Corruption Perceptions Index

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Map showing countries and territories according to the Corruption Perception Index, 2021, in ascending order.
  Score higher than 89
  Score equal to or between 80 and 89
  Score equal to or between 70 and 79
  Score equal to or between 60 and 69
  Score equal to or between 50 and 59
  Score equal to or between 40 and 49
  Score equal to or between 30 and 39
  Score equal to or between 20 and 29
  Score equal to or between 10 and 19
  Score less than 10
  Data unavailable

The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is an index which ranks countries "by their perceived levels of public sector[1] corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys."[2] The CPI generally defines corruption as an "abuse of entrusted power for private gain".[3] The index is published annually by the non-governmental organisation Transparency International since 1995.[4]

The 2021 CPI, published in January 2022, currently ranks 180 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt)" based on the situation between 1 May 2020 and 30 April 2021.[5] Denmark, New Zealand, Finland, Singapore, and Sweden are perceived as the least corrupt nations in the world, ranking consistently high among international financial transparency, while the most apparently corrupt are Syria, Somalia (both scoring 13), and South Sudan (11).[6]

Methods[edit]

Transparency International commissioned the University of Passau's Johann Graf Lambsdorff to produce the CPI.[7] The 2012 CPI takes into account 16 different surveys and assessments from 12 different institutions.[8] The 13 surveys/assessments are either business people opinion surveys or performance assessments from a group of analysts.[3] Early CPIs used public opinion surveys.[9] The institutions are:[10]

Countries need to be evaluated by at least three sources to appear in the CPI.[9] The CPI measures perception of corruption due to the difficulty of measuring absolute levels of corruption.[11]

Validity[edit]

A study published in 2002 found a "very strong significant correlation" between the Corruption Perceptions Index and two other proxies for corruption: black market activity and an overabundance of regulation.[12]

All three metrics also had a highly significant correlation with real gross domestic product per capita (RGDP/Cap); the Corruption Perceptions Index correlation with RGDP/Cap was the strongest, explaining over three fourths of the variance.[12] (Note that a lower rating on this scale reflects greater corruption, so that countries with higher RGDPs generally had less corruption.)

Alex Cobham of the Center for Global Development reported in 2013 that "many of the staff and chapters" at Transparency International, the publisher of the Corruption Perceptions Index, "protest internally" over concerns about the index. The original creator of the index, Johann Graf Lambsdorff, withdrew from work on the index in 2009, stating "In 1995 I invented the Corruption Perceptions Index and have orchestrated it ever since, putting TI on the spotlight of international attention. In August 2009 I have informed Cobus de Swardt, Managing Director of TI, that I am no longer available for doing the Corruption Perceptions Index."[13]

Economic implications[edit]

Research papers published in 2007 and 2008 examined the economic consequences of corruption perception, as defined by the CPI. The researchers found a correlation between a higher CPI and higher long-term economic growth,[14] as well as an increase in GDP growth of 1.7% for every unit increase in a country's CPI score.[15] Also shown was a power-law dependence linking higher CPI score to higher rates of foreign investment in a country.

Rankings[edit]

Legend:

Scores Perceived as less corrupt Perceived as more corrupt
99–90 89–80 79–70 69–60 59–50 49–40 39-30 29–20 19–10 9–0

2012–2021[edit]

Corruption Perceptions Index table:[16]

