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Aqidah (Arabic: عقيدة, romanizedʿaqīdah (Arabic pronunciation: [ʕɑˈqiːdæ, ʕɑˈqɑːʔɪd]), plural عقائد ʿaqāʾid, also rendered ʿaqīda, aqeeda, etc.) is an Islamic term of Arabic origin that literally means "creed".[1] It is also called Islamic creed and Islamic theology.[2][3]

Aqidah go beyond concise statements of faith and may not be part of an ordinary Muslim's religious instruction.[4] It has been distinguished from Iman in "taking the aspects of Iman and extending it to a detail level" often using "human interpretation or sources".[5] Yet in contrast with Iman, Aqidah is not a term in the Qur'an.

Many schools of Islamic theology expressing different aqidah exist. However, this term has taken a significant technical usage in the Islamic theology, and is a branch of Islamic studies describing the beliefs of Islam.


Aqidah comes from the Semitic root ʿ-q-d, which means "to tie; knot".[6] ("Aqidah" used not only as an expression of a school of Islamic theology or belief system, but as another word for "theology" in Islam, as in: "Theology (Aqidah) covers all beliefs and belief systems of Muslims, including sectarian differences and points of contention".)[7]


According to Muslim scholar Cyril Glasse, "systematic statements of belief became necessary, from early [on in the history of] Islam, initially to refute heresies, and later to distinguish points of view and to present them, as the divergences of schools of theology or opinion increased."[8]

The "first" creed written as "a short answer to the pressing heresies of the time" is known as Fiqh Akbar and ascribed to Abu Hanifa.[8][9] Two well known creeds were the Fiqh Akbar II[10] "representative" of the Ash'ari, and Fiqh Akbar III, "representative" of the Shafi'i.[8] Al-Ghazali also had an aqidah.[8] These creeds were more detailed than those described below.

According to Malcolm Clark, while Islam "is not a creedal religion", it has produced some detailed creeds, "some containing 100 or more belief statements" that summarized "the theological position of a particular scholar or school."[11]

Six articles of belief[edit]

The six articles of faith or belief (Arkan al-Iman) derived from the Quran and Sunnah,[12] are accepted by all Muslims. While there are differences between Shia and Sunni Islam and other different schools or sects concerning issues such as the attributes of God or about the purpose of angels, the six articles are not disputed.

The six Sunni articles of belief are:

  1. Belief in God and tawhid (monotheism)
  2. Belief in the angels
  3. Belief in the Islamic holy books[13]
  4. Belief in the prophets and messengers
  5. Belief in the Last Judgment and Resurrection
  6. Belief in predestination

The first five are based on several Qurʾanic beliefs:

...righteous is he who believeth in God and the Last Day and the angels and the scripture and the prophets (2:177)
...believer believe in God and His angels and His scriptures and His messengers (2:285)
Whoever disbelieveth in God and His angels and His scriptures and His messengers and the Last Day, he verily wandered far stray (4:136)
Who is an enemy of God, His Angels, His Messengers, Gabriel and Michael! Then, lo! God is an enemy to the disbelievers (2:98)

The sixth point made it into the creed because of the first theological controversy in Islam. Although not connected with the Sunni-Shiʿi controversy about the succession, the majority of Twelver Shiʿites do not stress God's limitless power (qadar), but rather His boundless justice (ʿadl) as the sixth point of belief – this does not mean that Sunnis deny His justice, or Shiʿites negate His power, just that the emphasis is different.[citation needed]

In Sunni and Shia view, having Iman literally means having belief in the six articles.[citation needed]


Tawhid ("doctrine of Oneness") is the concept of monotheism in Islam. It is the religion's most fundamental concept and holds that Allah (the Arabic word for God) is one (aḥad), unique (wāḥid), and the only being worthy of worship.


Iman, in Islamic theology denotes a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam.[14][15] Its most simple definition is the belief in the six articles of faith, known as arkān al-īmān.

Hadith of Gabriel[edit]

The Hadith of Gabriel includes the Five Pillars of Islam (Tawhid, Salat, Sawm, Zakat, Hajj) in answer to the question, "O messenger of God, what is Islam?" This hadith is sometimes called the "truly first and most fundamental creed."[8]

An Imam leading prayers in Cairo, Egypt, in 1865.
The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb performing Salat.


