Ceremonial counties of England
|Counties for the purposes of the lieutenancies|
Not shown: City of London
|Populations||8,000 (City of London)–8,167,000 (Greater London)|
The counties for the purposes of the lieutenancies in England, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lords-lieutenant are appointed. Legally, the areas in England, Wales and Scotland are defined by the Lieutenancies Act 1997 as "counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies in Great Britain" ("counties" in England and Wales, "areas" in Scotland), in contrast to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England used for local government. They are also informally known as "geographic counties", to distinguish them from other types of counties of England.
The distinction between a county for purposes of the lieutenancy and a county for administrative purposes is not a new one. In some cases, a county corporate that was part of a county appointed its own lieutenant, although the lieutenant of the containing county would often be appointed to this position, as well, and the three Ridings of Yorkshire had been treated as three counties for lieutenancy purposes since the 17th century.
The Local Government Act 1888 established county councils to assume the administrative functions of quarter sessions in the counties. It created new entities called "administrative counties". An administrative county comprised all of the county apart from the county boroughs; also, some traditional subdivisions of counties were constituted administrative counties, for instance the Soke of Peterborough in Northamptonshire and the Isle of Ely in Cambridgeshire.
The act further stipulated that areas that were part of an administrative county would be part of the county for all purposes. The greatest change was the creation of the County of London, which was made both an administrative county and a "county"; it included parts of the historic counties of Middlesex, Kent, and Surrey. Other differences were small and resulted from the constraint that urban sanitary districts (and later urban districts and municipal boroughs) were not permitted to straddle county boundaries.
Apart from Yorkshire, counties that were subdivided continued to exist as ceremonial counties. For example, the administrative counties of East Suffolk and West Suffolk, along with the county borough of Ipswich, were considered to make up a single ceremonial county of Suffolk, and the administrative county of the Isle of Wight was part of the ceremonial county of Hampshire.
The term "ceremonial county" is an anachronism; at the time they were shown on Ordnance Survey maps as "counties" or "geographical counties", and were referred to in the Local Government Act 1888 simply as "counties".
Apart from minor boundary revisions (for example, Caversham, a town in Oxfordshire, becoming part of Reading county borough and thus of Berkshire, in 1911), these areas changed little until the 1965 creation of Greater London and of Huntingdon and Peterborough, which resulted in the abolition of the offices of Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex, Lord Lieutenant of the County of London, and Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdonshire and the creation of the Lord Lieutenant of Greater London and of the Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdon and Peterborough.
In 1974, administrative counties and county boroughs were abolished, and a major reform was instituted. At this time, lieutenancy was redefined to use the new metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties directly.
Following a further rearrangement in 1996, Avon, Cleveland, Hereford and Worcester, and Humberside were abolished. This led to a resurrection of a distinction between the local government counties and the ceremonial or geographical counties used for lieutenancy, and also to the adoption of the term "ceremonial counties", which although not used in statute, was used in the House of Commons before the arrangements coming into effect.
The County of Avon that had been formed in 1974 was mostly split between Gloucestershire and Somerset, but its city of Bristol regained the status of a county in itself, which it had lost upon the formation of Avon. Cleveland was partitioned between North Yorkshire and Durham. Hereford and Worcester was divided into the restored counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. Humberside was split between Lincolnshire and a new ceremonial county of East Riding of Yorkshire. Rutland was restored as a ceremonial county. Many county boroughs were re-established as unitary authorities; this involved establishing the area as an administrative county, but usually not as a ceremonial county.
Most ceremonial counties are, therefore, entities comprising local authority areas, as they were from 1889 to 1974. The Association of British Counties, a traditional counties lobbying organisation, has suggested that ceremonial counties be restored to their ancient boundaries.
The shrieval counties are defined by the Sheriffs Act 1887 as amended, in a similar way to the lieutenancies defined by the Lieutenancies Act 1997. Each has a high sheriff appointed (except the City of London, which has two sheriffs).