# Nation or Territory 2021[6] 2020[17] 2019[18] 2018[19] 2017[20] 2016[21] 2015[22] 2014[23] 2013[24] 2012[25]
Score  Δ  Score  Δ  Score  Δ  Score  Δ  Score  Δ  Score  Δ  Score  Δ  Score  Δ  Score  Δ  Score
1  Denmark
88
Steady
88
Increase 1
87
Decrease 1
88
Steady
88
Decrease 2
90
Decrease 1
91
Decrease 1
92
Increase 1
91
Increase 1
90
1  New Zealand
88
Steady
88
Increase 1
87
Steady
87
Decrease 2
89
Decrease 1
90
Decrease 1
91
Steady
91
Steady
91
Increase 1
90
1  Finland
88
Increase 3
85
Decrease 1
86
Increase 1
85
Steady
85
Decrease 4
89
Decrease 1
90
Increase 1
89
Steady
89
Decrease 1
90
4  Singapore
85
Steady
85
Steady
85
Steady
85
Increase 1
84
Steady
84
Decrease 1
85
Increase 1
84
Decrease 2
86
Decrease 1
87
4  Sweden
85
Steady
85
Steady
85
Steady
85
Increase 1
84
Decrease 4
88
Decrease 1
89
Increase 2
87
Decrease 2
89
Increase 1
88
7   Switzerland
84
Decrease 1
85
Steady
85
Steady
85
Steady
85
Decrease 1
86
Steady
86
Steady
86
Increase 1
85
Decrease 1
86
4  Norway
85
Increase 1
84
Steady
84
Steady
84
Decrease 1
85
Steady
85
Decrease 2
87
Increase 1
86
Steady
86
Increase 1
85
8  Netherlands
82
Steady
82
Steady
82
Steady
82
Steady
82
Decrease 1
83
Decrease 4
87
Increase 4
83
Steady
83
Decrease 1
84
10  Germany
80
Steady
80
Steady
80
Steady
80
Decrease 1
81
Steady
81
Steady
81
Increase 2
79
Increase 1
78
Decrease 1
79
9  Luxembourg
81
Increase 1
80
Steady
80
Decrease 1
81
Decrease 1
82
Increase 1
81
Steady
81
Decrease 1
82
Increase 2
80
Steady
80
18  Australia
73
Decrease 4
77
Steady
77
Steady
77
Steady
77
Decrease 2
79
Steady
79
Decrease 1
80
Decrease 1
81
Decrease 4
85
13  Canada
74
Decrease 3
77
Steady
77
Decrease 4
81
Decrease 1
82
Steady
82
Decrease 1
83
Increase 2
81
Steady
81
Decrease 3
84
12  Hong Kong
76
Decrease 1
77
Increase 1
76
Steady
76
Decrease 1
77
Steady
77
Increase 2
75
Increase 1
74
Decrease 1
75
Decrease 2
77
11  United Kingdom
78
Increase 1
77
Steady
77
Decrease 3
80
Decrease 2
82
Increase 1
81
Steady
81
Increase 3
78
Increase 2
76
Increase 2
74
13  Austria
74
Decrease 2
76
Decrease 1
77
Increase 1
76
Increase 1
75
Steady
75
Decrease 1
76
Increase 4
72
Increase 3
69
Steady
69
18  Belgium
73
Decrease 3
76
Increase 1
75
Steady
75
Steady
75
Decrease 2
77
Steady
77
Increase 1
76
Increase 1
75
Steady
75
13  Estonia
74
Decrease 1
75
Increase 1
74
Increase 1
73
Increase 2
71
Increase 1
70
Steady
70
Increase 1
69
Increase 1
68
Increase 4
64
13  Iceland
74
Decrease 1
75
Decrease 3
78
Increase 2
76
Decrease 1
77
Decrease 1
78
Decrease 1
79
Steady
79
Increase 1
78
Decrease 4
82
18  Japan
73
Decrease 1
74
Increase 1
73
Steady
73
Steady
73
Increase 1
72
Decrease 3
75
Decrease 1
76
Increase 2
74
Steady
74
13  Ireland
