Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League

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Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League
বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ
Bangladesh Peasants' Workers' People's League
LeaderSheikh Mujibur Rahman
FounderSheikh Mujibur Rahman
Founded24 February 1975
Dissolved15 August 1975
Merger ofAL
Bengali nationalism

Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL) (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ ,English: Bangladesh Worker-Peasant's People's League; বাকশাল) was a political front comprising Bangladesh Awami League, Communist Party of Bangladesh, National Awami Party (Muzaffar) and Jatiyo League.[1]

Following the Fourth Amendment to the Constitution of Bangladesh, enacted on 25 January 1975, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman formed BaKSAL on 24 February.[2] In addition, with the presidential order, all other political parties were outlawed with the formation of BaKSAL and were obliged to join the party due to a State of Emergency.

The party advocated Democratic socialism as a part of the group of reforms under the theory of the Second Revolution. BaKSAL was the decision-making council to achieve the objectives of the Second Revolution.[3]

BaKSAL was dissolved after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in August 1975.[4] With the end of BaKSAL, all the political parties who had merged with BaKSAL, including the Awami League, again became independent political parties.


Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (aka Mujibur) and his Awami League won a landslide victory in the 1973 Bangladeshi general election.However,Mujib had a hard time fighting with the corruption within his own government and the leftist insurgency caused by the Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal.In the face of growing unrest, on 28 December 1974 Mujibur declared a state of emergency.[5] He pushed the Fourth Amendment to the constitution through parliament on 25 January 1975.The amendment was passed in the Parliament unanimously.It dissolved all political parties,including the ruling party Awami League, and gave him the authority to form a national party called 'Bangladesh Krishak Shramik Awami League' or shortened as 'BaKSAL'.[6]All the MPs and political parties were required to join the party to fight the prevalent crisis.In many ways,BakSAL had striking similarities with the National Union Party formed at the height of the American Civil War.


On 24 February 1975, Mujibur formed a new party, the Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL), which all MPs were required to join.[7][8] Any MP who missed a parliamentary session, abstained, or failed to vote with the party would lose their seat.[9] All civilian government employees, professionals, and trade union leaders were pressed to join the party.[7] All other political organisations were banned.[9] Most Awami League politicians and many from other parties joined BaKSAL, seeing no other way to retain any political power.[7] The Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal, Purba Banglar Sarbahara Party, Purbo Bangla Sammobadi Dal-Marxbadi-Leninbadi (East Bengal Communist Party Marxist–Leninist), East Pakistan Communist Party, and Bangladesh Communist Party (Leninist) did not join BaKSAL.

BaKSAL was scheduled to officially replace the nation's other political organisations, and associations, on 1 September 1975.

Organizationally, President Mujibur Rahman, BaKSAL chairman, appointed for the national party a fifteen-member executive committee, a 120-member central committee, and five front organisations, namely, Jatiya Krishak League, Jatiya Sramik League, Jatiya Mahila League, Jatiya Juba League and Jatiya Chhatra League (peasants, workers, women, youth, and students respectively).[10] All members of the executive committee and central committee were to enjoy the status of ministers. BaKSAL was also designed to overhaul the administrative system of the country to make it people-oriented.

Executive committee[edit]

Central Committee[edit]

