Demographics of Russia

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Demographics of Russia
Population pyramid of Russia as of 1 January 2024
Population144,699,673
Decrease 146,115,376 (December, 2023)[1]
Growth rateDecrease 0.39 (2020)[1]
Birth rateDecrease 9.0 births/1,000 population (2022)[2]
Death rateNeutral decrease 13.1 deaths/1,000 population (2022)
Life expectancyDecrease 70.06 years (2021)[1]
 • maleDecrease 65.51 years (2021)[1]
 • femaleDecrease 74.51 years (2021)[1]
Fertility rateDecrease 1.42 (2022)[3]
Infant mortality rateNeutral decrease 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2020)[1]
Net migration rate0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020)[1]
Age structure
Under 18 years~23.21%[4]
18–44 years~34.73%[4]
45–64 years26.55%[4]
65 and over15.6%[4]
Sex ratio
Total0.86 male(s)/female (2009)
At birth1.06 male(s)/female
Under 151.06 male(s)/female (male 11,980,138/female 11,344,818)
15–64 years0.925 male(s)/female (male 48,166,470/female 52,088,967)
65 and over0.44 male(s)/female (male 5,783,983/female 13,105,896)
Nationality
Nationalitynoun: Russian(s) adjective: Russian
Major ethnicRussians
Language
SpokenRussian, others
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
0 9,000,000—    
1000 9,000,000+0.00%
1200 14,500,000+0.24%
1500 14,700,000+0.00%
1600 18,000,000+0.20%
1700 18,000,000+0.00%
1800 25,000,000+0.33%
1900 73,000,000+1.08%
1926 93,000,000+0.94%
1930 100,000,000+1.83%
1960 119,000,000+0.58%
1970 130,079,000+0.89%
1979 137,552,000+0.62%
1989 147,386,000+0.69%
2000 146,597,000−0.05%
2010 142,849,000−0.26%
2021 144,700,000+0.12%
Source:[5][6][7][failed verification][8]

As of the 2021 census, the population of Russia was 147.2 million.[9] It is the most populous country in Europe, and the ninth-most populous country in the world, with a population density of 8.5 inhabitants per square kilometre (22 inhabitants/sq mi).[10] As of 2020, the overall life expectancy in Russia at birth was 71.54 years (66.49 years for males and 76.43 years for females).[1]

From 1992 to 2012, and again since 2016, Russia's death rate has exceeded its birth rate, which has been called a demographic crisis by analysts.[11] Subsequently, the nation has an ageing population, with the median age of the country being 40.3 years.[12] In 2009, Russia recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years; during the mid-2010s, Russia had seen increased population growth due to declining death rates, increased birth rates and increased immigration.[13] Between 2020 and 2021, prior to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russia's population had undergone its largest peacetime decline in recorded history, due to excess deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic.[14] In addition, at least 1 million Russians fled the country to avoid military service in the war.

Russia is a multinational state,[15] home to over 193 ethnic groups nationwide. In the 2021 Census, nearly 72% of the population were ethnic Russians and approximately 19% of the population were ethnic minorities.[fn 1][16] According to the United Nations, Russia's immigrant population is the world's third largest, numbering over 11.6 million; most of whom are from other post-Soviet states.[17]

Population[edit]

Demographic statistics according to the latest Rosstat vital statistics[18] and the World Population Review in 2019.[19]

  • One birth every 22 seconds[18]
  • One death every 13 seconds[18]
  • Net loss of one person every 30 seconds[18]

Demographic crisis[edit]

Thousands of abandoned villages are scattered across Russia[20] due to failed Soviet policies.
Total population of Russia 1950–2010

After having peaked at 148,689,000 in 1991, the population then decreased, falling to 142,737,196 by 2008.[21] Russia has become increasingly reliant on immigration to maintain its population; 2021 had the highest net immigration since 1994,[22] despite which there was a small overall decline from 146.1 million to 145.4 million in 2021, the largest decline in over a decade.[23]

The natural population had declined by 997,000 between October 2020 and September 2021 (the difference between the number of births and the number of deaths over a period).[24] The natural death rate in January 2020, 2021, and 2022 have each been nearly double the natural birth rate.[25]

Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, the demographic crisis in the country has deepened,[26] as the country has reportedly suffered high military fatalities while facing renewed brain drain and human capital flight caused by Western mass-sanctions and boycotts.[27] Many commentators predict that the situation will be worse than during the 1990s.[28]

In March 2023, The Economist reported that "Over the past three years the country has lost around 2 million more people than it would ordinarily have done, as a result of war [in Ukraine], disease and exodus."[29]

The UN is projecting that the decline that started in 2021 will continue, and if current demographic conditions persist, Russia’s population would be 120 million in fifty years, a decline of about 17%.[30][29]

Fertility[edit]

Population age pyramid of Russia from 1946 to 2023

Between 1993 and 2008, there was a great decrease in the country's population from 148 to 143 million.[31] There was a huge 50% decrease in the number of births per year from 2.5 million in 1987 to 1.2 million since 1997, but the current 1.42 fertility rate is still higher than that of the 1990s.[31]

