Armenian Apostolic Church

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Armenian Orthodox Church
Armenian: Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի
Etchmiadzin Cathedral, the mother church of the Armenian Apostolic Church
ClassificationEastern Christian
OrientationOriental Orthodox
ScriptureSeptuagint, New Testament, Armenian versions
TheologyMiaphysitism
PolityEpiscopal
GovernanceMother See of Holy Etchmiadzin
HeadKarekin II the Catholicos of All Armenians
AssociationsWorld Council of Churches[1]
RegionArmenia, Armenian diaspora
LanguageClassical Armenian
LiturgyArmenian Rite
HeadquartersEtchmiadzin Cathedral, Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, Vagharshapat, Armenia
FounderGregory the Illuminator
Bartholomew the Apostle
Thaddeus of Edessa
Originc. 1st century
Kingdom of Armenia
Independence610 at the Third Council of Dvin[2]
Separated fromPatriarchate of Constantinople in the Second Council of Dvin (554)[3]
SeparationsArmenian Catholic Church
Hetanism
Members9,000,000 (self-reported)[4]
Other name(s)Armenian Church
Official websitewww.armenianchurch.org
Paradise, in an Armenian manuscript (1693)

The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, romanizedHay Aṙak'elakan Yekeghetsi)[note 1] is the national church of Armenia. Part of Oriental Orthodoxy, it is one of the most ancient Christian institutions.[6] The Kingdom of Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as its official religion under the rule of King Tiridates III, of the Arsacid dynasty in the early 4th century.[7][8] According to tradition, the church originated in the missions of Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus of Edessa in the 1st century. St. Gregory the Illuminator was the first official primate of the church. It is sometimes referred to as the Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Church, Armenian Church or Armenian Gregorian Church.[9][10][11]

The Armenian Apostolic Church should not be confused with the fully distinct Armenian Catholic Church[12] which is an Eastern Catholic Church in communion with the Holy See in Rome.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

Baptism of Tiridates III
Tatev Monastery in Armenia, Syunik

The Armenian Apostolic Church believes in apostolic succession through the apostles Bartholomew[13] and Thaddeus (Jude).[14][15][16] According to tradition, the latter of the two apostles is said to have cured Abgar V of Edessa of leprosy with the Image of Edessa, leading to his conversion in AD 30. Thaddaeus was then commissioned by Abgar to proselytize throughout Armenia, where he converted King Sanatruk's daughter, who was eventually martyred alongside Thaddeus when Sanatruk later fell into apostasy. After this, Bartholomew came to Armenia, bringing a portrait of the Virgin Mary, which he placed in a nunnery he founded over a former temple of Anahit. Bartholomew then converted the sister of Sanatruk, who once again martyred a female relative and the apostle who converted her. Both apostles ordained native bishops before their execution, and some other Armenians had been ordained outside of Armenia by James the Just.[15][16] Scholars including Bart Ehrman, Han J.W. Drijvers, and Walter Bauer dismiss the conversion of Abgar V[17] as fiction.

According to Eusebius and Tertullian, Armenian Christians were persecuted by kings Axidares, Khosrov I, and Tiridates III, the last of whom was converted to Christianity by Gregory the Illuminator.[14] Ancient Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as a state religion, which has been referred to by Nina Garsoïan as "probably the most crucial step in its history."[18] This conversion distinguished it from its Iranian and Mazdean roots and protected it from further Parthian influence.[14][18] According to Mary Boyce, the acceptance of Christianity by the Arsacid-Armenian rulers was partly in defiance of the Sassanids.[19]

When King Tiridates III made Christianity the state religion of Armenia between 300 and 301, it was not an entirely new religion there. It had penetrated the country from at least the third century, and may have been present even earlier.[20]

Tiridates declared Gregory to be the first Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church and sent him to Caesarea to be consecrated. Upon his return, Gregory tore down shrines to idols, built churches and monasteries, and ordained many priests and bishops. While meditating in the old capital city of Vagharshapat, Gregory had a vision of Christ descending to the earth and striking it with a hammer. From that spot arose a great Christian temple with a huge cross. He was convinced that God intended him to build the main Armenian church there. With the king's help he did so in accordance with his vision, renaming the city Etchmiadzin, which means "the place of the descent of the Only-Begotten".[21]