Salat is an act of worship. Salat means to call to the Lord Who created and gives life to the worshipper in Islam. This call realizes one to surrender caller's will, obeying his God. It is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. Islam gives concession conditionally if it is difficult to pray Salat in formal ways. People who find it physically difficult can perform Salat in a way suitable to them. To perform valid Salat, Muslims must be in a state of ritual purity, which is mainly achieved by ritual wash ups, (wuḍūʾ), as per prescribed procedures. Salat consists of "standing" (Qiyam) intending to call God, bow at knees (Ruku) meaning to ready to obey, prostrate (Sajda) willing to surrender worshipper's will to God's, then to sit (Tashhud) asserting evidence of the oneness of God and the finality of God's apostle (Nabi).


Ending the fast at a mosque.

In the terminology of Islamic law, sawm means to abstain from eating, drinking (including water) and sexual intercourse from dawn until dusk. The observance of sawm during the holy month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, but is not confined to that month.


Zakat is the practice of charitable giving by Muslims based on accumulated wealth and is obligatory for all who are able to do so. It is considered to be a personal responsibility for Muslims to ease economic hardship for others and eliminate inequality.


A 16th century illustration of Islam's holiest shrine, the Ka'aba.

The Hajj is an Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca and the largest gathering of Muslims in the world every year. It is one of the five pillars of Islam, and a religious duty which must be carried out by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so at least once in his or her lifetime.

Other tenets[edit]

In addition, some Muslims include Jihad and Dawah as part of aqidah.


Jihad (to struggle) and literally means to endeavor, strive, labor to apply oneself, to concentrate, to work hard, to accomplish. It could be used to refer to those who physically, mentally or economically serve in the way of God.[16] In the religious context, it is the struggle against disbelief and injustice using any means possible to establish, propagate and defend the faith and its principles on individualistic and societal levels.


Da‘wah ("invitation") means the proselytizing or preaching of Islam. Da‘wah literally means "issuing a summon" or "making an invitation", being an active participle of a verb meaning variously "to summon" or "to invite." A Muslim who practices da‘wah, either as a religious worker or in a volunteer community effort, is called a dā‘ī (داعي plural du‘āh, gen: du‘āt دعاة).

A dā‘ī is thus a person who invites people to understand Islam through dialogue, not unlike the Islamic equivalent of a missionary inviting people to the faith, prayer and manner of Islamic life.


Eschatology is literally understood as the last things or ultimate things and in Muslim theology, eschatology refers to the end of this world and what will happen in the next world or hereafter. Eschatology covers the death of human beings, their souls after their bodily death, the total destruction of this world, the resurrection of humans, the Last Judgment of human deeds by God after the resurrection, and the rewards and punishments for the believers and non-believers respectively. The places for the believers in the hereafter are known as Paradise and for the non-believers as Hell.

Schools of theology[edit]

Sunni Muslim theology is the theology and interpretation of creed (aqidah) that derived from the Qur'an and Hadith. The contents of Muslim theology can be divided into theology proper such as theodicy, eschatology, anthropology, apophatic theology, and comparative religion. In the history of Sunni Muslim theology, there have been theological schools among Muslims displaying both similarities and differences with each other in regard to beliefs. [17]

Traditional schools[edit]


Kalām is an "Islamic scholastic theology" of seeking theological principles through dialectic. In Arabic, the word literally means "speech/words." A scholar of kalām is referred to as a mutakallim (Muslim theologian; plural mutakallimūn). There are many schools of Kalam, the main ones being the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools in Sunni Islam, and the Mu'tazilis (who are not Sunni).[18][19] Traditionalist theology rejects the use of kalam, regarding humans reason as sinful in unseen matters.[20]


Muʿtazilite is an Unorthodox school. In terms of the relationship between human beings and their creator, the Muʿtazila emphasize human free will over predestination. They also reduced the divine attributes to the divine essence. The Mu’tazilites are considered heretics by all the traditional Sunni Islamic schools of theology.[21]


The eponymous founder of this school is Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari, one of the first to study under but then quit the Mu'tazilis. This group is considered the most “traditional” of Sunni theology and the most followed by Sunni Muslims today.[22][23] It was the historic foe of the Mu'tazili school, the “rationalists” in terms of speculative theology.[24]

Ash'arism accepts reason in regard of exegetical matters and traditionalistic ideas.[25] What God does or commands — as revealed in the Quran and ahadith — is by definition just. What He prohibits is by definition unjust. Right and wrong are objective realities.[26] The Quran is the uncreated word of God in essence, however it is created then it takes on a form in letters or sound.[27]


Maturidism is a Sunni theological school founded by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi, holding many positions in common with the Ash'aris but differing from them on others.[28][29][30][31] Much like the Ash'arite approach to Qur'anic verses that could yield an anthropomorphic concept of God, they affirmed His transcendence while understanding these expressions by the conventional figurative meanings they had garnered in Arabic.