At the beginning of 2022, 320,400 babies were born between January and March, 16,600 fewer than January–March 2021. There were nearly twice as many deaths (584,700) as births.[31] The crude birth rate - 8.9 per 100,000 inhabitants - was the lowest since the year 2000.[31]

Russia has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world with 1.42 children per woman in 2022, below 2.1 children per woman, which must be the number reached in order to maintain its population.[31] As a result of their low fertility for decades, the Russian population is one of the oldest in the world with an average of 40.3 years.[31]

Historical fertility rates[edit]

The total fertility rate is the number of children born to each woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[32]

TFR of Russia from 1843 to 2016

In many of the years from 1843 to 1917, Russia had the highest total fertility rate in the world.[32] These elevated fertility rates did not lead to population growth due to high mortality rate, the casualties of the Russian Revolution, the two world wars and to a lesser extent the political killings.

TFR Years
1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849[32]
7 7 7 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.05 7.06 7.08 7.08
1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859[32]
7.07 7.07 7.07 7.06 7.05 7.03 7.01 7 6.98 6.97
1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869[32]
6.95 6.93 6.95 6.96 6.98 6.99 7.01 7.02 6.51 6.87
1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879[32]
6.74 7.03 6.85 7.24 7.17 7.15 7.02 6.87 6.58 6.98
1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889[32]
6.8 6.66 7.03 6.89 6.83 6.74 6.47 6.61 6.96 6.8
1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899[32]
6.71 7.44 6.57 7.17 7.18 7.34 7.43 7.52 7.28 7.36
1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909[32]
7.36 7.2 7.36 7.2 7.24 6.72 7.04 7.08 7.44 7.12
1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919[32]
7.2 7.2 7.2 6.96 6.88 3.36 5.2 5.04 5.72 3.44
1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926[32]
6.72 4.72 6 6.48 6.72 6.8 6.72
Years 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945[32]
4.60 2.96 1.68 1.72 1.92
Birth and death rates and natural growth, 1950–2014

Historical crude birth rates[edit]

Births and deaths in Russia: a) moving 12-month sum, b) daily average, Jan 1956 – Feb 2022
Years 1801–1810 1811–1820 1821–1830 1831–1840 1841–1850 1851–1860[33]
Crude birth rates of Russia 43.7 40.0 42.7 45.6 49.7 52.4
Years 1861–1870 1871–1880 1881–1890 1891–1900 1901–1910 1911–1914 18th century
(only Orthodox)
1801–1860
(only Orthodox)[33]
Crude birth rates of Russia 50.3 50.4 50.4 49.2 46.8 43.9 51.0 50.0

Age structure[edit]

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2012): [34]
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 66 264 910 76 936 820 143 201 730 100
0–4 4 377 526 4 155 682 8 533 208 5.97
5–9 3 762 806 3 588 032 7 350 838 5.13
10–14 3 396 364 3 231 761 6 628 125 4.63
15–19 3 776 026 3 615 840 7 391 866 5.16
20–24 5 708 187 5 515 543 11 223 730 7.84
25–29 6 262 379 6 179 628 12 442 007 8.69
30–34 5 583 513 5 647 636 11 231 149 7.84
35–39 5 087 565 5 331 818 10 419 383 7.28
40–44 4 589 504 4 861 983 9 451 487 6.60
45–49 4 632 279 5 151 813 9 784 092 6.83
50–54 5 279 364 6 219 077 11 498 441 8.03
55–59 4 480 855 5 817 559 10 298 414 7.19
60–64 3 523 990 5 010 867 8 534 857 5.96
65-69 1 602 839 2 571 671 4 174 510 2.92
70-74 1 989 724 3 975 348 5 965 072 4.17
75-79 1 179 476 2 709 384 3 888 860 2.72
80-84 722 151 2 073 803 2 795 954 1.95
85-89 253 028 1 008 627 1 261 655 0.88
90-94 46 736 219 427 266 163 0.19
95-99 8 634 43 988 52 622 0.04
100+ 1 964 7 333 9 297 0.01
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 11 536 696 10 975 475 22 512 171 15.72
15–64 48 923 662 53 351 764 102 275 426 71.42
65+ 5 804 552 12 609 581 18 414 133 12.86

Median age[edit]

Life expectancy in Russia since 1896
total: 40.7 years. Country comparison to the world: 51st
male: 37.6 years
female: 43.5 years (2021 est.)