74
Increase 2
72
Decrease 2
74
Increase 1
73
Decrease 1
74
Increase 1
73
Decrease 2
75
Increase 1
74
Increase 2
72
Increase 3
69
24  United Arab Emirates
69
Decrease 2
71
Steady
71
Increase 1
70
Decrease 1
71
Increase 5
66
Decrease 4
70
Steady
70
Increase 1
69
Increase 1
68
18  Uruguay
73
Increase 2
71
Steady
71
Increase 1
70
Steady
70
Decrease 1
71
Decrease 3
74
Increase 1
73
Steady
73
Increase 1
72
22  France
71
Increase 1
69
Steady
69
Decrease 3
72
Increase 2
70
Increase 1
69
Decrease 1
70
Increase 1
69
Decrease 2
71
Steady
71
25  Bhutan
68
Steady
68
Steady
68
Steady
68
Increase 1
67
Increase 2
65
Steady
65
Steady
65
Increase 2
63
Steady
63
27  Chile
67
Steady
67
Steady
67
Steady
67
Steady
67
Increase 1
66
Decrease 4
70
Decrease 3
73
Increase 2
71
Decrease 1
72
27  United States
67
Steady
67
Decrease 2
69
Decrease 2
71
Decrease 4
75
Increase 1
74
Decrease 2
76
Increase 2
74
Increase 1
73
Steady
73
23  Seychelles
70
Increase 4
66
Steady
66
Steady
66
Increase 6
60
Increase 5 Steady
55
Steady
55
Increase 1
54
Increase 2
52
25  Taiwan
68
Increase 2
65
Steady
65
Increase 2
63
Steady
63
Increase 2
61
Decrease 1
62
Increase 1
61
Steady
61
Steady
61
29  Barbados
65
Increase 1
64
Increase 2
62
Decrease 6
68
Steady
68
Increase 7
61
Steady Steady
74
Decrease 1
75
Decrease 1
76
30  Bahamas
64
Increase 1
63
Decrease 1
64
Decrease 1
65
Steady
65
Decrease 1
66
Steady Steady
71
Steady
71
Steady
71
31  Qatar
63
Steady
63
Increase 1
62
Steady
62
Decrease 1
63
Increase 2
61
Decrease 10
71
Increase 2
69
Increase 1
68
Steady
68
32  South Korea
62
Increase 1
61
Increase 2
59
Increase 2
57
Increase 3
54
Increase 1
53
Decrease 3
56
Increase 1
55
Steady
55
Decrease 1
56
32  Portugal
62
Increase 1
61
Decrease 1
62
Decrease 2
64
Increase 1
63
Increase 1
62
Decrease 1
63
Steady
63
Increase 1
62
Decrease 1
63
34  Lithuania
61
Increase 1
60
Steady
60
Increase 1
59
Steady
59
Steady
59
Decrease 2
61
Increase 3
58
Increase 1
57
Increase 3
54
34  Spain
61
Decrease 1
62
Steady
62
Increase 4
58
Increase 1
57
Decrease 1
58
Steady
58
Decrease 2
60
Increase 1
59
Decrease 6
65
45  Botswana
55
Decrease 5
60
Decrease 1
61
Steady
61
Steady
61
Increase 1
60
Decrease 3
63
Steady
63
Decrease 1
64
Decrease 1
65
35  Brunei Steady
60
Steady
60
Decrease 3
63
Increase 1
62
Increase 4
58
Steady Steady Steady
60
Increase 5
55
36  Israel
59
Decrease 1
60
Steady
60
Decrease 1
61
Decrease 1
62
Decrease 2
64
Increase 3
61
Increase 1
60
Decrease 1
61
Increase 1
60
41  Slovenia
57
Decrease 3
60
Steady
60
Steady
60
Decrease 1
61
Steady
61
Increase 1
60
Increase 2
58
Increase 1
57
Decrease 4
61
36  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
59
Steady
59
Steady
59
Increase 1