Initially, the Armenian Apostolic Church participated in the larger Christian world and was subordinated to the Bishop of Caesarea.[22] Its Catholicos was represented at the First Council of Nicea (325). St. Vrtanes I, the third Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church (333–341), sent a letter with specific questions to Macarius, the Orthodox Bishop of Jerusalem (312-335/36), taken to Jerusalem by a delegation of Armenian priests on the occasion of the Encaenia, in dedication of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in September 335. In Macarius's letter to the Armenians in 335, it seeks to correct irregularities in the initiation rites of baptism and the eucharist in use in the Armenian Church by articulating the practices in Jerusalem. In so doing, it reveals the divergent forms being practiced in Armenia, which have strong echoes of old East Syriac Rite. Orthopraxy was conceived by Vrtanes and his Armenian colleagues in terms of liturgical performance in Jerusalem. In 353, King Papas (Pap) appointed Catholicos Husik without first sending him to Caesarea for commissioning.[23] The Armenian Catholicos was still represented at the First Council of Constantinople (381).

As Gregory was consecrated by the bishop of Caesarea, he also accepted the Byzantine Rite. However, the Armenian Church, due to the influence of the Church in Edessa, the large presence of Syriacs in Armenia, as well as the number of Syriac priests that arrived in Armenia with Gregory, also cultivated the West Syriac or Antiochian Rite. Since Armenians at the time did not have an alphabet, its clergy learned Greek and Syriac. From this synthesis, the new Armenian Rite came about, which had similarities both with the Byzantine and the Antiochian Syriac rite.[24]

Christianity was strengthened in Armenia in the 5th century by the translation of the Bible into the Armenian language by the native theologian, monk, and scholar, Saint Mesrop Mashtots. Before the 5th century, Armenians had a spoken language, but no script. Thus, the Bible and liturgy were written in the Greek or Syriac scripts until Catholicos Sahak Part'ew commissioned Mesrop to create the Armenian alphabet, which he completed in c. 405. Subsequently, the Bible and liturgy were translated into Armenian and written in the new script. The translation of the Bible, along with works of history, literature and philosophy, caused a flowering of Armenian literature and a broader cultural renaissance.[25]

Although unable to attend the Council of Ephesus (431), Catholicos Isaac Parthiev (Sahak Part'ew) sent a message agreeing with its decisions.[26] However, non-doctrinal elements in the Council of Chalcedon (451) caused certain problems to arise.

Independence[edit]

Monophysitism spread from Syria to Armenia, from where it came to Georgia and Caucasian Albania.[27]

At the First Council of Dvin in 506, the synod of the Armenian, Georgian, and Caucasian Albanian bishops was assembled during the time in office of Catholicos Babken I. The participation of the Catholicoi of Georgia and Albania was set to make clear the position of the churches concerning the Council of Chalcedon. The "Book of Epistles" mentions that 20 bishops, 14 laymen, and many nakharars (rulers of Armenia) participated in the council. (The involvement in the council discussion of different levels of lay persons seemed to be a general rule in Armenia.[original research?])

Almost a century later (609–610), the Third Council of Dvin was convened during the reign of Catholicos Abraham I of Aghbatank and Prince Smbat Bagratuni, with clergymen and laymen participating. The Georgian Church disagreed with the Armenian Church, having approved the christology of Chalcedon. This council was convened to clarify the relationship between the Armenian and Georgian churches. After the Council, Catholicos Abraham wrote an encyclical letter addressed to the people, blaming Catholicos Kurion of the Georgian Church and his adherents for the schism. The Council never set up canons; it only deprived Georgians from taking communion in the Armenian Church.[28][need quotation to verify][29] Despite this, the Albanian Church remained under the jurisdiction of the Armenian Church while also in communion with the Georgian Church.

20th century[edit]

In 1903, the Tsarist government of the Russian Empire moved to confiscate the property of the Armenian Church.[30]

Miaphysitism versus monophysitism[edit]

Like all Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Armenian Church has been referred to as monophysite by both Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox theologians because it rejected the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon, which condemned the belief of one incarnate nature of Christ (monophysis). The Armenian Church officially severed ties with Rome and Constantinople in 610, during the Third Council of Dvin where the Chalcedonian dyophysite christological formula was rejected.[31]

However, again like other Oriental Orthodox Churches,[32] the Armenian Apostolic Church argues that the identification as "monophysitism" is an incorrect description of its position.[33] It considers Monophysitism, as taught by Eutyches and condemned at Chalcedon, a heresy and only disagrees with the formula defined by the Council of Chalcedon.[33] The Armenian Church instead adheres to the doctrine defined by Cyril of Alexandria, considered as a saint by the Chalcedonian churches as well, who described Christ as being of one incarnate nature, where both divine and human nature are united (miaphysis). To distinguish this from Eutychian and other versions of Monophysitism this position is called miaphysitism.[34][35] Whereas the prefix "mono-" (< Greek μονο- < μόνος) means "single, alone, only",[36][37] thus emphasising the singular nature of Christ, "mia" (μία "one" FEM),[38] simply means "one" unemphatically, and allows for a compound nature.

In recent times, both Chalcedonian and non-Chalcedonian churches have developed a deeper understanding for each other's positions, recognizing their substantial agreement while maintaining their respective positions.[citation needed]

Structure and leadership[edit]

Procession of Armenian priests.

According to The Armenian Church by Archdeacon Dowling published in 1910 (before the Great War and the Armenian Genocide), the Armenian Apostolic Church was composed of four patriarchal provinces, comprising at that date seventy-two, six, and two dioceses in Turkey, Russia, and Iran, respectively.[39]

Two Catholicosates[edit]

The Armenian Apostolic Church currently has two sees. First, there is the Catholicos of All Armenians residing in Etchmiadzin, Armenia, at the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin. Second, there is the Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia, headquartered since 1930 in Antelias, Lebanon. The Catholicos of Etchmiadzin has pre-eminent supremacy in all spiritual matters over the See of Cilicia, which however administers to the dioceses under its jurisdiction as they see fit.[citation needed]

The Armenian Catholic Church is completely distinct from the Armenian Apostolic Church and is headed by its own Patriarch-Catholicos.[12]

Two Patriarchates: Constantinople and Jerusalem[edit]

Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem

The Armenian Apostolic Church has two Patriarchates of high authority, both under the jurisdiction of the Catholicos of All Armenians:

Eparchies (dioceses)[edit]

List of eparchies:[41]

Armenia[edit]

Dioceses/exarchates of the Diaspora[edit]

Europe
  • Diocese of Russia and New Nakhichevan[41]
  • Diocese of Southern Russia[41]
  • Diocese of Ukraine[41]
  • Exarchate of Central Europe[41]
  • Exarchate of Western Europe[41]
  • Diocese of Georgia[41]
  • Diocese of Romania[41]
  • Diocese of Bulgaria[41]
  • Diocese of Greece[41]
  • Diocese of Germany[41]
  • Diocese of Switzerland[41]
  • Diocese of France[41]
  • Diocese of Great Britain and Ireland[41]
Middle East
  • Diocese of Egypt[41]
New World
  • Diocese of Canada[41]
  • Western Diocese (USA)[41]
  • Eastern Diocese (USA)[41]
  • Diocese of Australia and New Zealand[41]
  • Diocese of Argentina[41]
  • Diocese of Uruguay[41]
Armenian Church in Madras, India, constructed in 1712

Seminaries[edit]

The Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin operates two seminaries, the Gevorkian Theological Seminary at the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, and the Vaskenian Theological Academy at Lake Sevan. The Great House of Cilicia operates one seminary, the Seminary of Antelias at Bikfaya, Lebanon.[citation needed]

St. Nersess Armenian Seminary in Armonk, NY[42] also trains Armenian priests, awarding the Master of Divinity in Theology (through an affiliation with nearby OCA St. Vladimir's Seminary). St. Nersess also offers a Master of Arts in Armenian Christian Studies.[43]

Women in the Armenian Church[edit]

The Armenian Church does not ordain women to the priesthood.[44] Historically, however, monastic women have been ordained as deacons within a convent environment.[45] Monastic women deacons generally do not minister in traditional parish churches or cathedrals, although the late Mother Hrip'seme did minister and serve during public liturgies, including in the United States.[46]

Women do serve as altar girls and lay readers, especially when a parish is so small that not enough boys or men are regularly available to serve. Women commonly serve the church in the choir and at the organ, on parish councils, as volunteers for church events, fundraisers, and Sunday schools, as supporters through Women's Guilds, and as staff members in church offices. In the case of a married priest (Der Hayr), the wife of the priest generally plays an active role in the parish and is addressed by the title Yeretzgin.[citation needed]

In limited circumstances, the Armenian Church allows for divorce and remarriage.[47][better source needed] Cases usually include either adultery or apostasy.

Armenian genocide victims canonization[edit]

On April 23, 2015, the Armenian Apostolic Church canonized all the victims of the Armenian genocide; this service is believed to be the largest canonization service in history.[48][49][50] 1.5 million is the most frequently published number of victims, however, estimates vary from 700,000 to 1,800,000. It was the first canonization by the Armenian Apostolic Church in four hundred years.[51]

Army Chaplaincy Program[edit]

External videos
video icon Chaplaincy Program in the Armenian Army (Preparations For the Parade)

The Army Chaplaincy Program of the Armenian Church is made up of more than 50 clergymen serving as military chaplains to the Armed Forces of Armenia. They organize various religious programs in the military, including delivering lectures and prayers.[52] It is jointly funded and sponsored by the Ministry of Defence of Armenia and the Armenian Apostolic Church. All army chaplains are commissioned officers in the armed forces who hold a military rank. It was established in 1997 on the basis of a joint initiative of Catholicos Karekin I and Defense minister Vazgen Sargsyan. Since 2011, combined clergy company has taken part in the quinquennial Armenian Independence Day Parade on Republic Square in Yerevan.[citation needed]

Current state[edit]

In Armenia[edit]

Saint Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral in Yerevan is the largest Armenian Apostolic church in the world

The status of the Armenian Apostolic Church within Armenia is defined in the country's constitution. Article 8.1 of the Constitution of Armenia states: "The Republic of Armenia recognizes the exclusive historical mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church as a national church, in the spiritual life, development of the national culture and preservation of the national identity of the people of Armenia." Among others, ethnographer Hranush Kharatyan has questioned the constitutionality of the phrase "national church".[53]

In 2009, further constitutional amendments were drafted that would make it a crime for non-traditional religious groups to proselytize on adherents of the Apostolic Church. Minority groups would also be banned from spreading 'distrust' in other faiths.[54] Hrant Bagratyan, former Prime Minister of Armenia, condemned the close association of the Armenian Apostolic Church with the Armenian government, calling the Church an "untouchable" organisation that is secretive of its income and expenditure.[55]

In Artsakh[edit]

After the Bolshevik revolution and the subsequent Soviet occupation of Armenia, all functioning religious institutions in the NKAO were closed down and clergymen often either exiled or shot.[citation needed]

After a while the Armenian Apostolic Church resumed its activities. There were weddings, baptisms, and every Sunday Patarag at a free will attendance basis. The Armenian Apostolic Church since 1989 restored or constructed more than 30 churches worldwide. In 2009 the Republic of Artsakh government introduced a law entitled "Freedom of Conscience and Religious Organisations", article 8 of which provided that only the Armenian Apostolic Church is allowed to preach on the territory of the Republic of Artsakh. However, the law did make processes available for other religious institutions to get approval from the government if they wished to worship within the Republic.[56]

Armenian diaspora[edit]

Armenian Apostolic Prelacy, New York
Vank Cathedral, Isfahan

Outside of West Asia, today there are notable Armenian Apostolic congregations in various countries in Europe, North America, South America, and South Asia.[citation needed]

Lebanon, home to a large and influential Armenian diaspora community with its own political parties, has more than 17 recognized Armenian Apostolic churches.[citation needed]

The Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople in Turkey and the Armenian Apostolic Church of Iran are important communities in the diaspora. These churches represent the largest Christian ethnic minorities in these predominantly Muslim countries.[57][58]

The United Kingdom has three Armenian churches: St Sarkis in Kensington, London; Saint Yeghiche in South Kensington, London; and Holy Trinity in Manchester.[citation needed]

Ethiopia has had an Armenian church since the 1920s, when groups of Armenians were invited there after the Armenian genocide by Turkey.[citation needed]

Historical role and public image[edit]

The Armenian Apostolic Church is "seen by many as the custodian of Armenian national identity."[59] "Beyond its role as a religious institution, the Apostolic Church has traditionally been seen as the foundational core in the development of the Armenian national identity as God's uniquely chosen people."[60] According to a 2018 survey by the Pew Research Center, in Armenia 82% of respondents say it is very or somewhat important to be a Christian to be truly Armenian.[61]

According to a 2015 survey 79% of people in Armenia trust it, while 12% neither trust it nor distrust it, and 8% distrust the church.[62]

As both Eastern and Western Armenia came under Persian and Ottoman rule, the Armenian Apostolic Church was the centre of many Armenian liberation activities.[63]

Controversies and criticisms[edit]

Medieval era[edit]

Early medieval opponents of the Armenian Church in Armenia included the Paulicians (7th-9th centuries) and the Tondrakians (9th-11th centuries).

The power relationship between catholicoi and secular rulers was sometimes a source of conflict. In 1037 king Hovhannes-Smbat of Ani deposed and imprisoned Catholicos Petros, who he suspected of holding pro-Byzantine views, and appointed a replacement catholicos. This persecution was highly criticized by the Armenian clergy, forcing Hovhannes-Smbat to release Petros and reinstall him to his former position. In 1038 a major ecclesiastical council was held in Ani, which denied the king the right to elect or remove a catholicos.[64]

Architecture historian Samvel Karapetyan (1961-2016) has criticized many aspects of the Armenian Apostolic Church, especially its role in Armenian history. Karapetyan particularly denounced what he called the Armenian Church's loyal service to foreign invaders: "The Armenian Apostolic Church is a conscientious tax structure, which every conqueror needs."[65]

Modern era[edit]

Surveys on the church by the IRI
Date Favorable Unfavorable No opinion
2006[66] 76% 22% 2%
2007[67] 81% 17% 2%
2018[68] 67% 26% 6%
2019[69] 71% 23% 6%
2021[70] 92% 2% 6%

Gerard Libaridian argued that because Armenians consider the church a national institution, it "must be respected and guarded at all times. Therefore the critical attitude regarding Armenian historical institutions is rarely applied to the Armenian Church, as it is seen as a venerable institution that unites all Armenians."[71] Stepan Danielyan, a scholar on religion, argued in 2013 that "When Armenia became independent with the collapse of the Soviet Union, a great deal was expected of the church, but those expectations have not been fulfilled. The church continues to ignore the things most people are worried about – vitally important social, economic and political problems and endless corruption scandals."[72]

In independent Armenia, the Armenian Apostolic Church has often been criticized for its perceived support of the governments of Robert Kocharyan and Serzh Sargsyan despite the formal separation of church and state in Armenia.[73][74][75][76][77] According to former Prime Minister Hrant Bagratyan religion and state management "have completely gotten mixed up". He called the church an "untouchable" organization that is secretive of its income and expenditure.[78] Large-scale construction of new churches in the independence period[79] and the negligence of endangered historic churches by the Apostolic church (and the government) have also been criticized.[80]

In recent years, a few high-profile leaders of the church have been involved in controversies.[80] In 2013 Navasard Ktchoyan, the Archbishop of the Araratian Diocese and Prime Minister Tigran Sargsyan were alleged to have been partners with a businessman charged with laundering US$10.7 million bank loan and then depositing most of it in accounts he controlled in Cyprus.[81] In 2011 it was revealed that Ktchoyan drives a Bentley (valued at $180,000-$280,000). Pointing out the 34% poverty rate in Armenia, Asbarez editor Ara Khachatourian called it "nothing but blasphemy". He added "Archbishop Kchoyan's reckless disregard and attitude is even more unacceptable due to his position in the Armenian Church."[82]

In October 2013 Father Asoghik Karapetyan, the director of the Museum of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, stated on television that a non-Apostolic Armenian is not a "true Armenian". A spokesperson for the Armenian Apostolic Church stated that it is his personal view.[83] The statement received considerable criticism,[84] though Asoghik did not retract his statement.[85] In an editorial in the liberal Aravot daily Aram Abrahamyan suggested that religious identity should not be equated with national (ethnic) identity and it is up to every individual to decide whether they are Armenian or not, regardless of religion.[86]

See also[edit]

Lists[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Officially Հայաստանեայց Առաքելական Սուրբ Եկեղեցի, Hayastaniayts Aṙak̕elakan Surb Yekeghetsi[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Armenian Apostolic Church (Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin) and Armenian Apostolic Church (Holy See of Cilicia) in the World Council of Churches
  2. ^ "Armenian Apostolic Church". doi:10.1163/2211-2685_eco_a599. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ Panossian, Razmik (2006). The Armenians: From Kings and Priests to Merchants and Commissars. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 9780231139267. The Armenian Apostolic Church formally became autocephalous - i.e. independent of external authority - in 554 by severing its links with the patriarchate of Constantinople.
  4. ^ "Catholicos of All Armenians". armenianchurch.org. Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin.
  5. ^ ""ՀԱՅԱՍՏԱՆՅԱՅՑ ԱՌԱՔԵԼԱԿԱՆ ՍՈՒՐԲ ԵԿԵՂԵՑԻ" ԿԿ - HAYASTANYAYC ARAQELAKAN SURB YEKEGHECI RO". e-register.am. Electronic Register. Government of the Republic of Armenia.
  6. ^ Augusti, Johann Christian Wilhelm; Rheinwald, Georg Friedrich Heinrich; Siegel, Carl Christian Friedrich. The Antiquities of the Christian Church. p. 466.
  7. ^ Scott, Michael (2016-11-01). Ancient Worlds: A Global History of Antiquity. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-09473-8.
  8. ^ Grousset, René (1984) [1947]. Histoire de l'Arménie (in French). Payot. p. 122.. Estimated dates vary from 284 to 314. Garsoïan (op.cit. p. 82), following the research of Ananian, favours the latter.
  9. ^ "HISTORY". ՀԱՅ ԱՌԱՔԵԼԱԿԱՆ ԵԿԵՂԵՑՈՒ Արևմտյան Եվրոպայի Հայրապետական Պատվիրակություն. Retrieved 2023-01-30.
  10. ^ "History of the Armenian Church". Armenian Prelacy. Retrieved 2023-01-30.
  11. ^ "Armenian Apostolic Church (Holy See of Cilicia)". World Council of Churches. January 1962. Retrieved 2023-01-30.
  12. ^ a b "Armenian Synod elects new Catholicos-Patriarch of Cilicia". Vatican News. 23 September 2021. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  13. ^ Curtin, D. P.; Lewis, A.S. (January 2014). The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew: Greek, Arabic, and Armenian Versions. Dalcassian Publishing Company. ISBN 9798868951473.
  14. ^ a b c Gilman, Ian; Klimkeit, Hans-Joachim (2013-01-11). Christians in Asia before 1500. Routledge. ISBN 9781136109782. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  15. ^ a b Jacob, P. H. (1895). A Brief Historical Sketch of the Holy Apostolic Church of Armenia. H. Liddell. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  16. ^ a b Issaverdenz, Jacques (1877). The Armenian Church. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  17. ^ Ehrman: Forgery and Counterforgery, pp455-458
  18. ^ a b "The Aršakuni Dynasty (A.D. 12-[180?]-428)" by Nina Garsoïan, in Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, ed. R.G. Hovannisian, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997, Volume 1, p. 81.
  19. ^ Mary Boyce. Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices Psychology Press, 2001 ISBN 0415239028 p. 84.
  20. ^ van Lint, Theo Maarten (2009). "The Formation of Armenian Identity in the First Millenium". Church History and Religious Culture. 89 (1/3): 269.
  21. ^ See Drasxanakertci, History of Armenia, 78ff; Atiya, History of Eastern Christianity, 316ff; Narbey, A Catechism of Christian Instruction According to the Doctrine of the Armenian Church, 88ff.
  22. ^ Dočkal 1940b, p. 186.
  23. ^ Drasxanakertci, History of Armenia, 86–87.
  24. ^ Dočkal 1940b, pp. 186–187.
  25. ^ Atiya, History of Eastern Christianity, 424-26.
  26. ^ Narbey, A Catechism of Christian Instruction According to the Doctrine of the Armenian Church, 86–87.
  27. ^ Dočkal 1940a, p. 114.
  28. ^ "Armenian Apostolic Church". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  29. ^ "Armenian Church Councils". Archived from the original on 2011-04-25. Retrieved 2010-02-11. The 3rd Council of Dvin was convened during the reign of Catholicos Abraham I of Aghbatank and Prince Smbat Bagratooni, with clergymen and laymen participating. The Georgian Church was split from the Armenian Church and the Catholicos had repeatedly tried to turn to Catholicos Kurion of the Georgian Church. The council was convened to clarify the relationship of the Armenian Church towards the Georgian Church. After the Council, Catholicos Abraham wrote an encyclical letter addressed to the people where he blamed Kurion and his adherents for the split. The Council never set up canons; it only deprived Georgians from taking communion in the Armenian Church.
  30. ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009) [2004]. "Chronology". Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. European Nations Series. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 417. ISBN 9780816074754. Retrieved 8 July 2023. 1903 [...] Property of Armenian Church confiscated.
  31. ^ University of Exeter website
  32. ^ "The Issue Between Monophysitism and Dyophysitism". Nine Saints Ethiopian Orthodox Monastery. Archived from the original on 26 January 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
  33. ^ a b "Ecumenical Councils". Official website of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
  34. ^ Winkler 1997, p. 33-40.
  35. ^ Brock 2016, p. 45–52.
  36. ^ Harper, Douglas. "mono-". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  37. ^ μόνος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  38. ^ μία in Liddell and Scott.
  39. ^ Dowling, Theodore Edward (1910). The Armenian Church. New York: Society For Promoting Christian Knowledge. p. 20.
  40. ^ "Catholicos of All Armenians Congratulated Newly Appointed Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople". Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag List of eparchies. Armenian Apostolic Church (Russia and New Nakhichevan eparchy).
  42. ^ "St Nersess Armenian Seminary - Preparing Leaders For Service In The Armenian Church Since 1961". Retrieved 2023-01-16.
  43. ^ "St. Nersess Armenian Seminary". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  44. ^ "Ambitious International Women's Association". Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  45. ^ Oghlukian, Abel; Cowe, Peter (translator) (1994). The Deaconess in the Armenian Church. New York: St. Nersess Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-885011-00-8. {{cite book}}: |author2= has generic name (help)
  46. ^ Zagano, Phyllis (2008). "Catholic women's ordination: the ecumenical implications of women deacons in the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Orthodox Church of Greece, and the Union of Utrecht Old Catholic Churches". Journal of Ecumenical Studies. 43 (1): 124–137. ISSN 0022-0558.
  47. ^ Archdiocese of Thyateira & Great Britain website
  48. ^ Davlashyan, Naira. "Armenian Church makes saints of 1.5 million genocide victims - Yahoo News". News.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
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Sources[edit]

Armenian religious relations with the Roman Catholic Church

External links[edit]