Life expectancy[edit]

Life expectancy in Russia since 1959 by gender
total population: 70.06 years for a child born in 2021, decreasing from 73.34 in 2019[1]
male: 65.51 years (2021)
female: 74.51 years (2021)

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2020)[1]
male: 5.0 deaths/1,000 live births (2020)
female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020)

Vital statistics[edit]

Before WW2[edit]

Average population[35] Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Total fertility rates Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female)
1927 94,596,000 4,688,000 2,705,000 1,983,000 49.6 28.6 21.0 6.73 33.7 37.9
1928 96,654,000 4,723,000 2,589,000 2,134,000 48.9 26.8 22.1 6.56 35.9 40.4
1929 98,644,000 4,633,000 2,819,000 1,814,000 47.0 28.6 18.4 6.23 33.7 38.2
1930 100,419,000 4,413,000 2,738,000 1,675,000 43.9 27.3 16.7 5.83 34.6 38.7
1931 101,948,000 4,412,000 3,090,000 1,322,000 43.3 30.3 13.0 5.63 30.7 35.5
1932 103,136,000 4,058,000 3,077,000 981,000 39.3 29.8 9.5 5.09 30.5 35.7
1933 102,706,000 3,313,000 5,239,000 -1,926,000 32.3 51.0 -18.8 4.15 15.2 19.5
1934 102,922,000 2,923,000 2,659,000 264,000 28.7 26.1 2.6 3.57 30.5 35.7
1935 102,684,000 3,577,000 2,421,000 1,156,000 34.8 23.6 11.3 4.31 33.1 38.4
1936 103,904,000 3,899,000 2,719,000 1,180,000 37.5 26.2 11.4 4.54 30.4 35.7
1937 105,358,000 4,377,000 2,760,000 1,617,000 41.5 26.2 15.3 5.08 30.5 40.0
1938 107,044,000 4,379,000 2,739,000 1,640,000 40.9 25.6 15.3 4.99 31.7 42.5
1939 108,785,000 4,329,000 2,600,000 1,729,000 39.8 23.9 15.9 4.91 34.9 42.6
1940 110,333,000 3,814,000 2,561,000 1,253,000 34.6 23.2 11.4 4.26 35.7 41.9

After WW2[edit]