Maturidism holds, that humans are creatures endowed with reason, that differentiates them from animals. Further, The relationship between people and God differs from that of nature and God; humans are endowed with free will, but due to God's sovereignty, God creates the acts the humans choose, so humans can perform them. Ethics can be understood just by reason and do not need prophetic guidances. Maturidi also considered hadiths as unreliable, when they are in odd with reason.[32] However, the human mind alone could not grasp the entire truth, thus it is in need of revelation in regard of mysterious affairs. Further, Maturidism opposes anthropomorphism and similtute, while simultaneously does not deny the divine attributes. They must be either interpreted in the light of Tawhid or be left out.[33]

Athari theology[edit]

For the Athari theology, the literal meaning of the Qur'an and especially the prophetic traditions have sole authority in matters of belief, as well as law, and to engage in rational disputation, even if one arrives at the truth, is absolutely forbidden.[34] Atharis engage in an amodal reading of the Qur'an, as opposed to one engaged in Ta'wil (metaphorical interpretation). They do not attempt to rationally conceptualize the meanings of the Qur'an and believe that the real meanings should be consigned to God alone (tafwid).[35] This theology was taken from exegesis of the Qur'an and statements of the early Muslims and later codified by a number of scholars including Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Ibn Qudamah. There are different views whether Ath’ari creed should or should not be included as a Sunni school of aqidah.[36][37]

Shia beliefs and practices[edit]

Shiʿi Muslims are different they hold that there are five articles of belief. Similar to the Sunnis, the Shiʿis do not believe in complete predestination, or complete free will. They believe that in human life there is both free will and predestination.

Twelver's Roots of Shia Religion (Uṣūl ad-Dīn)[edit]

  1. Tawhid: The Oneness of God.
  2. Adalah: The Justice of God.
  3. Nubuwwah (Prophethood): God has appointed perfect and infallible prophets and messengers to teach mankind the religion (i.e. a perfect system on how to live in "peace.")
  4. Imamate: (Leadership): God has appointed specific leaders to lead and guide mankind — a prophet appoints a custodian of the religion before his demise.
  5. Last Judgment: God will raise mankind for Judgment

Ismaili Shia beliefs[edit]

The branch of Islam known as Isma'ilism is the second largest Shiʿi community. They observe the following extra pillars:

  1. Belief in the Imamate
  2. Belief in the prophets and messengers
  3. Beliefs about the Last Judgment

Literature pertaining to creed[edit]

Many Muslim scholars have written Islamic creeds, or specific aspects of a aqidah. The following list contains some of the most well-known creeds.

Sunni literature[edit]

  • Mukhtasar Shu'ab al-Imān or "The 77 branches of faith" by the Imām al-Bayhaqi
  • Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar by Imām Abu Hanifa
  • al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya ("The Fundamentals of Islamic Creed by al-Tahawi). This has been accepted by almost all Sunnis (Atharis, Ash'aris and Maturidis). Several Islamic scholars have written about the Tahawiyya creed, including Ali al-Qari, al-Maydani, ibn Abi al-Izz and Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz.
  • As- Sunnah by Imām Ahmad ibn Hanbal
  • Al- Iman by al-Adni
  • As-Sunnah by Imām Abu Dawood
  • Sarihus Sunnah by Imām Al-Tabari
  • As-Sunnah by Imām Al-Tabarani
  • Aqīdah Salafi Ahl al-Hadith by al-Sabuni
  • I'tīqad Ahl Al-Sunnah wal Jām'ah by Imām Lalqai Hibatullah
  • As- Sunnah by Nasr al- Marwazi
  • Ash-Shariah by al-Ajurri
  • Al-Iman by Ibn Mandah
  • Ad- Durrātu fīma yazibu i'tiqaduhu by Imām Ibn Hazm
  • Kitāb at- Tāwhid by Imām Ibn Rajab
  • Al- 'Aqīdah al-Nasafiyya by Imām Najm al-Din 'Umar al-Nasafi
  • Ar-rīsālah al-kairoāniyah by Abi Zaid al-Kairoa
  • Al-I'tīqad by Al-Bayhaqi
  • Al-ʿAqīdah al-Wāsiṭiyyah ("The Wasit Creed") by ibn Taymiyyah.
  • Sharh as Sunnah or the Explanation of the Sunna by al-Hasan ibn 'Ali al-Barbahari. Lists approximately 170 points pertaining to the fundamentals of aqidah.
  • Khalq Afʿāl al-ʿIbād ("The Creation of the Acts of Servants") by Muhammad al-Bukhari. It shows the opinion of early scholars (Salaf) but it does not cover all topics.
  • Lum'at al-Itiqād by ibn Qudamah. Details the creed of the early Imams of the Sunni Muslims and one of the key works in the Athari creed.
  • al-ʿUluww by al-Dhahabī. Details the opinions of early scholars on matters of creed.
  • Ibaanah ān ūsulid diyanah by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari.
  • Risālah al-Qudsiyyah ("The Jerusalem Tract") by al-Ghazali, where the rules of faith are discussed.
  • Sa'd al-Din al-Taftazani on the creed of Abu Hafs Umar an-Nasafi