58
Steady
58
Decrease 2
60
Steady Steady
67
Increase 5
62
Steady
62
39  Cape Verde
58
Steady
58
Steady
58
Increase 1
57
Increase 2
55
Decrease 4
59
Increase 4
55
Decrease 2
57
Decrease 1
58
Decrease 2
60
39  Costa Rica
58
Increase 1
57
Increase 1
56
Steady
56
Decrease 3
59
Increase 1
58
Increase 3
55
Increase 1
54
Increase 1
53
Decrease 1
54
52  Cyprus
53
Decrease 4
57
Decrease 1
58
Decrease 1
59
Increase 2
57
Increase 2
55
Decrease 6
61
Decrease 2
63
Steady
63
Decrease 3
66
36  Latvia
59
Increase 2
57
Increase 1
56
Decrease 2
58
Steady
58
Increase 1
57
Increase 2
55
Steady
55
Increase 2
53
Increase 4
49
45  Georgia
55
Decrease 1
56
Steady
56
Decrease 2
58
Increase 2
56
Decrease 1
57
Increase 5
52
Steady
52
Increase 3
49
Decrease 3
52
42  Poland
56
Steady
56
Decrease 2
58
Decrease 2
60
Steady
60
Decrease 2
62
Steady
62
Increase 1
61
Increase 1
60
Increase 2
58
42  Saint Lucia
56
Steady
56
Increase 1
55
Steady
55
Steady
55
Decrease 5
60
Steady Steady Steady
71
Steady
71
45  Dominica
55
Steady
55
Steady
55
Decrease 2
57
Steady
57
Decrease 2
59
Steady Steady
58
Steady
58
Steady
58
49  Czech Republic
54
Steady
54
Decrease 2
56
Decrease 3
59
Increase 2
57
Increase 2
55
Decrease 1
56
Increase 5
51
Increase 3
48
Decrease 1
49
56  Oman
52
Decrease 2
54
Increase 2
52
Steady
52
Increase 8
44
Decrease 1
45
Steady
45
Steady
45
Decrease 2
47
Steady
47
52  Rwanda
53
Decrease 1
54
Increase 1
53
Decrease 3
56
Increase 1
55
Increase 1
54
Steady
54
Increase 5
49
Decrease 4
53
Steady
53
52  Grenada
53
Steady
53
Steady
53
Decrease 1
52
Steady
52
Decrease 4
56
Steady Steady Steady Steady
42  Italy
56
Increase 3
53
Steady
53
Increase 1
52
Increase 2
50
Increase 3
47
Increase 3
44
Increase 1
43
Steady
43
Increase 1
42
49  Malta
54
Increase 1
53
Decrease 1
54
Steady
54
Decrease 2
56
Increase 1
55
Decrease 1
56
Increase 1
55
Decrease 1
56
Decrease 1
57
49  Mauritius
54
Increase 1
53
Increase 1
52
Increase 1
51
Increase 1
50
Decrease 4
54
Increase 1
53
Decrease 1
54
Increase 2
52
Decrease 5
57
52  Saudi Arabia
53
Steady
53
Steady
53
Increase 4
49
Steady
49
Increase 3
46
Decrease 6
52
Increase 3
49
Increase 3
46
Increase 2
44
62  Malaysia
48
Decrease 3
51
Decrease 2
53
Increase 6
47
Steady
47
Decrease 2
49
Decrease 1
50
Decrease 2
52
Increase 2
50
Increase 1
49
58  Namibia
49
Decrease 2
51
Decrease 1
52
Decrease 1
53
Increase 2
51
Decrease 1
52
Decrease 1
53
Increase 4
49
Increase 1
48
Steady
48
58  Greece
49
Decrease 1
50
Increase 2
48
Increase 3
45
Decrease 3
48
Increase 4
44
Decrease 2
46
Increase 3
43
Increase 3
40
Increase 4
36
58  Armenia
49
Steady
49
Increase 7
42
Increase 7
35
Steady
35
Increase 2
33
Decrease 2
35
Decrease 2
37
Increase 1
36