Vital Statistics of Russia 1946–2022[35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45]
Total average population (January 1, 1993 onwards) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Crude migration change (per 1,000) Total fertility rates[fn 2] Urban fertility Rural fertility Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female) Life Expectancy (total) Abortions (including miscarriages) reported
1946 98,028,000 2,546,000 1,210,000 1,336,000 26.0 12.3 13.6 -5.4 2.81 46.6 55.3
1947 98,834,000 2,715,000 1,680,000 1,035,000 27.5 17.0 10.5 -1.7 2.94 39.9 49.8
1948 99,706,000 2,516,000 1,310,000 1,206,000 25.2 13.1 12.1 2.5 2.60 47.0 56.0
1949 101,160,000 3,089,000 1,187,000 1,902,000 30.5 11.7 18.8 -2.3 3.21 51.0 59.8
1950 102,833,000 2,859,000 1,180,000 1,679,000 27.8 11.5 16.3 -0.7 2.89 52.3 61.0
1951 104,439,000 2,938,000 1,210,000 1,728,000 28.1 11.6 16.5 0 2.92 52.3 60.6
1952 106,164,000 2,928,000 1,138,000 1,790,000 27.6 10.7 16.9 -1.2 2.87 54.6 62.9
1953 107,828,000 2,822,000 1,118,000 1,704,000 26.2 10.4 15.8 1.0 2.73 55.5 63.9
1954 109,643,000 3,048,000 1,133,000 1,915,000 27.8 10.3 17.5 0.1 2.97 55.9 64.1
1955 111,572,000 2,942,000 1,037,000 1,905,000 26.4 9.3 17.1 -1.4 2.82 58.3 66.6
1956 113,327,000 2,827,000 956,000 1,871,000 24.9 8.4 16.5 -1.4 2.73 60.1 68.8
1957 115,035,000 2,880,000 1,017,000 1,863,000 25.0 8.8 16.2 -1.3 2.75 59.7 68.4 3,407,398
1958 116,749,000 2,861,000 931,000 1,930,000 24.5 8.0 16.5 -3.2 2.69 61.8 70.4 3,939,362
1959 118,307,000 2,796,228 920,225 1,876,003 23.6 7.8 15.9 -2.4 2.58 2.03 3.34 62.84 71.14 67.65 4,174,111
1960 119,906,000 2,782,353 886,090 1,896,263 23.2 7.4 15.8 -1.8 2.56 2.06 3.26 63.67 72.31 68.67 4,373,042
1961 121,586,000 2,662,135 901,637 1,760,498 21.9 7.4 14.5 -1.8 2.47 2.04 3.08 63.91 72.63 68.92 4,759,040
1962 123,128,000 2,482,539 949,648 1,532,891 20.2 7.7 12.4 -1.1 2.36 1.98 2.92 63.67 72.27 68.58 4,925,124
1963 124,514,000 2,331,505 932,055 1,399,450 18.7 7.5 11.2 -1.3 2.31 1.93 2.87 64.12 72.78 69.05 5,134,100
1964 125,744,000 2,121,994 901,751 1,220,243 16.9 7.2 9.7 -1.7 2.19 1.88 2.66 64.89 73.58 69.85 5,376,200
1965 126,749,000 1,990,520 958,789 1,031,731 15.7 7.6 8.1 -1.3 2.14 1.82 2.58 64.37 73.33 69.44 5,463,300
1966 127,608,000 1,957,763 974,299 983,464 15.3 7.6 7.7 -1.8 2.13 1.85 2.58 64.29 73.55 69.51 5,322,500
1967 128,361,000 1,851,041 1,017,034 834,007 14.4 7.9 6.5 -1.2 2.03 1.79 2.46 64.02 73.43 69.30 5,005,000
1968 129,037,000 1,816,509 1,040,096 776,413 14.1 8.1 6.0 -1.2 1.98 1.75 2.44 63.73 73.56 69.26 4,872,900
1969 129,660,000 1,847,592 1,106,640 740,952 14.2 8.5 5.7 -1.1 1.99 1.78 2.44 63.07 73.29 68.74 4,751,100
1970 130,252,000 1,903,713 1,131,183 772,530 14.6 8.7 5.9 -0.7 2.00 1.77 2.52 63.07 73.44 68.86 4,837,700
1971 130,934,000 1,974,637 1,143,359 831,278 15.1 8.7 6.3 -0.5 2.02 1.80 2.60 63.24 73.77 69.12 4,838,749
1972 131,687,000 2,014,638 1,181,802 832,836 15.3 9.0 6.3 -0.6 2.03 1.81 2.59 63.24 73.62 69.02 4,765,900
1973 132,434,000 1,994,621 1,214,204 780,417 15.1 9.2 5.9 0 1.96 1.75 2.55 63.28 73.56 69.00 4,747,037
1974 133,217,000 2,079,812 1,222,495 857,317 15.6 9.2 6.4 0.2 2.00 1.78 2.63 63.12 73.77 68.99 4,674,050
1975 134,092,000 2,106,147 1,309,710 796,437 15.7 9.8 5.9 1.1 1.97 1.76 2.64 62.48 73.23 68.35 4,670,700
1976 135,026,000 2,146,711 1,352,950 793,761 15.9 10.0 5.9 1.2 1.96 1.74 2.62 62.19 73.04 68.10 4,757,055
1977 135,979,000 2,156,724 1,387,986 768,738 15.9 10.2 5.7 1.2 1.92 1.72 2.58 61.82 73.19 67.97 4,686,063
1978 136,922,000 2,179,030 1,417,377 761,653 15.9 10.4 5.6 0.5 1.90 1.70 2.55 61.83 73.23 68.01 4,656,057
1979 137,758,000 2,178,542 1,490,057 688,485 15.8 10.8 5.0 0.3 1.87 1.67 2.54 61.49 73.02 67.73 4,544,040
1980 138,483,000 2,202,779 1,525,755 677,024 15.9 11.0 4.9 0.4 1.87 1.68 2.51 61.38 72.96 67.70 4,506,249
1981 139,221,000 2,236,608 1,524,286 712,322 16.1 10.9 5.1 1.0 1.88 1.69 2.55 61.61 73.18 67.92 4,400,676
1982 140,067,420 2,328,044 1,504,200 823,844 16.6 10.7 5.9 1.2 1.96 1.76 2.63 62.24 73.64 68.38 4,462,825
1983 141,056,000 2,478,322 1,563,995 914,327 17.6 11.1 6.5 0.6 2.11 1.89 2.76 62.15 73.41 68.15 4,317,729
1984 142,061,000 2,409,614 1,650,866 758,748 17.0 11.6 5.3 1.5 2.06 1.86 2.69 61.71 72.96 67.67 4,361,959
1985 143,033,000 2,375,147 1,625,266 749,881 16.6 11.4 5.2 2.7 2.05 1.87 2.68 62.72 73.23 68.33 4,552,443
1986 144,156,000 2,485,915 1,497,975 987,940 17.2 10.4 6.9 1.0 2.18 1.98 2.83 64.77 74.22 69.95 4,579,400
