List of chief ministers of West Bengal
|Chief Minister of West Bengal|
since 20 May 2011
|Chief Minister's Office|
|Style||The Honorable |
Madam Chief Minister Her Excellency
|Status||Head of Government|
|Reports to||Governor of West Bengal|
|Residence||Chief Minister Abas, Kolkata|
|Appointer||Governor of West Bengal|
|Term length||At the confidence of the assembly|
Chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.
|Inaugural holder||Prafulla Chandra Ghosh as premier, |
Bidhan Chandra Ray as chief minister
|Formation||15 August 1947|
(as Prime Minister of West Bengal)
|Deputy||Deputy chief minister (vacant)|
The Chief Minister of West Bengal is the representative of the Government of India in the state of West Bengal and the head of the executive branch of the Government of West Bengal. The chief minister is head of the Council of Ministers and appoints ministers. The chief minister, along with their cabinet, exercises executive authority in the state. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly.
On 17 August 1947, the British Indian province of Bengal was partitioned into the Pakistani province of East Bengal and the Indian state of West Bengal. Since then West Bengal has had eight chief ministers, starting with Prafulla Chandra Ghosh of the Indian National Congress (INC) party as the premier. A period of political instability followed—West Bengal witnessed three elections, four coalition governments and three stints of President's rule between 1967 and 1972—before Siddhartha Shankar Ray of the INC served a five-year term.
The landslide victory of the Communist Party of India (Marxist)-led Left Front in the 1977 election began Jyoti Basu's 23-year continuous reign as chief minister. The length of his tenure was an all-India record until 2018, when he was surpassed by Sikkim's Pawan Kumar Chamling. Basu's successor Buddhadeb Bhattacharya continued Communist rule in West Bengal for another decade, when the Left Front was defeated in the 2011 election by the All India Trinamool Congress. Sworn in on 20 May 2011, Trinamool leader Mamata Banerjee is West Bengal's incumbent chief minister, the first woman to hold the office. She was subsequently voted to power in 2016 and 2021 assembly elections. Mamata Banerjee's TMC got a landslide win in 2021 assembly elections, securing 215 assembly seats out of 292.
|Colour key for parties|
Premiers of West Bengal (1947–50)
|1||Prafulla Chandra Ghosh||15 August 1947||22 January 1948||160 days||Provincial Assembly
|Indian National Congress||Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari|
|2||Bidhan Chandra Roy||23 January 1948||25 January 1950||2 years, 2 days|
Chief Ministers of West Bengal (1950–present)
|(2)||Bidhan Chandra Roy
|26 January 1950||30 March 1952||12 years, 156 days
(total: 14 years, 159 days)
|Indian National Congress|
|Bowbazar||31 March 1952||5 April 1957||1st|
|6 April 1957||2 April 1962||2nd|
|Chowrangee||3 April 1962||1 July 1962||3rd |
|3||Prafulla Chandra Sen[g]||Arambagh East||9 July 1962||28 February 1967||4 years, 234 days|
|4||Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee||Tamluk||1 March 1967||21 November 1967||265 days||4th||Bangla Congress
|(1)||Prafulla Chandra Ghosh||Jhargram||21 November 1967||19 February 1968||90 days
(total: 250 days)
(Progressive Democratic Front)
|N/A||20 February 1968||25 February 1969||1 year, 5 days||Dissolved||N/A|
|(4)||Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee||Tamluk||25 February 1969||16 March 1970||1 year, 19 days||5th
|N/A||19 March 1970||30 July 1970||1 year, 14 days||N/A|
|30 July 1970||2 April 1971||Dissolved|
|(4)||Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee||Tamluk||2 April 1971||28 June 1971||87 days
(total: 2 years, 6 days)
|6th||Indian National Congress
|N/A||29 June 1971||20 March 1972||265 days||Dissolved||N/A|
|5||Siddhartha Shankar Ray||Maldah||20 March 1972||30 April 1977||5 years, 41 days||7th||Indian National Congress
(Progressive Democratic Alliance)
|N/A||30 April 1977||20 June 1977||51 days||Dissolved||N/A|
|6||Jyoti Basu||Satgachhia||21 June 1977||23 May 1982||23 years, 137 days||8th||Communist Party of India (Marxist)
|24 May 1982||29 March 1987||9th|
|30 March 1987||18 June 1991||10th|
|19 June 1991||15 May 1996||11th|
|16 May 1996||5 November 2000||12th|
|7||Buddhadeb Bhattacharya||Jadavpur||6 November 2000||14 May 2001||10 years, 188 days|
|15 May 2001||17 May 2006||13th|
|18 May 2006||13 May 2011||14th |
|8||Mamata Banerjee||Bhabanipur||20 May 2011||25 May 2016||11 years, 316 days||15th||All India Trinamool Congress[i]|
|26 May 2016||4 May 2021||16th|
|5 May 2021||Incumbent||17th|
- List of deputy chief ministers of West Bengal
- List of Governors of West Bengal
- List of rulers of Bengal
- Prime Minister of Bengal
- ^ Since October 2013 Chief Minister Banerjee has worked from the top floor of the newly constructed Nabanna building in Howrah, while Writers' Building undergoes renovation.