Increase 2
34
58  Jordan
49
Steady
49
Increase 1
48
Decrease 1
49
Increase 1
48
Steady
48
Decrease 5
53
Increase 4
49
Increase 4
45
Decrease 3
48
56  Slovakia
52
Increase 2
49
Decrease 1
50
Steady
50
Steady
50
Decrease 1
51
Steady
51
Increase 1
50
Increase 3
47
Increase 1
46
82  Belarus
41
Decrease 6
47
Increase 2
45
Increase 1
44
Steady
44
Increase 4
40
Increase 8
32
Increase 1
31
Increase 2
29
Decrease 2
31
63  Croatia
47
Steady
47
Steady
47
Decrease 1
48
Decrease 1
49
Steady
49
Decrease 2
51
Increase 3
48
Steady
48
Increase 2
46
64  Cuba
46
Decrease 1
47
Decrease 1
48
Increase 1
47
Steady
47
Steady
47
Steady
47
Increase 1
46
Steady
46
Decrease 2
48
66  São Tomé and Príncipe
45
Decrease 2
47
Increase 1
46
Steady
46
Steady
46
Steady
46
Increase 4
42
Steady
42
Steady
42
Steady
42
64  Montenegro
46
Increase 1
45
Steady
45
Steady
45
Decrease 1
46
Increase 1
45
Increase 1
44
Increase 2
42
Decrease 2
44
Increase 3
41
73  Senegal
43
Decrease 2
45
Steady
45
Steady
45
Steady
45
Steady
45
Increase 1
44
Increase 1
43
Increase 2
41
Increase 5
36
78  Bulgaria
42
Decrease 2
44
Increase 1
43
Increase 1
42
Decrease 1
43
Increase 2
41
Steady
41
Decrease 2
43
Increase 2
41
Steady
41
73  Hungary
43
Decrease 1
44
Steady
44
Decrease 2
46
Increase 1
45
Decrease 3
48
Decrease 3
51
Decrease 3
54
Steady
54
Decrease 1
55
70  Jamaica
44
Steady
44
Increase 1
43
Decrease 1
44
Steady
44
Increase 5
39
Decrease 2
41
Increase 3
38
Steady
38
Steady
38
66  Romania
45
Increase 1
44
Steady
44
Decrease 3
47
Decrease 1
48
Steady
48
Increase 2
46
Increase 3
43
Steady
43
Decrease 1
44
70  South Africa
44
Steady
44
Steady
44
Increase 1
43
Steady
43
Decrease 2
45
Increase 1
44
Steady
44
Increase 2
42
Decrease 1
43
70  Tunisia
44
Steady
44
Increase 1
43
Steady
43
Increase 1
42
Increase 1
41
Increase 3
38
Decrease 2
40
Decrease 1
41
Steady
41
73  Ghana
43
Steady
43
Increase 2
41
Steady
41
Increase 1
40
Decrease 3
43
Decrease 4
47
Decrease 1
48
Increase 2
46
Increase 1
45
85  Maldives
40
Decrease 3
43
Increase 14
29
Decrease 2
31
Decrease 2
33
Decrease 3
36
Steady Steady Steady Steady
66  Vanuatu
45
Increase 2
43
Increase 3
46
Steady
46
Decrease 3
43
Steady Steady Steady Steady Steady
96  Argentina
38
Decrease 4
42
Decrease 3
45
Increase 5
40
Increase 1
39
Increase 3
36
Increase 4
32
Decrease 2
34
Steady
34
Decrease 1
35
78  Bahrain
42
Steady
42
Steady
42
Increase 6
36
Steady
36
Decrease 7
43
Decrease 8
51
Increase 2
49
Increase 1
48
Decrease 3
51
66  China
45
Increase 3
42
Increase 1
41
Increase 2
39
Decrease 2
41
Increase 1
40
Increase 3
37
Increase 1
36
Decrease 4
40
Increase 1
39
73  Kuwait
43
Increase 1
42
Increase 2
40
Decrease 1
41
Increase 2
39
Decrease 2
41
Decrease 8