1987 145,386,000 2,499,974 1,531,585 968,389 17.2 10.5 6.7 1.0 2.22 1.974 3.187 64.83 74.26 69.96 4,385,627
1988 146,505,000 2,348,494 1,569,112 779,382 16.0 10.7 5.3 0.4 2.13 1.90 3.06 64.61 74.25 69.81 4,608,953
1989 147,342,000 2,160,559 1,583,743 576,816 14.7 10.7 3.9 0.4 2.01 1.83 2.63 64.20 74.50 69.73 4,427,713
1990 147,969,000 1,988,858 1,655,993 332,865 13.4 11.2 2.2 0.7 1.892 1.698 2.600 63.76 74.32 69.36 4,103,425
1991 148,394,000 1,794,626 1,690,657 103,969 12.1 11.4 0.7 0.3 1.732 1.531 2.447 63.41 74.23 69.11 3,608,421
1992 148,538,000 1,587,644 1,807,441 -219,797 10.7 12.2 -1.5 1.7 1.547 1.351 2.219 61.96 73.71 67.98 3,436,695
1993 148,561,694 [46] 1,378,983 2,129,339 -750,356 9.3 14.3 -5.1 3.7 1.369 1.200 1.946 58.80 71.85 65.24 3,243,957
1994 148,355,867 1,408,159 2,301,366 -893,207 9.5 15.5 -6.0 6.7 1.394 1.238 1.917 57.38 71.07 63.93 3,060,237
1995 148,459,937 1,363,806 2,203,811 -840,005 9.2 14.9 -5.7 4.6 1.337 1.193 1.813 58.11 71.60 64.62 2,766,362
1996 148,291,638 1,304,638 2,082,249 -777,611 8.8 14.1 -5.2 3.4 1.270 1.140 1.705 59.61 72.41 65.89 2,652,038
1997 148,028,613 1,259,943 2,015,779 -755,836 8.5 13.6 -5.1 3.6 1.218 1.097 1.624 60.84 72.85 66.79 2,498,716
1998 147,802,133 1,283,292 1,988,744 -705,452 8.7 13.5 -4.8 3.0 1.232 1.109 1.643 61.19 73.12 67.14 2,346,138
1999 147,539,426 1,214,689 2,144,316 -929,627 8.3 14.6 -6.3 1.9 1.157 1.045 1.534 59.86 72.42 65.99 2,181,153
2000 146,890,128 1,266,800 2,225,332 -958,532 8.6 15.2 -6.5 2.5 1.195 1.089 1.554 58.99 72.25 65.38 2,138,800
2001 146,303,611 1,311,604 2,254,856 -943,252 9.0 15.4 -6.5 2.0 1.223 1.124 1.564 58.88 72.16 65.30 2,114,700
2002 145,649,334 1,396,967 2,332,272 -935,305 9.6 16.1 -6.4 1.7 1.286 1.189 1.633 58.68 71.90 64.95 1,944,481
2003 144,963,650 1,477,301 2,365,826 -888,525 10.2 16.4 -6.1 1.8 1.319 1.223 1.666 58.53 71.85 64.84 1,864,647
2004 144,333,586 1,502,477 2,295,402 -792,925 10.4 15.9 -5.5 1.8 1.344 1.253 1.654 58.91 72.36 65.31 1,797,567
2005 143,801,046 1,457,376 2,303,935 -846,559 10.2 16.1 -5.9 2.0 1.294 1.207 1.576 58.92 72.47 65.37 1,675,693
2006 143,236,582 1,479,637 2,166,703 -687,066 10.3 15.1 -4.8 2.2 1.305 1.210 1.601 60.43 73.34 66.69 1,582,398
2007 142,862,692 1,610,122 2,080,445 -470,323 11.3 14.6 -3.3 2.5 1.416 1.294 1.798 61.46 74.02 67.61 1,479,010
2008 142,742,368 1,713,947 2,075,954 -362,007 12.0 14.5 -2.6 2.5 1.502 1.372 1.912 61.92 74.28 67.99 1,385,600
2009 142,785,344 1,761,687 2,010,543 -248,856 12.3 14.1 -1.7 2.4 1.542 1.415 1.941 62.87 74.79 68.78 1,292,389
2010 142,849,472 1,788,948 2,028,516 -239,568 12.5 14.2 -1.7 1.9 1.567 1.439 1.983 63.09 74.88 68.94 1,186,108
2011 142,860,908 1,796,629 1,925,720 -129,091 12.6 13.5 -0.9 2.2 1.582 1.442 2.056 64.04 75.61 69.83 1,124,880
2012 143,056,383 1,902,084 1,906,335 -4,251 13.3 13.3 0.0 2.0 1.691 1.541 2.215 64.56 75.86 70.24 1,063,982
2013 143,347,959 1,895,822 1,871,809 24,013 13.3 13.0 0.2 2.0 1.707 1.551 2.264 65.14 76.31 70.77 1,012,399
2014[a] 143,666,931 1,942,683 1,912,347 30,336 13.3 13.0 0.3 17.8 1.750 1.588 2.318 65.29 76.49 70.93 929,963
2015 146,267,288 1,940,579 1,908,541 32,038 13.3 13.1 0.2 1.7 1.777 1.678 2.111 65.92 76.71 71.39 848,180
2016 146,544,710 1,888,729 1,891,015 -2,286 12.9 12.9 0.0 1.8 1.762 1.672 2.056 66.50 77.06 71.87 836,611
2017 146,804,374 1,690,307 1,826,125 -135,818 11.5 12.4 -0.9 1.4 1.621 1.527 1.923 67.51 77.64 72.70 779,848
2018 146,880,432 1,604,344 1,828,910 -224,566 10.9 12.5 -1.6 0.9 1.579 1.489 1.870 67.75 77.81 72.91 661,045
2019 146,780,720 1,481,074 1,798,307 -317,233 10.1 12.3 -2.2 2.0 1.504 1.427 1.754 68.24 78.17 73.34 621,652
2020 146,170,015 1,436,514 2,138,586 -702,072 9.8 14.6 -4.8 0.9 1.505 1.433 1.739 66.49 76.43 71.54 553,500
2021 145,557,576 1,398,253 2,441,594 -1,043,341 9.6 16.8 -7.2 3.0 1.505 1.436 1.734 65.51 74.51 70.06 490,419
2022 146,424,729 1,304,087 1,898,644 -594,557 8.9 13.0 -4.1 10.4 1.416 1.36 1.59 67.60 77.79 72.76
2023 146,325,519 1,264,938 1,760,172 -495,234 8.6 12.0 -3.4 68.04 78.74 73.41
  1. ^ Russian data after 2014 includes the populations of areas annexed by Russia during the Russo-Ukrainian War that are internationally still recognized as parts of Ukraine (e.g., Crimea starting in 2014). The annexation of Crimea and Sevastopol is internationally recognized only by a handful of countries like Belarus and Nicaragua. The Russian annexation of Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk and Zaporizhzhia oblasts is internationally only recognized by Syria and North Korea.