The Lieutenancies Act 1997 defines counties for the purposes of lieutenancies in terms of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties (created by the Local Government Act 1972, as amended) as well as Greater London and the Isles of Scilly (which lie outside the 1972 Act's new system). Although the term is not used in the act, these counties are sometimes known as "ceremonial counties". The counties are defined in Schedule 1, paragraphs 2–5 as amended (most recently in 2009, 2019 and 2023) — these amendments have not altered the actual areas covered by the counties as set out in 1997, only their composition in terms of local government areas, as a result of structural changes in local government.[note 1]
Lieutenancy areas since 1997
These are the 48 counties for the purposes of the lieutenancies in England, as currently defined:
|County for the purposes
of the lieutenancies
Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties
(including unitary authority areas)
|No.||Rank||(km2)||(sq mi)||Rank||(/km2)||(/sq mi)||Rank|
|Bedfordshire||669,338||36th||1,235||477||41st||542||1,400||13th||Bedford, Central Bedfordshire and Luton|
|Berkshire||911,403||24th||1,262||487||40th||722||1,870||10th||Bracknell Forest, Reading, Slough, West Berkshire, Windsor and Maidenhead and Wokingham|
|Bristol||463,405||43rd||110||42||47th||4,224||10,940||2nd||City of Bristol|
|Buckinghamshire||808,666||30th||1,874||724||32nd||432||1,120||22nd||Buckinghamshire and City of Milton Keynes|
|Cambridgeshire||852,523||28th||3,390||1,310||15th||252||650||34th||Cambridgeshire and City of Peterborough|
|Cheshire||1,059,271||19th||2,343||905||25th||452||1,170||21st||Cheshire East, Cheshire West and Chester, Halton, and Warrington|
|City of London[note 2]||8,706||48th||2.90||1.12||48th||2,998||7,760||4th||City of London|
|Cornwall||568,210||40th||3,562||1,375||12th||160||410||41st||Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly|
|Cumbria||498,888||41st||6,767||2,613||3rd||74||190||47th||Cumberland and Westmorland and Furness|
|Derbyshire||1,053,316||21st||2,625||1,014||21st||401||1,040||25th||Derbyshire and City of Derby|
|Devon||1,194,166||11th||6,707||2,590||4th||178||460||39th||Devon, City of Plymouth and Torbay|
|Dorset||772,268||31st||2,653||1,024||20th||274||710||32nd||Dorset and Bournemouth, Christchurch and Poole|
|Durham||866,846[note 3]||26th||2,676||1,033||19th||324||840||28th||County Durham, Darlington, Hartlepool and part of Stockton-on-Tees north of the River Tees|
|East Riding of Yorkshire||600,259||37th||2,477||956||23rd||242||630||35th||East Riding of Yorkshire and City of Kingston upon Hull|
|East Sussex||844,985||29th||1,791||692||33rd||472||1,220||20th||East Sussex and Brighton and Hove|
|Essex||1,832,752||7th||3,670||1,420||11th||499||1,290||15th||Essex, Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock|
|Gloucestershire||916,202||23rd||3,150||1,220||16th||291||750||30th||Gloucestershire and South Gloucestershire|
|Greater London||8,899,375||1st||1,569||606||37th||5,671||14,690||1st||None (see the London boroughs)|
|Greater Manchester||2,812,569||3rd||1,276||493||39th||2,204||5,710||5th||Greater Manchester|
|Hampshire||1,844,245||6th||3,769||1,455||9th||489||1,270||17th||Hampshire, City of Portsmouth and City of Southampton|
|Isle of Wight||141,538||46th||380||150||46th||372||960||26th||Isle of Wight|
|Kent||1,846,478||5th||3,738||1,443||10th||494||1,280||16th||Kent and Medway|
|Lancashire||1,498,300||8th||3,075||1,187||17th||487||1,260||19th||Blackburn with Darwen, Blackpool and Lancashire|
|Leicestershire||1,053,486||20th||2,156||832||28th||489||1,270||18th||Leicestershire and City of Leicester|
|Lincolnshire||1,087,659||18th||6,975||2,693||2nd||156||400||42nd||Lincolnshire, North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire|
|North Yorkshire||1,158,816[note 3]||14th||8,654||3,341||1st||134||350||44th||Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, Redcar and Cleveland, City of York and part of Stockton-on-Tees south of the River Tees|
|Northamptonshire||747,622||33rd||2,364||913||24th||316||820||29th||North Northamptonshire and West Northamptonshire|
|Nottinghamshire||1,154,195||15th||2,159||834||27th||535||1,390||14th||Nottinghamshire and City of Nottingham|
|Shropshire||498,073||42nd||3,488||1,347||13th||143||370||43rd||Shropshire and Telford and Wrekin|
|Somerset||965,424||22nd||4,170||1,610||7th||232||600||36th||Bath and North East Somerset, North Somerset and Somerset|
