister Alihan Smaiylov 25 February 2019
Deputy prime minister Roman Sklyar 18 September 2019
Eraly Togjanov 11 February 2020
 Kyrgyzstan First deputy chairman of the cabinet of ministers Arzybek Kojoshev 13 October 2021
Deputy chairman of the cabinet of ministers variable, currently three deputies by cabinet
 Laos Deputy prime minister
 Lebanon Deputy prime minister Saadeh Al Shami 10 September 2021
 Lesotho Deputy prime minister Mathibeli Mokhothu 21 May 2020
 Luxembourg Deputy prime ministers François Bausch 11 October 2019
Paulette Lenert 5 January 2022
 Malaysia Deputy Prime Ministers Ahmad Zahid Hamidi 3 December 2022
Fadillah Yusof
 Malta Deputy prime minister Chris Fearne 17 July 2017
 Mauritius Deputy prime minister Louis Steven Obeegadoo 25 June 2020
Vice prime minister Fazila Jeewa-Daureeawoo 16 November 2017
 Mongolia Deputy prime minister Amarsaikhan Sainbuyan 29 January 2021
 Montenegro Deputy prime minister Dritan Abazović 4 December 2020
 Myanmar Deputy prime minister Soe Win 1 August 2021
Mya Tun Oo 1 February 2023[7]
Tin Aung San
Soe Htut
Win Shein
 Namibia Deputy-prime minister Netumbo Nandi-Ndaitwah 21 March 2015
   Nepal Deputy prime minister Bishnu Prasad Paudel 26 December 2022
Narayan Kaji Shrestha
Rabi Lamichhane
Rajendra Prasad Lingden 17 January 2023
 Netherlands Deputy prime minister Sigrid Kaag 10 January 2022
Wopke Hoekstra
Carola Schouten 26 October 2017
 New Zealand Deputy prime minister Winston Peters 27 November 2023
 North Macedonia Deputy prime minister Artan Grubi
Slavica Grkovska
Fatmir Bitiḱi
Bojan Maričiḱ
16 January 2022
 Oman Deputy prime minister
Fahd bin Mahmoud Al Said 1972
Asa'ad bin Tariq Al Said 2017
Shihab bin Tariq al-Said 2020
 Pakistan Deputy prime minister Vacant (since 2012) N/A
 Papua New Guinea Deputy prime minister Vacant 11 May 2022
 Poland Deputy prime minister Jarosław Gowin 16 November 2015
Piotr Gliński
Jacek Sasin 4 June 2019
Jarosław Kaczyński 6 October 2020
 Portugal Deputy prime minister Vacant (since 2015) N/A
 Qatar Deputy prime minister Khalid bin Mohammad Al Attiyah January 2016
 Romania Deputy prime minister Dan Barna 23 December 2020
Deputy prime minister Kelemen Hunor 23 December 2020
 Russia First Deputy Chairman of the Government Andrey Belousov 21 January 2020
Deputy Chairmen of the Government variable, up to eight deputies by cabinet
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Deputy prime minister Shawn Richards 22 February 2015
 Saint Lucia Deputy prime minister Ernest Hilaire January 2022
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Deputy prime minister Montgomery Daniel 7 November 2020
 Samoa Deputy prime minister Tuala Iosefo Ponifasio 24 May 2021
 Saudi Arabia Deputy prime minister Vacant (since 2022) N/A
 Serbia First deputy prime minister Ivica Dačić 27 April 2014
Deputy prime minister Rasim Ljajić 27 July 2012
Zorana Mihajlović 27 April 2014
Nebojša Stefanović 11 August 2016
 Singapore Deputy prime minister Heng Swee Keat 1 May 2019
Lawrence Wong 13 Jun 2022
 Slovenia Deputy prime minister Zdravko Počivalšek 13 March 2020
Matej Tonin
Aleksandra Pivec
 Solomon Islands Deputy prime minister Manasseh Maelanga[8] 1 November 2019
 South Korea Deputy prime minister Choo Kyung-ho 10 May 2022
Lee Ju-ho 7 November 2022
 Spain Deputy prime minister Nadia Calviño 12 July 2021
 Sweden Deputy prime minister Margot Wallström 3 October 2014
Isabella Lövin 25 May 2016
 Syria Deputy prime minister Ali Abdullah Ayyoub 30 August 2020
 Taiwan Vice premier Shen Jong-chin 19 June 2020
 Thailand Deputy prime minister Anutin Charnvirakul 10 July 2019
Phumtham Wechayachai 1 September 2023
Somsak Thepsuthin
Panpree Phahitthanukorn
Patcharawat Wongsuwan
Peeraphan Salirathaviphak
 Tonga Deputy prime minister Poasi Tei 28 December 2021
 Tuvalu Deputy prime minister Minute Alapati Taupo 20 September 2019
 Uganda Deputy prime minister Rebecca Kadaga
Moses Ali
Lukia Isanga Nakadama
June 2021
 Ukraine Deputy prime minister Yulia Svyrydenko November 2021
 United Arab Emirates Deputy prime minister Saif bin Zayed Al Nahyan
Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan
Maktoum bin Mohammed Al Maktoum
 United Kingdom Deputy prime minister Oliver Dowden 21 April 2023
 Vanuatu Deputy prime minister Ishmael Kalsakau[9] 21 April 2020
 Vietnam First deputy prime minister Phạm Bình Minh 6 September 2021
Deputy prime minister Trần Hồng Hà 5 January 2023
Lê Minh Khái 8 April 2021
Lê Văn Thành
 Yemen Deputy prime minister Vacant (since 2022) N/A

Position abolished[edit]


  1. ^ Steven Barnes, 'What About Me? Deputy Prime Ministership in New Zealand', Political Science, Vol. 61, No. 1, 2009, pp. 33-49
  2. ^ Article 110.2 of the Constitution of Russian Federation
  3. ^ Article 114 of the Constitution of Ukraine
  4. ^ "Article 25 of the Federal Constitutional Law "On the Government of Russian Federation" from December 17, 1997". Retrieved 2012-07-25.
  5. ^ "Article 8 of the Federal Constitutional Law "On the Government of Russian Federation". Retrieved 2012-07-25.
  6. ^ "eSwantini appoints King Mswati's daughter as ICT Minister". Africanews. 2018-11-04. Retrieved 2020-11-19.
  7. ^ "Myanmar Junta Reshuffles Governing Body". The Irrawaddy. 2 February 2023. Retrieved 6 February 2023.
  8. ^ "Maelanga appointed Solomons' deputy PM". RNZ. 2019-11-01. Retrieved 2020-11-19.
  9. ^ "Vanuatu's new PM appoints his new Cabinet". RNZ. 2020-04-21. Retrieved 2020-11-19.