  1. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
  2. Syed Nazrul Islam
  3. Muhammad Mansur Ali
  4. Abdul Mannan
  5. Abdul Malik Ukil
  6. Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad
  7. A.H.M Kamaruzzaman
  8. Kazi Linchon
  9. Mahmudullah
  10. Abdus Samad Azad
  11. M. Yousuf Ali
  12. Phani Bhushan Majumder
  13. Kamal Hossain
  14. Muhammad Sohrab Hossain
  15. Abdur Rab Serniabat
  16. Manaranjan Dhar
  17. Abdul Matin
  18. Asaduzzanan
  19. Md Korban Ali
  20. Dr. Azizul Rahman Mallik
  21. Dr. Muzaffar Ahmed Chowdhury
  22. Tofael Ahmed
  23. Shah Moazzam Hossain
  24. Abdul Momin Talukdar
  25. Dewan Farid Gazi
  26. Professor Nurul Islam Choudhry
  27. Taheruddin Thakur
  28. Moslemuddin Khan
  29. Professor Abu Sayeed
  30. Nurul Islam Manzur
  31. KM Obaidur Rahman
  32. Dr. Khitish Chandra Mandal
  33. Reazuddin Ahmad
  34. M. Baitullah
  35. Rahul Quddus (Secretary)
  36. Zillur Rahman
  37. Mohiuddin Ahmad MP
  38. Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani
  39. Abdur Razzaq
  40. Sheikh Shahidul Islam
  41. Anwar Choudhry
  42. Syeda Sajeda Chowdhury
  43. Taslima Abed
  44. Abdur Rahim
  45. Abdul Awal
  46. Lutfur Rahman
  47. A.K. Muzibur Rahman
  48. Dr. Mofiz Choudhry
  49. Dr. Alauddin Ahammad
  50. Dr. Ahsanul Haq
  51. Raushan Ali
  52. Azizur Rahman Akkas
  53. Sheikh Abdul Aziz
  54. Salahuddin Yusuf
  55. Michael Sushil Adhikari
  56. Kazi Abdul Hakim
  57. Mollah Jalaluddin
  58. Shamsuddin Mollah
  59. Gour Chandra Bala
  60. Gazi Ghulam Mustafa
  61. Shamsul Haq
  62. Shamsuzzoha
  63. Rafiqueuddin Bhuiya
  64. Syed Ahmad
  65. Shamsur Rahman Khan Shahjahan
  66. Nurul Haq
  67. Kazi Zahirul Qayyum
  68. Capt.(Retd) Sujjat Ali
  69. M.R. Siddiqui
  70. MA Wahab
  71. Chittaranjan Sutar,
  72. Sayeda Razia Banu
  73. Ataur Rahman Khan
  74. Khandakar Muhammad Illyas
  75. Mong Pru Saire
  76. Professor Muzaffar Ahmed Chowdhury
  77. Ataur Rahman
  78. Pir Habibur Rahman
  79. Syed Altaf Hossain
  80. Muhammad Farhad
  81. Matia Chowdhury
  82. Hazi Danesh
  83. Taufiq Inam (Secretary)
  84. Nurul Islam (Secretary)
  85. Fayezuddin Ahmed (Secretary)
  86. Mahbubur Rahman (Secretary)
  87. Abdul Khaleque
  88. Muzibul Haq (Secretary)
  89. Abdur Rahim (Secretary)
  90. Moinul Islam (Secretary)
  91. Sayeeduzzaman (Secretary)
  92. Anisuzzaman (Secretary)
  93. Dr. A. Sattar (Secretary)
  94. M.A Samad (Secretary)
  95. Abu Tahir (Secretary)
  96. Al Hossaini (Secretary)
  97. Dr Tajul Hossain (Secretary)
  98. Motiur Rahman. Chairman of Trading Corporation of Bangladesh
  99. Maj. Gen K.M. Safiullah
  100. Air Vice Marshal Abdul Karim Khandker
  101. Commodore M.H. Khan
  102. Maj Gen. Khalilur Rahman
  103. A.K. Naziruddin Ahmed
  104. Dr. Abdul Matin Chowdhury
  105. Dr. Mazharul Islam
  106. Dr. Sramul Haq
  107. Badal Ghosh
  108. ATM Syed Hossain
  109. Nurul Islam
  110. Dr. Nilima Ibrahim
  111. Dr. Nurul Islam PG Hospital
  112. Obaidul Huq Editor Observer
  113. Anwar Hossain Manju Editor Ittefaq
  114. Mizanur Rahman Editor Bangladesh Press International
  115. Manawarul Islam
  116. Abu Thaer Bhuiyan
  117. Brig. A. N. M. Nuruzzaman DG Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini
  118. Kamruzzaman teachers Association
  119. Dr. Mazhar Ali Kadri


Many restrictive regulations coming from BaKSAL included the promulgation of the Newspaper Ordinance (June 1975; Annulment of Declaration) under which the declarations of all but four state owned newspapers were annulled due to massive black-marketing of newsprint paper.Only the Dainik Bangla, Bangladesh Observer, The Daily Ittefaq, and Bangladesh Times were allowed to continue their publication and banned the rest of the press and newspaper industries. It was intended to bring the whole news media completely under the control of the government temporarily.The regulation came from the government because of the prevalent smuggling and black-marketing of newsprint paper.The smuggling disabled Bangladesh from exporting the paper to foreign countries,which could have in fact prevented the Bangladesh famine of 1974.