|South Yorkshire||1,402,918||10th||1,552||599||38th||904||2,340||9th||South Yorkshire|
|Staffordshire||1,131,052||17th||2,714||1,048||18th||417||1,080||24th||Staffordshire and City of Stoke-on-Trent|
|Tyne and Wear||1,136,371||16th||540||210||44th||2,105||5,450||7th||Tyne and Wear|
|West Midlands||2,916,458||2nd||902||348||42nd||3,235||8,380||3rd||West Midlands|
|West Sussex||858,852||27th||1,991||769||30th||431||1,120||23rd||West Sussex|
|West Yorkshire||2,320,214||4th||2,029||783||29th||1,143||2,960||8th||West Yorkshire|
|Wiltshire||720,060||34th||3,485||1,346||14th||207||540||37th||Swindon and Wiltshire|
Lieutenancy areas in 1890
- Cambridgeshire, including Isle of Ely
- held jointly with Chester
- held jointly with Exeter
- held jointly with Poole
- held jointly with Gloucester and Bristol
- held jointly with Southampton
- held jointly with Canterbury
- held jointly with Lincoln
- City of London, having commissioners of Lieutenancy
- County of London
- held jointly with Norwich
- Northamptonshire, including the Soke of Peterborough
- held jointly with Berwick-upon-Tweed and Newcastle upon Tyne
- held jointly with Nottingham
- held jointly with Lichfield
- held jointly with Worcester
- Yorkshire—had three Lieutenants, one for each of the three ridings
- East Riding, held jointly with Kingston upon Hull
- North Riding
- West Riding, held jointly with York
- Counties of England
- Historic counties of England
- Counties in England by population
- Lieutenancy areas of Scotland
- List of local governments in the United Kingdom
- Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics
- Preserved counties of Wales
- ^ For example, Cheshire was prior to the 2009 structural changes to local government defined as the non-metropolitan counties of Cheshire, Halton & Warrington; the non-metropolitan county of Cheshire on 1 April that year split into the non-metropolitan counties of Cheshire East, Cheshire West and Chester, and Schedule 1 of the Lieutenancies Act 1997 was duly amended to take into account these changes to local government within the ceremonial county.
- ^ Because the City of London has a Commission of Lieutenancy rather than a single lord-lieutenant, it is treated as a county for some purposes of the Lieutenancy Act. (Schedule 1 paragraph 4)
- ^ a b As the district of Stockton-on-Tess is in two counties, the population has been calculated by adding (for North Yorkshire) or subtracting (for County Durham) its relevant civil parishes.
- ^ Table 2 2011 Census: Usual resident population and population density, local authorities in the United Kingdom UK Census 2011 UK usual resident population Greater London excluding City of London
- ^ a b Text of the Lieutenancies Act 1997 – Schedule 1: Counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies in Great Britain as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2011-05-03.
- ^ "Ceremonial and Historic county boundary data added to OS OpenData". www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk.
- ^ "England - Geographic counties". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- ^ "Local Government Act 1888 s.1" (PDF). Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- ^ House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 29 Feb 1996 (pt 8) Archived March 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Text of the Lord-Lieutenants – The Local Government Changes for England (Lord-Lieutenants and Sheriffs) Order 1997 as originally enacted or made within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2011-05-03.
- ^ Text of The Local Government (Structural Changes) (Miscellaneous Amendments and Other Provision) Order 2009 (SI 2009/837) as originally enacted or made within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2011-05-03.
- ^ a b "The Local Government (Structural and Boundary Changes) (Supplementary Provision and Miscellaneous Amendments) Order 2019".
- ^ a b The Cumbria (Structural Changes) Order 2022
- ^ "Population Estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, 2021". Office for National Statistics. 2 November 2022. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
- ^ "Standard Area Measurements (2016) for Administrative Areas in the United Kingdom". Office for National Statistics. 1 February 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- Text of the Lieutenancies Act 1997 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk.