British diaspora in Africa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

British diaspora in Africa
Total population
2–2.5 million
Regions with significant populations
 South Africa1,600,000[1]
First language
Second or third language
Afrikaans · Bantu languages · European languages
Anglicanism · Protestantism · Roman Catholicism · Judaism · Irreligion
Related ethnic groups
British · English · Scottish · Irish · Welsh · Ulster-Scots · Coloureds · Afrikaners

The British diaspora in Africa is a population group broadly defined as English-speaking people of mainly (but not only) British descent who live in or were born in Sub-Saharan Africa. The majority live in South Africa and other Southern African countries in which English is a primary language, including Zimbabwe, Namibia, Kenya, Botswana, Zambia. Their first language is usually English.



David Livingstone (taken in 1864) left Britain for Africa in 1840
Rhodes planned to link the Cape to Cairo

Although there were earlier British settlements at ports along the West African coast to facilitate the British Atlantic slave trade, more permanent British settlement in Africa did not begin in earnest until the end of the eighteenth century, at the Cape of Good Hope. British settlement in the Cape gained momentum following the second British occupation of the Dutch Cape Colony in 1806. The government encouraged British settlers in Albany ("Settler Country") in 1820 in order to consolidate the British Cape Colony's eastern frontier during the Cape Frontier Wars against the Xhosa.[5] The Crown proclaimed Natal in southeastern Africa as a British colony in 1843. Following the defeat of the Boers in the Second Boer War in 1902, Britain annexed the Boer Republics of the Transvaal Republic and the Orange Free State.

Scottish medical missionary David Livingstone became known for his exploration of the African continent. He is believed to have been the first European to set eyes on Victoria Falls in 1855. He is a key character in African history, being one of the first well-known Britons to believe his heart was in Africa.

In the late nineteenth century, the discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand and diamonds in Kimberley encouraged further settlement by the British, Australians, Americans and Canadians. The search for mineral resources also drove expansion north. Mining magnate Cecil Rhodes dreamed of a British Africa linked from Cape Town to Cairo. The British South Africa Company, which he founded in 1889, controlled the territory named Rhodesia after him; this later became known as (Southern) Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia, respectively). Simultaneously, British settlers began expansion into the fertile uplands (the "White Highlands") of British East Africa (now Kenya).

As a result of the rise of nationalist and anti-colonial movements throughout the British Empire, in the aftermath of World War II decolonisation of Africa took place. Ethnic Africans were overwhelmingly the majority of population in the British colonies and protectorates and had long been denied equivalent political and economic power. These former colonies eventually became self-governing. The Cold War powers entered into the conflicts in this period. Often aided by Soviet expertise and weapons, black nationalist guerrilla forces such as the Mau Mau in Kenya, ZANU in Rhodesia and MK in South Africa fought for majority rule, which normally meant "one man, one vote".


Unveiling a statue of Cecil Rhodes in Bulawayo in 1909

The ruling white minority in Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia in 1965 but no provisions were made to incorporate the black African majority as political equals. Civil war lasted until 1979, as black nationalists fought against the white-dominated government. In 1980, the first democratic general election was held in what was now independent Zimbabwe and the country joined the Commonwealth. Subsequently, the country's white population declined sharply – thousands were intimidated, attacked, and driven off their property. Because of patterns of discrimination, whites had held the majority of property previously occupied by indigenous groups.[6] Charged with abusing human rights and undermining democracy, President Robert Mugabe and other Zimbabwean individuals and entities were subjected to a wide range of economic and political sanctions by the United States and other western nations.[7][8]

In 2002 Zimbabwe was suspended from the Commonwealth due to human rights abuses and electoral fraud.[9] In 2003, Zimbabwe voluntarily terminated its Commonwealth membership.[10]

Northern Rhodesia became a separate nation, Zambia.

South Africa[edit]

Family soon after arrival from Europe in 1950

White minority rule[edit]

In 1910, the two separate British colonies and two Boer republics in Southern Africa united to form the Union of South Africa, which was governed as a constitutional monarchy within the British Empire under white minority rule. In 1926, the Balfour Declaration ended the oversight from Britain, leading South Africa to become a founding member of the Commonwealth of Nations, as a realm. Five years later, the Act of the Statute of Westminster formalized this full sovereignty.[11] The majority of the British diaspora supported the United Party, led by J. B. M. Hertzog and Jan Smuts, while it was the ruling party between 1934 and 1948, and its various successors up to the Democratic Party, the predecessor of the Democratic Alliance.[12] The United Party favoured close relations with the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth, unlike the Nationalists. Many of the latter, such as John Vorster, supported Nazi Germany during the Second World War.

The ethnic Afrikaners, who ruled the country from 1948 until 1994, entrenched a system of racial segregation known as apartheid, established a republic, and withdrew from the Commonwealth.[11] In 1955, 33,000 Dutch (34.8%), Germans (33.7%), French (13.2%), people of colour (7%), British (5.2%), unknown origin (3.5%), other Europeans (2.6%) in Natal, which had an English-speaking majority of white voters, signed the Natal Covenant against the establishment of a republic.[13] Many of the British diaspora voted "No" in the 1960 referendum of white voters, but it was approved by a narrow margin and resulted in the establishment of a republic. The Natal majority voted against the republic and some residents called for secession from the Union after the referendum.[14]


In 1994, South Africa held its first universal democratic general election, marking the end of apartheid and white minority rule, and rejoined the Commonwealth.[11] The majority of the British diaspora support the Democratic Alliance, which is the official opposition to the ruling African National Congress and an increasingly multiracial party.[15][16][17][18]

Mark Shuttleworth is the first African in space

The British diaspora population declined starting in the early 1990s as a result of a low birth rate relative to that of other population groups and emigration. Reasons for emigration included crime, corruption, poor service delivery and affirmative action.[19][20] A crude estimate of the British diaspora population is the number of white South Africans who speak English as a first language, representing 1.6 million people, 36% of the white population group and 3% of the total population in the South African National Census of 2011. This number is an overstatement as it includes people of other ancestral origins who have assimilated into the white English-speaking population. The English-speaking population is largest in the KwaZulu-Natal province and in cities such as Johannesburg and Cape Town.[1]

Despite the high emigration rate, many people of British descent continue to settle in South Africa, including many South African-born people who have returned home since the late-1990s, especially after the 2008 global economic crisis.[19][20] South Africa has been a top destination for British retirees,[21] and many White Zimbabweans of British descent settled in South Africa after Zimbabwean independence; some as a result of forced removal from their property. Over 200,000 British citizens live in South Africa, including more than 38,000 people who are being paid a UK State Pension.[22][23]

Global presence[edit]

A significant number of the British diaspora in Africa have emigrated to other Commonwealth states such as the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Others have settled in countries such as the United States, the Republic of Ireland, and France. A large number of young people are also taking advantage of working holiday visas made available by the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth states.[20]


White Africans generally enjoy the outdoors lifestyle and sports. The braai is a popular way to get together with friends and family. Other popular pastimes include: visiting game reserves, hiking, camping and recreational fishing. There is a particular appreciation of country life and farming. Farmers themselves generally prefer holiday houses at the coast. In other ways, the culture of the British diaspora derives from their British ancestry. Afternoon tea – in fact, tea at any time of day – is still widespread as are hobbies such as gardening and reading. Families who live in rural areas are usually familiar with horseriding and shooting. White South African culture was encapsulated in the 1970s Chevrolet radio jingle "Braaivleis, rugby, sunny skies and Chevrolet" based on the United States slogan "Baseball, hot dogs, apple pie and Chevrolet".[24][25] Although nationwide television in South Africa was only introduced as lately as 1976, many older South Africans of British descent had little exposure to British television and humour as a result of an Equity union ban on British television programme sales to South Africa during apartheid.[26]


Heart of the Rhodes University campus

Many White Africans speak a unique dialect of English, developed by interaction with other local languages. South African English is influenced by Afrikaans and the Bantu languages. The considerable Afrikaans influence can be seen from words such as braai, trek, lekker and ja in common usage. Some Zulu and Xhosa words, such as shongololo, muti, ubuntu and fundi (meaning an "expert"), are also commonly used. Although South African slang is used by many younger South Africans, it would be unusual to hear it used amongst older people. The common greeting "howzit!" comes from the Afrikaans hoezit! (or "how is it?"); it can be likened to the US "howdy", the Australian "g'day", the Irish "howya?" or the Scottish "awrite?".

Zimbabwean English (ZimEng) shares many similarities with southern hemisphere English dialects (Australian, New Zealand, South African) yet is distinct from its closest relative, South African English. Traditionally Zimbabwean English was predominately influenced by British English, with the minor influence of Afrikaans (compared to South Africa) and African languages, generally used to describe flora and fauna, with terms such as kopje, dassie and bundu (Shona for bush).[27] This dialect came to be known as Rhodesian English, typified by speakers such as Prime Minister Ian Smith and P.K. van der Byl. After Zimbabwean independence from the UK in 1980, this dialect sharply fell out of favour and came to be regarded as an archaic, non-productive dialect, only spoken by the oldest generation of White Zimbabweans and nostalgic Rhodies and whenwes. Zimbabwean English evolved with the changing social, economic and political conditions in which Blacks and Whites interacted in Zimbabwe; with the old, conservative Rhodesian accent being effectively replaced by the more neutral and prestigious sounding cultivated private school accent, which ironically retains some of its features.[28][29] Today, the main languages spoken in are English, Shona and Ndebele. Only 3.5%, mainly the White, Indian, coloured (mixed race) and foreign-born minorities, consider English their native language. The vast majority of English speakers are Black Zimbabweans, who are bilingual or even trilingual with Bantu languages such as Shona (75%), Ndebele (18%) and the other minority languages, and thus these speakers have an outsize role in influencing the direction of Zimbabwean English, despite traditional native speakers maintaining an important influence.[30]

Much like Australian and South African English, spoken English exists on a continuum from broad, general to cultivated (broad and general accents), based on an individual's background particularly, class and income and historically, ethnicity.[31] Affluent, middle class and highly educated Zimbabweans speak in a cultivated accent, influenced by older forms of southern British English, the now archaic Rhodesian English and South African English. The cultivated accent is sometimes humorously mocked by other speakers for its nasality and alleged pretentiousness, with speakers derided as the so-called nose brigades.[32] Robert Mugabe, Brendan Taylor, Pommie Mbangwa, Dave Houghton and journalists Peter Ndoro and Sophie Chamboko are notable speakers of a cultivated accent.[33] Rural and urban working class speakers, on the other hand are heavily influenced by their native languages (these groups are also mocked as SRBs whose accents betray their strong rural background. Lower middle class black Zimbabweans are generally the most prominent in the mainstream media, fall in a spectrum between the two accents.[34] Speakers of this general Zimbabwean accent include Morgan Tsvangirai, Evan Mawarire, Simba Makoni and Tatenda Taibu. English is spoken by virtually all in the cities, but less so in rural areas.[27] Today English, the official language, enjoys status dominance and is the language of instruction in education, commerce, the government and the majority of the media.

Rhodes University in Grahamstown houses the Dictionary Unit for South African English.[35] The fourth edition of A Dictionary of South African English was published in 1991,[36] and the second edition of the Oxford South African Concise Dictionary was published in 2010.[37] The English Academy of Southern Africa, founded in 1961, is dedicated to promoting the effective use of English as a dynamic language in Southern Africa.[38]

A few South African English coinages are listed below:

bru male friend, from Afrikaans broer meaning "brother"
(my) china (my) friend, from Cockney "china plate" which is rhyming slang for "mate"
just now,
now now
an amount of time, could be anything from 5 seconds to 24 hours, could be past or future tense, from the Afrikaans net-nou and nou-nou (e.g. "He went out just now." or "I'll be done with it now now.")
no common speech disfluency or filler
oke male friend, either shortened from bloke or from the Afrikaans diminutive 'outjie' (oldie, used as a term of affection much like 'guy' in English, with English pronunciation approximating 'oakie')
robot traffic light
sarmie sandwich
scheme to think, as in the expression, "What are you scheming?" asked of a person deep in thought (e.g. "I scheme we should go home now.")
shot thank you
takkies running shoes
tune to talk to someone in a derogatory way (e.g. "Are you tuning me?")


The British diaspora in Africa has a long literary tradition, and has produced a number of notable novelists and poets, including Doris Lessing, Olive Schreiner, Guy Butler and Roy Campbell. A traditional South African storybook is Percy FitzPatrick's Jock of the Bushveld, which describes his journey as a wagon driver with his dog Jock. Other significant African writers of British descent are: Nadine Gordimer, Alan Paton, Peter Godwin, Alexandra Fuller and Bryce Courtenay.[citation needed]


The British diaspora has influenced modern African arts, and has often incorporated other African cultures. Athol Fugard is a significant playwright. Born of an Irish Catholic father and an Afrikaner mother, he has always described himself as an Afrikaner but he wrote in English to reach a larger audience. Sharlto Copley is a significant film actor, producer and director. He starred in the Oscar-nominated science fiction film District 9, which was an international box office hit and received widespread critical acclaim. District 9 drew heavily on metaphoric references to South Africa's apartheid history as well as including many other more direct references to South African and African culture. Although English-speaking, Copley plays an Afrikaner bureaucrat who experiences a similar oppression to that he once imposed on alien refugees. He also starred in the film remake of the 1980s television show The A-Team.[citation needed]


Notable African musicians of British descent include: Dave Matthews, who emigrated to the United States, and Johnny Clegg. Wrex Tarr performed the distinctly Rhodesian comedy song "Cocky Robin" based on Chilapalapa. John Edmond was a popular singer, songwriter, entertainer and storyteller during the Rhodesian Bush War. Seether is a post-grunge band founded by South Africans, which now includes Americans.[citation needed]


The British diaspora and their forebears have been extensively involved in the founding and development of numerous educational institutions across Africa.[citation needed]


There are four universities in South Africa that were established by the British diaspora, which admitted limited numbers of Black students during apartheid. The South African College was founded in 1829 and later split into the University of Cape Town and the South African College Schools. The University of Natal merged with the University of Durban-Westville to form the University of KwaZulu-Natal. The University of the Witwatersrand was founded in Kimberley in 1896 as the South African School of Mines and is now based in Johannesburg. Finally, Rhodes University was established in 1904 with an initial grant from the Rhodes Trust.


There are two categories of schools founded by the British diaspora or British missionaries, those originally intended for the education of the children of the British diaspora and those founded for the education of the indigenous population.

The first category includes both notable private schools such as St. George's College in Harare, Peterhouse Boys' School in Marondera, the Diocesan College in Cape Town, the Wykeham Collegiate in Pietermaritzburg and St John's College in Johannesburg and prestigious government schools such as Maritzburg College in Pietermaritzburg, King Edward VII School in Johannesburg and Prince Edward School in Harare.

The second category of schools includes South African institutions such as the Lovedale educational institution in the Eastern Cape, which was responsible for the education of many notable Africans including Thabo Mbeki, Chris Hani and Seretse Khama,[39][40] Tiger Kloof Educational Institute in the North West province,[41] and St Matthew's High School outside Keiskammahoek in the Eastern Cape. Many of these institutions were adversely impacted by the Bantu Education Act of 1953, and the Historic Schools Restoration Project championed by former Anglican Archbishop of Cape Town Njongonkulu Ndungane aims to transform under-resourced historically significant schools into sustainable centres of cultural and educational excellence.[42][43]


Rory Byrne with Michael Schumacher's car for the 2005 Formula One season

Cricket, rugby, tennis, golf, and cycling are generally considered to be the most popular sports among the British diaspora.

Cricket in Africa and particularly Zimbabwe has been dominated by the people of British heritage. Up until recently, the majority of Zimbabwean players were from the British diaspora, including: Andy Flower, Heath Streak, Brendan Taylor and Ray Price. Cricket in South Africa also traditionally features the British diaspora, including former national Test captain Graeme Smith and bowler Shaun Pollock. The England cricket team has often included many players of Southern African heritage in their ranks such as brothers Sam Curran and Tom Curran, Gary Ballance and Andrew Strauss. The England cricket team of 2010 that retained the 2010–11 Ashes series in Australia, for example, received significant contributions from South African captain Andrew Strauss, wicketkeeper Matt Prior, batsman Kevin Pietersen, batsman Jonathan Trott and coach Andy Flower.

A few examples of the notable contributions of the British diaspora to South African rugby are those made by Kitch Christie, the coach who led the Springboks to victory in the 1995 Rugby World Cup, Bobby Skinstad and Percy Montgomery, the Springboks' all-time leader in appearances and points.

Members of the British diaspora have also had notable success in African rallying, while former Rhodesia in particular produced several world champion motorcycle road racers including Jim Redman and Kork Ballington.

Two-time Tour de France winner Chris Froome was born in Kenya, and grew up in South Africa.

Alternative names[edit]

I do see very clearly that there may come a time, and that time not very remote, when the Australian colonies may be brought more into the position of one great and united people. I do see a time when the South African colonies may be brought together into one great Anglo-African people. And I see that if a grand and powerful congeries of free communities, such as I have grouped, in three parts of the world, become steadily formed, they may enter into an allegiance with the parent State, on something like a broad ground of equality.

Henry Parkes (1815–1896), advocate of the Australian Federation, after writing about the formation of the Dominion of Canada[44][45]

The majority of white South Africans and Zimbabweans identify themselves as primarily South African and Zimbabwean respectively, regardless of their first language or ancestry.[46] The term English-speaking South African (ESSA) is sometimes used to distinguish anglophone South Africans from the rest of the population, particularly Afrikaners. Additionally, the inclusive term Zimbo or Anglo-Zimbabweans are terms sometimes used by academics to distance themselves, from the Rhodesian era, though the latter term overlaps with and can cause confusion with the large community of Britons of Zimbabwean descent.[47] Along with Anglo African these terms are somewhat analogous to those used in other English-speaking countries such as White Anglo Saxon Protestant, English Canadian and Anglo-Celtic Australian.[48][49]

Colloquial terms for the British in Africa which might be considered derogatory include the Afrikaans term rooinek (literally "red neck", probably from the stereotype that they sunburn relatively easily although unrelated to the American term redneck),[50] the Australian term pommy, 'Beberu' in Kenya which means he-goat.[51]

The term Anglo-African has been used historically to describe people living in the British Empire in Africa,[52] although it has also been used to self-identify by people of mixed British and indigenous African ancestry.[53][54][55][56] The Anglo-African Who's Who and Biographical Sketch-Book published in London in 1905 contains details of prominent British and Afrikaner people in Africa at that time.[57]

'Cape Brit' is another term sometimes used to refer to South Africans of British descent. It refers to the Cape Colony where the immigrants to whom many South Africans can trace their origins from settled during its time as British colony. The term is considered an equivalent of 'Cape Dutch'.

Notable Africans of British descent[edit]

Explorers, politicians, civil servants, businesspeople and clergy[edit]

Authors, poets, academics and journalists[edit]

Sportspeople, musicians and actors[edit]


  1. ^ a b Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. p. 26. ISBN 9780621413885. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015. The number of people who described themselves as white in terms of population group and specified their first language as English in South Africa's 2011 Census was 1,603,575. The total white population with a first language specified was 4,461,409, and the total population was 51,770,560.
  2. ^ Bannerman, Lucy (10 March 2012). "Dr Scott, I presume?". The Spectator. Retrieved 12 September 2013. Less than 40,000 of Zambia's 13-million-strong population are white
  3. ^ "Census 2009 Summary: Ethnic Affiliation". Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 21 November 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013. Out of a total Kenyan population of 38,610,097 in Census 2009, the ethnic affiliation given for 5,166 was Kenyan Europeans and that given for 27,172 was Europe.
  4. ^ "Zimbabwe: Treatment of white Zimbabweans who are not farmers and available state protection". UNHCR. 22 July 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2013. According to an article in World Affairs, a bi-monthly international affairs journal published in Washington, DC (World Affairs n.d.), there were 296,000 white Zimbabweans in 1975, 120,000 in 1999, and 30,000 in 2010 (World Affairs 1 May 2010).
  5. ^ Kopstein, Jeffrey (2000). Comparative Politics: Interests, Identities, and Institutions in a Changing Global Order. Cambridge University Press. p. 434. ISBN 9780521633567.
  6. ^ Selby, Angus (2006). White Farmers in Zimbabwe, 1890–2005 (PDF) (PhD). Oxford University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 August 2012.
  7. ^ "Individuals and entities from Zimbabwe on US sanctions list". US Treasury OFAC. 25 July 2008. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  8. ^ "Council Common Position renewing restrictive measures against Zimbabwe" (PDF). Council of the European Union. 26 January 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  9. ^ "Zimbabwe Suspended Indefinitely from Commonwealth". Human Rights First. 8 December 2003. Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  10. ^ "Commonwealth website confirms Zimbabwe 'terminated' its membership with effect from 7 December 2003". Commonwealth Secretariat. 12 December 2003. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  11. ^ a b c "South Africa". The Commonwealth. 15 August 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013. Joined Commonwealth:1931 (Statute of Westminster; left in 1961, rejoined in 1994)
  12. ^ Hanf, Theodor (1981). "Ethnic Groups and Party Preferences: Political Subcultures from an Empirical Perspective". South Africa, the Prospects of Peaceful Change: An Empirical Enquiry into the possibility of Democratic Conflict Regulation. London: Rex Collings. pp. 108–114. ISBN 0253-35394-7.
  13. ^ Jeffery, Keith (1996). An Irish Empire?: Aspects of Ireland and the British Empire. Manchester University Press. pp. 199–201. ISBN 9780719038730.
  14. ^ "Secession Talked by Some Anti-Republicans". Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. 11 October 1960. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  15. ^ Rossouw, Mandy (25 March 2011). "Is the DA the new black?". Mail & Guardian. Retrieved 16 July 2013. It is to be the poster boy for the new DA, a party that has been aggressively attempting to shake off the image of white, middle-class and predominantly English-speaking.
  16. ^ Eligon, John (27 January 2012). "A South African Party's New Face, and Lightning Rod". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 July 2013. She is now the face of an effort to diversify the party's leadership, shed. Its stereotype as the party of South Africa's white elite and give it any hope of catching up to the A.N.C., which captured more than 65 percent of the vote to the alliance's 16 percent during the last national election in 2009.
  17. ^ du Plessis, Carien (25 November 2012). "New – black and young – faces in the DA". City Press. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  18. ^ Phakathi, Bekezela (6 May 2013). "DA 'gains' from ANC divisions as members defect". Business Day. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  19. ^ a b Haynie, Devon (27 July 2008). "More people returning to SA than leaving". Mail & Guardian. Retrieved 28 July 2013. The South African Department of Home Affairs says it does not track South Africans who move abroad and then return. Anecdotal evidence, however, indicates more South Africans have been returning to the country since the late-1990s.
  20. ^ a b c Wende, Hamilton (7 January 2011). "Hope returns – behind high walls". Mail & Guardian. Retrieved 28 July 2013. They are part of a growing number of mostly thirtysomething South Africans who have returned to the country in the past two years. Exact numbers are hard to find but a recent CNN report quoted a British employment survey which found that about 100 000 South African job-seekers were planning to return home ... The CNN report estimates that up to 20% of South African professionals, almost exclusively White, have left the country since 1995—a loss of about 800,000 people, from a White population of 4.5 million.
  21. ^ Conway, Daniel (26 July 2010). "The changing lives of expats in South Africa". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 July 2013. Furthermore, with its 'retirement visa' scheme, South Africa is a very popular destination for British retirees.
  22. ^ "Brits Abroad". BBC. Retrieved 28 July 2013. An estimated 5.5m British people live permanently abroad ... South Africa: 212,000
  23. ^ Osborne, Hilary (27 November 2012). "A UK expat's guide to South Africa". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 July 2013. The Republic of South Africa is home to more than 200,000 UK expats, drawn by a lower cost of living, warmer climate, beautiful beaches and amazing wildlife and game parks, as well as opportunities for an outdoors-focused lifestyle; plus the country's incredible scenery. Figures from the Department of Work and Pensions show there are more than 38,000 UK citizens living in South Africa and receiving the UK State Pension.
  24. ^ "Braaivleis, rugby, sunny skies and Chevrolet". Cape Business News. February 2004. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  25. ^ Kimbrough, Bobby (8 March 2012). "Baseball, Hot Dogs, Apple Pie and Chevrolet – Worldwide Chevy Tunes". Power Automedia. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  26. ^ Macdonald, Marianne (10 November 1993). "Ban on sale of TV shows to South Africa lifted: Anti-apartheid blockade by actors' union dropped following reform of broadcasting, but opposition to touring remains". The Independent. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  27. ^ a b Grainger, Karen; Mills, Sara (2016). "Zimbabwean English and British English: A Case Study of Directness and Indirectness Across Cultures". Directness and Indirectness Across Cultures. pp. 74–101. doi:10.1057/9781137340399_4. ISBN 978-1-349-55871-1.
  28. ^ Peter Trudgill, "Lesser-Known Varieties of English." Alternative Histories of English, ed. by R. J. Watts and P. Trudgill. Routledge, 2002
  29. ^ Susan Fitzmaurice, "History, Social Meaning, and Identity in the Spoken English of White Zimbabweans." Developments in English: Expanding Electronic Evidence, ed. by Irma Taavitsainen et al. Cambridge University Press, 2015
  30. ^ Zimbabwean Transitions: Essays on Zimbabwean Literature in English, Ndebele and Shona. Rodopi. 2007. ISBN 9789042023765.
  31. ^ "BBC - Bradford and West Yorkshire - Voices - Tyke: It's all the Vikings' fault (Sort of)".
  32. ^ Moyo, Doreen Tarirai (2000). The impact of the English language in Zimbabwe: A phenomenological and historical study, 1980–1999 (EdD dissertation). University of Nebraska–Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-493-05091-1. ProQuest 304629677.
  33. ^ Kadenge, Maxwell; Nkomo, Dion (2011). "The politics of the English language in Zimbabwe". Language Matters. 42 (2): 248–263. doi:10.1080/10228195.2011.581679. S2CID 144957487.
  34. ^ "What is Zimbabwean English?".
  35. ^ "DSAE". Rhodes University. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  36. ^ Branford, Jean and William (1991). A Dictionary of South African English (4th ed., 2.impr. ed.). Cape Town: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195705959.
  37. ^ Oxford South African Concise Dictionary (2nd ed.). Cape Town: Oxford University Press. 2010. ISBN 9780195982183.
  38. ^ "English Academy of Southern Africa". Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  39. ^ "Lovedale Public FET College". Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  40. ^ Nkomo, Mokubung O.; Swartz, Derrick; Maja, Botshabelo, eds. (2006). Within the realm of possibility: From disadvantage to development at the University of Fort Hare and the University of the North. Pretoria: HSRC Press. p. 88. ISBN 9780796921550. The Scots Presbyterian mission station of Lovedale was the centre of this process, with a reach that spread all over southern Africa, either by direct evangelisation, as in Malawi, or by the example of the quality and level of the education that could be obtained there. Lovedale became a centre of 'higher' education for black people for more than a century. Amongst many others, Seretse Khama of Botswana and Thabo Mbeki were pupils there.
  41. ^ "Tiger Kloof Educational Institution". Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  42. ^ "Historic Schools Project: South Africa". Historic Schools Restoration Project. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  43. ^ "Historic schools must be restored: Ndungane". News24. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  44. ^ "The Otago Daily Times Tuesday May 7, 1901". The Otago Daily Times. 7 May 1901. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  45. ^ "United Australia: Public opinion in England as expressed in the leading journals of the United Kingdom". Sydney: Charles Potter, Government Printer. 1890. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  46. ^ Whiteness in Zimbabwe: Race, Landscape, and the Problem of Belonging. Springer. 12 April 2010. ISBN 9780230106338.