As a greater effort to Decentralize the authority,61 District Governors were appointed with training for Governorship,quite unprecedentedly in the history of Bangladesh.The Local Elections were also much peaceful and free.In the Kishorganj local election held in 1975,a school teacher won against the nephew of Syed Nazrul Islam,who was a national leader and also a major leader of BakSAL that time.

The BaKSAL was set to be effective from the September of 1975.But with the Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and most of his family members,the party saw the face of dissolution.


The party contested in 1986 general election using "boat" symbol and later in 1991 general election using "bicycle" symbol. The party carried out independently until 1990s, when almost all of its party leaders deserted the organisation to merge with the Bangladesh Awami League.[11]


Lawrence Lifschultz wrote in the Far Eastern Economic Review in 1974 that Bangladeshis thought that "the corruption and malpractices and plunder of national wealth" was "unprecedented".[12]Many of BakSAL's goals were adopted by the successors of Mujib.For example,President Ziaur Rahman launched a crackdown on JASAD (Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal) and successfully banished the left-wing insurgency in the country.

While a number of critics deem BakSAL as an authoritarian party,it was in fact a National Party to fight the State of Emergency.Sheikh Mujib himself was reluctant to form BakSAL but he was forced to because of the national crisis.[citation needed]However,he was sincere when he promised to restore Democracy.He reportedly said,"I understand the common sentiment.I formed this party to fight the present crisis and I intend to work with everyone in the political sphere.When the crisis is gone,so is the party."[citation needed]


  1. ^ Rono, Haider Akbar Khan (2010). Śatābdī pēriẏē শতাব্দী পেরিয়ে (in Bengali). Taraphadara prakashani. p. 335. ISBN 978-984-779-027-5.
  2. ^ Ahmed, Moudud (1984) [First published 1983]. Bangladesh: Era of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag. p. 245. ISBN 3-515-04266-0.
  3. ^ "Bangladesh: The Second Revolution". Time. 10 February 1975. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  4. ^ "Bangabandhu: a forbidden name for 16yrs". The Daily Star. 15 August 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  5. ^ "State of emergency announced in Dacca". The Tuscaloosa News. Associated Press. 29 December 1974. p. 6A. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  6. ^ "Mujib names his Govt". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press-Reuter. 28 January 1975. p. 4. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  7. ^ a b c Khan, Zillur R. (2001). "From Mujib to Zia, Elite Politics in Bangladesh". In Ahmed, Rafiuddin (ed.). Religion, Identity & Politics: Essays on Bangladesh. International Academic Publishers. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-1-58868-081-5. ... landslide victory of the Awami League in the 1973 elections ... [those] who were earlier inspired by the charisma of Sheikh Mujib grew increasingly restive in view of what they viewed as widespread corruption ... making it mandatory for members of parliament to join the single national party, called the Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL), if they wanted to retain their seats ... most Awami Leaguers, and many others from the other parties, decided to join the BaKSAL. Between Mujib's BaKSAL and total political oblivion, few were left with any choice ... All higher bureaucrats, professional people and trade union leaders were urged to join.
  8. ^ "'Second Revolution' Is Sham: No Real Change Seen in Bangladesh". The Capital Times. Madison, Wisconsin. Los Angeles Times News Service. 28 February 1975. p. 6. Retrieved 4 January 2016 – via open access
  9. ^ a b "One man, one party govern Bangladesh". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 January 1975. p. 1. Retrieved 4 January 2016 – via
  10. ^ Maniruzzaman, Talukder (February 1976). "Bangladesh in 1975: The Fall of the Mujib Regime and Its Aftermath". Asian Survey. University of California Press. 16 (2): 119–129. doi:10.2307/2643140. JSTOR 2643140.
  11. ^ "Near East & South Asia: Bangladesh" (PDF). JPRS Report. 1: 10. 12 September 1991. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  12. ^ "Tread Warily to the Dream". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. 6 February 2010. Archived from the original on 8 February 2010.