Current vital statistics[edit]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January 2023 104,199 168,418 -64,219
January 2024 103,408 181,677 -78,269
Difference Decrease -791 (-0.8%) Negative increase +13,259 (+7.9%) Decrease -14,050
Source:[18]

All numbers for the Russian Federation in this section do not include the Ukrainian regions of Kherson, Zaporizhzhia, Donetsk and Luhansk, which Russia annexed in September 2022 and which are currently partly under Russian military control. The annexation is internationally recognized only by North Korea.

Immigration[edit]

In 2006, in a bid to compensate for the country's demographic decline, the Russian government started simplifying immigration laws.[citation needed] New citizenship rules introduced in April 2014 allowing eligible citizens from former Soviet republics to obtain Russian citizenship, have gained strong interest among Russian-speaking residents of those countries (i.e. Russians, Germans, Belarusians and Ukrainians).[47][48]

There are an estimated four million undocumented immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Russia.[49] In 2012, the Russian Federal Security Service's Border Service stated there had been an increase in undocumented migration from the Middle East and Southeast Asia (Note that these were Temporary Contract Migrants)[50] Under legal changes made in 2012, undocumented immigrants who are caught will be banned from reentering the country for 10 years.[51][52]

Since the collapse of the USSR, most immigrants have come from Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Belarus, from poor areas of China, and from Vietnam and Laos.[53]

Worker migration[edit]

Temporary migrant workers in Russia consists of about 7 million people. Most of the temporary workers come from Central Asia (mostly from Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan), the South Caucasus (mostly from Armenia and Azerbaijan), and East Asia (mostly from poor areas of China, from Vietnam and Laos). Most of them work in the construction, cleaning and in the household industries. They primarily live in cities such as Moscow, Sochi and Blagoveshchensk. The mayor of Moscow said that Moscow cannot do without worker migrants. New laws are in place that require worker migrants to be fluent in Russian, know Russian history and laws.

Emigration[edit]

The 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine has led to considerable emigration, with over 300,000 Russian citizens and residents are estimated to have left Russia by mid-March 2022, at least 500,000 by the end of August 2022,[54] and an additional 400,000 by early October. The total number of political refugees, economic migrants, and conscientious objectors[55][56][57][58][59] is thought to be more than 900,000. In addition to evading criminal prosecution for opposing the invasion, and fear of being conscripted after President Vladimir Putin's 21 September 2022 announcement of partial mobilization, those fleeing voiced reasons such as disagreement with the war, the uselessness and cruelty of the war, sympathy for Ukraine, disagreement with the political roots of the war with Ukraine, the rejection of killing, and an assessment that Russia is no longer the place for their family.[60]

Occupied and annexed regions[edit]

Russia has encouraged or even forced people in occupied or annexed regions to become Russian citizens, a procedure known as passportization. This includes the Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk and Zaporizhzhia oblasts of Ukraine,[61] and South Ossetia and Abkhazia in Georgia.[62]

Employment and income[edit]

Unemployment, youth ages 15–24
total: 12%. Country comparison to the world: 72nd
male: 15.3%
female: 16.9% (2015 est.)

Health[edit]

Metallurg, a Soviet-era sanatorium in Sochi[63]

Russia's constitution guarantees free, universal health care for all Russian citizens, through a compulsory state health insurance program.[64] The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation oversees the Russian public healthcare system, and the sector employs more than two million people. Federal regions also have their own departments of health that oversee local administration. A separate private health insurance plan is needed to access private healthcare in Russia.[65]

Russia spent 5.32% of its GDP on healthcare in 2018.[66] Its healthcare expenditure is notably lower than other developed nations.[67] Russia has one of the world's most female-biased sex ratios, with 0.859 males to every female,[12] due to its high male mortality rate.[68] In 2019, the overall life expectancy in Russia at birth was 73.2 years (68.2 years for males and 78.0 years for females),[69] and it had a very low infant mortality rate (5 per 1,000 live births).[70]

The principal causes of death in Russia are cardiovascular diseases.[71] Obesity is a prevalent health issue in Russia; 61.1% of Russian adults were overweight or obese in 2016.[72] However, Russia's historically high alcohol consumption rate is the biggest health issue in the country,[73][74] as it remains one of the world's highest, despite a stark decrease in the last decade.[75] Smoking is another health issue in the country.[76] The country's high suicide rate, although on the decline,[77] remains a significant social issue.[78]

COVID-19 pandemic[edit]