- ^ This refers to the 90-member rump legislature that emerged following partition, representing the West Bengali constituencies of the erstwhile Bengal Legislative Assembly. It was constituted under the Government of India Act, 1935, not the Indian Constitution, which was still in the process of being drafted.
- ^ A number in parentheses indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
- ^ While the tenures have been primarily sourced to a list on the West Bengal Legislative Assembly website, obvious errors (mainly around the 1969–71 period) have been corrected with the help of a historical essay from the same website.
- ^ Until March 1952, Roy did not represent any constituency. For his last three months in office, during the Third Assembly, Roy represented Chowringhee constituency.
- ^ Following the promulgation of the Constitution of India, the provincial assembly carried on as the legislative assembly of West Bengal until fresh elections could be organised in 1952.
- ^ According to some sources, Sen also acted as interim chief minister during 2–8 July 1962.
- ^ a b c d Under Article 356 of the Constitution of India, President's rule may be imposed when the "government in a state is not able to function as per the Constitution", which often happens because no party or coalition has a majority in the assembly. When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of chief minister thus lies vacant, and the administration is taken over by the governor, who functions on behalf of the central government. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.
- ^ For the first 16 months Mamata Banerjee headed a coalition government that included ministers from Trinamool and the INC. After Trinamool quit the United Progressive Alliance in September 2012, INC members resigned from her ministry, which has consisted of only Trinamool members ever since.
- ^ Arshad Ali. "Mamata may move to new CM's residence – British-era bungalow". The Indian Express. 8 October 2013. Archived on 19 July 2014.
- ^ Shiv Sahay Singh. "Mamata shifts office to Nabanna". The Hindu. 6 October 2013. Archived on 21 December 2016.
- ^ Durga Das Basu. Introduction to the Constitution of India. 1960. 20th Edition, 2011 Reprint. pp. 241, 245. LexisNexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9. Note: although the text talks about Indian state governments in general, it applies for the specific case of West Bengal as well.
- ^ a b c d e f Origin and Growth of the West Bengal Legislative Assembly. West Bengal Legislative Assembly. Retrieved on 27 July 2018.
Note: In case of an error, please click the "Origin & Growth" button in the top left of the website.
- ^ "Pawan Kumar Chamling crosses Jyoti Basu’s record as longest-serving Chief Minister ". The Hindu. 29 April 2018.Archived on 31 July 2018.
- ^ a b Premiers/Chief Ministers of West Bengal. West Bengal Legislative Assembly. Archive link from 12 March 2016.
- ^ Brief Information on Previous Assemblies. West Bengal Legislative Assembly. Archive link from 12 March 2016.
- ^ List of Chief Ministers of West Bengal. Panchayat & Rural Development Department, Hooghly. Retrieved on 27 July 2018. Archived on 27 July 2018.
- ^ Amberish K. Diwanji. "A dummy's guide to President's rule". Rediff.com. 15 March 2005. Archived on 16 August 2017.
- "Left Front Government of Bengal: A Saga of Struggle" – a political history of West Bengal from the CPI(M)'s point of view