49
Increase 5
44
Increase 1
43
Decrease 1
44
73  Solomon Islands
43
Increase 1
42
Steady
42
Decrease 2
44
Increase 5
39
Decrease 3
42
Steady Steady Steady Steady
78  Benin
42
Increase 1
41
Steady
41
Increase 1
40
Increase 1
39
Increase 3
36
Decrease 1
37
Decrease 2
39
Increase 3
36
Steady
36
87  Guyana
39
Decrease 2
41
Increase 1
40
Increase 3
37
Decrease 1
38
Increase 4
34
Increase 5
29
Decrease 1
30
Increase 3
27
Decrease 1
28
96  Lesotho
38
Decrease 3
41
Increase 1
40
Decrease 1
41
Decrease 1
42
Increase 3
39
Decrease 5
44
Decrease 5
49
Steady
49
Increase 4
45
78  Burkina Faso
42
Increase 2
40
Steady
40
Decrease 1
41
Decrease 1
42
Steady
42
Increase 4
38
Steady
38
Steady
38
Steady
38
85  India
40
Steady
40
Decrease 1
41
Steady
41
Increase 1
40
Steady
40
Increase 2
38
Steady
38
Increase 2
36
Steady
36
87  Morocco
39
Decrease 1
40
Decrease 1
41
Decrease 2
43
Increase 3
40
Increase 3
37
Increase 1
36
Decrease 3
39
Increase 2
37
Steady
37
82  Timor-Leste
41
Increase 1
40
Increase 2
38
Increase 3
35
Decrease 3
38
Increase 3
35
Increase 7
28
Steady
28
Decrease 2
30
Decrease 3
33
82  Trinidad and Tobago
41
Increase 1
40
Steady
40
Decrease 1
41
Steady
41
Increase 6
35
Decrease 4
39
Increase 1
38
Steady
38
Decrease 1
39
96  Turkey
38
Decrease 2
40
Increase 1
39
Decrease 2
41
Increase 1
40
Decrease 1
41
Decrease 1
42
Decrease 3
45
Decrease 5
50
Increase 1
49
87  Colombia
39
Steady
39
Increase 2
37
Increase 1
36
Decrease 1
37
Steady
37
Steady
37
Steady
37
Increase 1
36
Steady
36
105  Ecuador
36
Decrease 3
39
Increase 1
38
Increase 4
34
Increase 2
32
Increase 1
31
Decrease 1
32
Decrease 1
33
Decrease 2
35
Increase 3
32
96  Brazil
38
Steady
38
Increase 3
35
Steady
35
Decrease 2
37
Decrease 3
40
Increase 2
38
Decrease 5
43
Increase 1
42
Decrease 1
43
87  Ethiopia
39
Increase 1
38
Increase 1
37
Increase 3
34
Decrease 1
35
Increase 1
34
Increase 1
33
Steady
33
Steady
33
Steady
33
102  Kazakhstan
37
Decrease 1
38
Increase 4
34
Increase 3
31
Steady
31
Increase 2
29
Increase 1
28
Decrease 1
29
Increase 3
26
Decrease 2
28
105  Peru
36
Decrease 2
38
Increase 2
36
Increase 1
35
Decrease 2
37
Increase 2
35
Decrease 1
36
Decrease 2
38
Steady
38
Steady
38
96  Serbia
38
Steady
38
Decrease 1
39
Steady
39
Decrease 2
41
Decrease 1
42
Increase 2
40
Decrease 1
41
Decrease 1
42
Increase 3
39
102  Sri Lanka
37
Decrease 1
38
Steady
38
Steady
38
Steady
38
Increase 2
36
Decrease 1
37
Decrease 1
38
Increase 1
37
Decrease 3
40
87  Suriname
39
Increase 1
38
Decrease 6
44
Increase 1
43
Increase 2
41
Decrease 4
45
Increase 9
36
Steady
36
Steady
36
Decrease 1
37
87  Tanzania
39
Increase 1
38
Increase 1
37
Increase 1
36
Steady
36
Increase 4
32
Increase 2
30