  47. ^ Zimbabwean Communities in Britain: Imperial and Post-Colonial Identities and Legacies. Springer. 15 May 2018. ISBN 9783319896830.
  48. ^ Alexander, Mary (30 June 2006). "Black, white – or South African?". SAinfo. Archived from the original on 24 July 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2013. With 82% defining themselves as 'South African', whites identify with the country the most, followed by coloureds and Indians. Five percent of whites consider themselves to be Africans, while 4% identify themselves according to race and 2% according to language or ethnicity.
  49. ^ "A Nation in the Making: A Discussion Document on Macro-Social Trends in South Africa" (PDF). Government of South Africa. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2006. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  50. ^ Donald G. McNeil Jr (11 October 1998). "Like Politics, All Political Correctness Is Local". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Meanwhile, English-speaking whites call uncouth Afrikaner ones 'hairybacks' or 'rockspiders,' while Afrikaners call the other whites 'rooinek' – rednecks, as in sunburned British soldiers – or worse.
  51. ^ "Definition of pommy by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Farlex. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  52. ^ Africanus (December 1918). The adjustment of the German colonial claims – Dedicated to the American and British delegates of the peace conference. Bern. p. 7. Retrieved 15 July 2013. Sir Harry Johnston, the former Governor General of Central British Africa said after the conquest of German East Africa in the 'Daily News': ... Another well known Anglo-African and Colonial politician E. D. Morel in an article in the 'Labour Leader' entitled 'The Way Out' writes as follows: ...'{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) Harry Johnston (1858–1927) and E. D. Morel (1873–1924) are referred to as Anglo-Africans in this publication.
  53. ^ Moses, Wilson Jeremiah (1988). The golden age of Black nationalism, 1850-1925. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-19-520639-8. A startling feature in the rhetoric of black institutional leadership on the eve of the Civil War was the popularity of the term, 'Anglo-African.' ... By 1900, 'Anglo-African' had been replaced by 'Afro-American' and such variants as 'Euro-African', and 'Negro-Saxon'.
  54. ^ Rogers, Joel Augustus (1996). World's Great Men of Color, Volume 2. New York: Touchstone. p. 148. ISBN 9780684815824. The festival was to be given at Gloucester with Coleridge-Taylor himself conducting the three choirs. As it was advertised that the conductor was an Anglo-African, the audience expected a white man. What was its surprise to see instead a dark-skinned Negro, quick-moving, slight of build, with an enormous head of high, thick, frizzly hair, broad nostrils, flashing white teeth, and a winning smile.
  55. ^ Lee, Christopher J (2009). "'A generous dream, but difficult to realize': the making of the Anglo-African community of Nyasaland, 1929–1940". In Mohamed Adhikari (ed.). Burdened by race : Coloured identities in southern Africa. Cape Town: UCT Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-91989-514-7. Because the area had only been colonised in the 1890s, the Anglo-African community of Nyasaland during the 1930s, for the most part, consisted of first-generation persons of 'mixed' racial descent. This is reflected in their preference of the term 'Anglo-African' over 'coloured' and 'half-caste'. Although all three were used, 'Anglo-African' had the advantage of emphasising their partial descent from colonists.
  56. ^ Milner-Thornton, Juliette Bridgette (2012). The long shadow of the British empire: The ongoing legacies of race and class in Zambia. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 11. ISBN 978-0230340183. At different historical junctures in Northern Rhodesia's racialized landscape, persons of mixed descent were categorized accordingly: 'half-caste,' 'Anglo-African,' 'Indo-African,' 'Euro-African, 'Eurafrican,' and 'Coloured.'
  57. ^ Wills, Walter H; Barrett, R. J, eds. (1905). The Anglo-African Who's Who and Biographical Sketch-Book. London: George Routledge & Sons, Ltd. Retrieved 26 June 2013. But we may perhaps claim that, incomplete as it is, it contains many records of Anglo-Africans which are not readily available in any similar work of reference, and it is only necessary to add that we hope to remedy its sins of omission and commission in future editions.

Further reading[edit]