Russia had one of the highest number of confirmed cases in the world. Analysis of excess deaths from official government demographic statistics, based on births and deaths and excluding migration, showed that Russia had its biggest ever annual population drop in peacetime, with the population declining by 997,000 between October 2020 and September 2021, which demographer Alexei Raksha interpreted as being primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[24]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic groups in Russia
Ethnic groups in Russia of more than 1 million people in 2010
Percentage of ethnic Russians by region in 2021 (excluding non-stated ethnicity people)

Russia is a multinational state, with many subnational entities associated with different minorities.[15] There are over 193 ethnic groups nationwide. In the 2021 census, nearly 71.73% of the population identified as ethnic Russians, and while approximately 19% of the total population identified with various ethnic minority groups.[79][80] The percentage of total Russian population that did not publicly indicate any ethnic identity in the census increased from 3.94% in 2010 to 11.27% in 2021.[81]

According to the 2021 Russian census, the number of ethnic Russians decreased by nearly 5.43 million, from roughly 111 million people in 2010 to approximately 105.5 million in 2021.[82] In 2010, four-fifths of Russia's population originated from West of the Ural Mountains — of which the vast majority were Slavs,[83] with a substantial minority of Finno-Ugric and Germanic peoples.[84][85] Turkic peoples form a large minority, and are spread around pockets across the vast nation.[86] Various distinct ethnic groups also inhabit the North Caucasus.[87] Other minorities include Mongolian peoples (Buryats and Kalmyks),[88][89] the Indigenous peoples of Siberia,[90] a historical Jewish population,[91] and the Koryo-saram (including Sakhalin Koreans).[92]

According to the United Nations, Russia's immigrant population is the third-largest in the world, numbering over 11.6 million in 2016;[17] most of which are from post-Soviet states, mainly from Central Asia.[93] There are 22 republics in Russia, who have their own ethnicities, cultures, and languages. In 12 of them in 2021, ethnic Russians constitute a minority:

Ethnic Russian-minority regions in Russia in 2021
Republic ethnic Russians (%)
 Bashkortostan 37.5%
 Chechnya 1.2%
 Chuvashia 30.7%
 Dagestan 3.3%
 Ingushetia 0.7%
 Kabardino-Balkaria 19.8%
 Kalmykia 25.7%
 Karachay-Cherkessia 27.5%
 North Ossetia–Alania 18.9%
 Sakha (Yakutia) 32.6%
 Tatarstan 40.3%
 Tuva 10.1%

Languages[edit]

Minority languages across Russia
Altaic and Uralic languages spoken across Russia

Russian is the official and the predominantly spoken language in Russia. It is the most spoken native language in Europe, the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, as well as the world's most widely spoken Slavic language.[96] Russian is the fifth-most used language on the Internet,[97] and is one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station,[98] as well as one of the six official languages of the United Nations.[96]

Russia is a multilingual nation; approximately 100–150 minority languages are spoken across the country.[99][100] According to the Russian Census of 2002, 142.6 million across the country spoke Russian, 5.3 million spoke Tatar, and 1.8 million spoke Ukrainian.[101] The constitution allows the country's individual republics the right to establish their own state languages in addition to Russian, as well as guarantee its citizens the right to preserve their native language and to create conditions for its study and development.[102] However, various experts have claimed Russia's linguistic diversity is rapidly declining.[103][104]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Russia (2012)[105]

  Unaffiliated Christians (4.1%)
  Other Christians[a] (0.5%)
  Atheists (13%)
  Muslims[b] (6.5%)
  Pagans[c] (1.3%)
  Buddhists (0.5%)
  Other religions[d] (1.1%)
  Undeclared (5.5%)
Annunciation Cathedral in Voronezh

Russia is a secular state by constitution, and its largest religion is Christianity. It has the world's largest Orthodox population.[106][107] As of different sociological surveys on religious adherence, between 41% and over 80% of the total population of Russia adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church.[108][109][110] Other branches of Christianity present in Russia include Catholicism (approx. 1%), Baptists, Pentecostals, Lutherans and other Protestant churches (together totalling about 0.5% of the population) and Old Believers.[111][112] There is some presence of Judaism, Buddhism, and Hinduism; pagan beliefs are also present to some extent in remote areas, sometimes syncretized with one of the mainstream religions.

In 2017, a survey made by the Pew Research Center showed that 73% of Russians declared themselves as Christians—out of which 71% were Orthodox, 1% were Catholic, and 2% were Other Christians, while 15% were unaffiliated, 10% were Muslims, and 1% followed other religions.[113] According to various reports, the proportion of Atheists in Russia is between 16% and 48% of the population.[114]

Islam is the second-largest religion in Russia, and it is the traditional religion amongst most peoples of the North Caucasus, and amongst some Turkic peoples scattered along the Volga-Ural region.[115] Buddhists have a sizable population in three Siberian republics: Buryatia, Tuva, and Zabaykalsky Krai, and in Kalmykia, the only region in Europe where Buddhism is the most practised religion.[116]

Education[edit]

Moscow State University, the most prestigious educational institution in Russia.[117]