Decrease 1
31
Decrease 2
33
Decrease 2
35
102  Gambia
37
Steady
37
Steady
37
Steady
37
Increase 7
30
Increase 4
26
Decrease 2
28
Decrease 1
29
Increase 1
28
Decrease 6
34
96  Indonesia
38
Increase 1
37
Decrease 3
40
Increase 2
38
Increase 1
37
Steady
37
Increase 1
36
Increase 2
34
Increase 2
32
Steady
32
110  Albania
35
Decrease 1
36
Increase 1
35
Decrease 1
36
Decrease 2
38
Decrease 1
39
Increase 3
36
Increase 3
33
Increase 2
31
Decrease 2
33
117  Algeria
33
Decrease 3
36
Increase 1
35
Steady
35
Increase 2
33
Decrease 1
34
Decrease 2
36
Steady
36
Steady
36
Increase 2
34
105  Ivory Coast
36
Steady
36
Increase 1
35
Steady
35
Decrease 1
36
Increase 2
34
Increase 2
32
Steady
32
Increase 5
27
Decrease 2
29
115  El Salvador
34
Decrease 2
36
Increase 2
34
Decrease 1
35
Increase 2
33
Decrease 3
36
Decrease 3
39
Steady
39
Increase 1
38
Steady
38
87  Kosovo
39
Increase 3
36
Steady
36
Decrease 1
37
Decrease 2
39
Increase 3
36
Increase 3
33
Steady
33
Steady
33
Decrease 1
34
110  Thailand
35
Decrease 1
36
Steady
36
Steady
36
Decrease 1
37
Increase 2
35
Decrease 3
38
Steady
38
Increase 3
35
Decrease 2
37
87  Vietnam
39
Increase 3
36
Decrease 1
37
Increase 4
33
Decrease 2
35
Increase 2
33
Increase 2
31
Steady
31
Steady
31
Steady
31
110  Bosnia and Herzegovina
35
Steady
35
Decrease 1
36
Decrease 2
38
Steady
38
Decrease 1
39
Increase 1
38
Decrease 1
39
Decrease 3
42
Steady
42
110  Mongolia
35
Steady
35
Steady
35
Decrease 2
37
Increase 1
36
Decrease 2
38
Decrease 1
39
Steady
39
Increase 1
38
Increase 2
36
87  North Macedonia
39
Increase 4
35
Steady
35
Decrease 2
37
Increase 2
35
Decrease 2
37
Decrease 5
42
Decrease 3
45
Increase 1
44
Increase 1
43
105  Panama
36
Increase 1
35
Decrease 1
36
Decrease 1
37
Steady
37
Decrease 1
38
Decrease 1
39
Increase 2
37
Increase 2
35
Decrease 3
38
105  Moldova
36
Increase 2
34
Increase 2
32
Decrease 1
33
Increase 2
31
Increase 1
30
Decrease 3
33
Decrease 2
35
Steady
35
Decrease 1
36
117  Philippines
33
Decrease 1
34
Steady
34
Decrease 2
36
Increase 2
34
Decrease 1
35
Steady
35
Decrease 3
38
Increase 2
36
Increase 2
34
117  Egypt
33
Steady
33
Decrease 2
35
Steady
35
Increase 3
32
Decrease 2
34
Decrease 2
36
Decrease 1
37
Increase 5
32
Steady
32
122  Eswatini
32
Decrease 1
33
Decrease 1
34
Decrease 4
38
Decrease 1
39
Decrease 4 Steady Steady
43
Increase 4
39
Increase 2
37
117    Nepal
33
Steady
33
Decrease 1
34
Increase 3
31
Steady
31
Increase 2
29
Increase 2
27
Decrease 2
29
Decrease 2
31
Increase 4
27
115  Sierra Leone
34
Increase 1
33
Steady
33
Increase 3
30
Steady
30
Steady
30
Increase 1
29
Decrease 2
31
Increase 1
30
Decrease 1
31
122  Ukraine
32
Decrease 1
33
Increase 3
30
Decrease 2
32
Increase 2
30
Increase 1