Russia has an adult literacy rate of 100%.[118] It grants free education to its citizens under its constitution.[119] The Ministry of Education of Russia is responsible for primary and secondary education, as well as vocational education; while the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia is responsible for science and higher education.[120] Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. Russia is among the world's most educated countries, and has the third-highest proportion of tertiary-level graduates in terms of percentage of population, at 62%.[121] It spent roughly 4.7% of its GDP on education in 2018.[122]

Russia has compulsory education for a duration of 11 years, exclusively for children aged 7 to 17–18.[120] Its pre-school education system is highly developed and optional,[123] some four-fifths of children aged 3 to 6 attend day nurseries or kindergartens. Primary school is compulsory for 11 years, starting from age 6 to 7, and leads to a basic general education certificate.[120] An additional two or three years of schooling are required for the secondary-level certificate, and some seven-eighths of Russians continue their education past this level. Admission to an institute of higher education is selective and highly competitive:[119] first-degree courses usually take five years.[124] The oldest and largest universities in Russia are Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University.[125] There are ten highly prestigious federal universities across the country. Russia was the world's fifth-leading destination for international students in 2019, hosting roughly 300,000.[126]

Urbanized areas[edit]

Russia is one of the world's most urbanized countries, with roughly 75% of its total population living in urban areas.[12] Moscow, the capital and largest city, has a population estimated at 12.4 million residents within the city limits,[127] while over 17 million residents in the urban area,[128] and over 20 million residents in the metropolitan area.[129] Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the most populous city entirely within Europe, the most populous urban area in Europe,[128] the most populous metropolitan area in Europe,[129] and also the largest city by land area on the European continent.[130] Saint Petersburg, the cultural capital, is the second-largest city, with a population of roughly 5.4 million inhabitants.[131] Other major urban areas are Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, and Chelyabinsk.

 
Largest cities or towns in Russia
Rank Name Federal subject Pop. Rank Name Federal subject Pop.
Moscow
Moscow
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
1 Moscow Moscow 13,010,112 11 Rostov-on-Don Rostov Oblast 1,142,162 Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
2 Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg 5,601,911 12 Omsk Omsk Oblast 1,125,695
3 Novosibirsk Novosibirsk Oblast 1,633,595 13 Krasnodar Krasnodar Krai 1,099,344
4 Yekaterinburg Sverdlovsk Oblast 1,544,376 14 Voronezh Voronezh Oblast 1,057,681
5 Kazan Tatarstan 1,308,660 15 Perm Perm Krai 1,034,002
6 Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 1,228,199 16 Volgograd Volgograd Oblast 1,028,036
7 Chelyabinsk Chelyabinsk Oblast 1,189,525 17 Saratov Saratov Oblast 901,361
8 Krasnoyarsk Krasnoyarsk Krai 1,187,771 18 Tyumen Tyumen Oblast 847,488
9 Samara Samara Oblast 1,173,299 19 Tolyatti Samara Oblast 684,709
10 Ufa Bashkortostan 1,144,809 20 Barnaul Altai Krai 630,877

See also[edit]

Census information:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 11.27% of the total Russian population did not declare an ethnic affiliation in the census, so these figures should be treated with caution.
  2. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and has been marked blue, 2 and below leads to an aging population and the result is that the population decreases.
  1. ^ Including Old Believers (0.2%), Protestantism (0.2%), and Catholicism (0.1%).
  2. ^ The Sreda Arena Atlas 2012 did not count the populations of two Muslim-majority federal subjects of Russia, namely Chechnya and Ingushetia, which together had a population of nearly 2 million, thus the proportion of Muslims may be slightly underestimated.[105]
  3. ^ The category included Rodnovers accounting for 44%, Hinduists accounting for 0.1%; pagan religions and Siberian Tengrists and shamans account for the rest.[citation needed]
  4. ^ Including Judaism (0.1%) and other unspecified religions.

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Further reading[edit]

  • Gavrilova N.S., Gavrilov L.A. Aging Populations: Russia/Eastern Europe. In: P. Uhlenberg (Editor), International Handbook of the Demography of Aging, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2009, pp. 113–131.
  • Gavrilova N.S., Semyonova V.G., Dubrovina E., Evdokushkina G.N., Ivanova A.E., Gavrilov L.A. Russian Mortality Crisis and the Quality of Vital Statistics. Population Research and Policy Review, 2008, 27: 551–574.
  • Gavrilova, N.S., Gavrilov, L.A., Semyonova, V.G., Evdokushkina, G.N., Ivanova, A.E. 2005. Patterns of violent crime in Russia. In: Pridemore, W.A. (ed.). Ruling Russia: Law, Crime, and Justice in a Changing Society. Boulder, Colorado: Rowman & Littlefield Publ., Inc, 117–145
  • Gavrilova, N.S., Semyonova, V.G., Evdokushkina G.N., Gavrilov, L.A. The response of violent mortality to economic crisis in Russia. Population Research and Policy Review, 2000, 19: 397–419.
  • Kamenskii, Aleksander (2014). "Do we know the composition of the 18th century Russian society?". Cahier du MONDE RUSSE. 55 (1–2): 135–148. doi:10.4000/monderusse.7989. ISBN 9782713224409. ISSN 1777-5388.

External links[edit]