Shia literature[edit]


Manzoor Elahi in his book "Samāja sanskārē saṭhika ākīdāra gurutba" (The Importance of Right Aqeedah in Social Reformation) says about the "necessity of reforming society and the role and importance of correct Islamic Aqeedah in that context",[38]

Man lives in society to meet all the needs of his individual life. The main goal of any society is to ensure the overall welfare and peaceful co-existence of all the members of that society. But the illiteracy, poor education and selfishness of the individual life have a great negative impact on the social life, making the society polluted and poisoned with diseases such as corruption, discrimination, division, violence etc. It is then that there is a great need for social reform, as we experience it in our present social context. If we analyze the current situation of the society, we can see that the people of this society are plagued with problems and are caught in corrupt practices. The inevitable consequence of this is the disunity in belief and the belief of whoever wants according to the demand of instinct, whether it is correct or not based on the Qur'an and Sunnah. On the other hand, people's faith has become very weak, piety has departed from their hearts, and they have forgotten about the punishment of the Hereafter. As a result, instability, instability, the tendency to loot, various types of terrorism and spread of bad culture and many other problems have appeared in the society. In the biography of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, we see that he changed the then Jahili society and turned it into the best society of that time. The movement to bring about positive changes in individual and social life that he started after attaining prophethood, was the primary process of religious reformation. About this Sayyid Qutb said in his book Maquomat التصور الإسلامي (Elements of Islamic understanding):

"The Messenger of God, may God's prayers and peace be upon him, was sent at a time when Jazirat al-Arab was divided as plundered wealth between the Romans in the north and the Persians in the south. They extended their hands to the fertile lands of Jazirat al-Arab, the seas, all the sources of wealth and trade. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was sent at a time when the prevailing social and economic conditions represented the era of slavery in the grand scheme of things. The Messenger of Allah, may God's prayers and peace be upon him, was sent at a time when human nature was driven by ignorance in alcohol, fornication, gambling, games and pranks, creating evil and disaster. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not start the reform work with any of these. He was able to call the Arabs towards nationalist unity to drive out the Romans and Persians from the fertile lands of Jazirat al-Arab. He could employ all the forces of war against them and enrage the Arabs against national enemies. As a result they would obey his leadership and forget all their enmity.……But Allah knew, He informed and guided His Prophet, that this is not the right path and it is not the main action. The main task is for man to know his true Lord and to accept only His servitude, and to be freed from the servitude of His servants, and finally to accept whatever comes to them from Allah…”.

...Notably, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam gave the greatest importance to the dissemination of knowledge about the creed during the 13th year of Makki's life after Prophethood. Prophet Not only this, but the first task of all prophets and messengers was to call people from all walks of life to the right belief. In the words of Al-Quran, they had that call: “O my people, worship Allah. You have no true god but Him.” [Al-A'raf: 58] The reason for this was only one, if the belief is not pure, the individual's life is not pure, and if the individual is not pure, the society is not pure.

...(1) The role of the right creed in establishing greater national unity: Just as it is not possible to establish greater unity without agreeing on the right creed, it is also far-fetched for the Muslim Ummah all over the world to be united. In this context (Dr.) Umar Sulaiman Al-Ashkar said: "Muslim unity cannot be realized until the same creed unites Muslims." In fact, it is religious confusion that sows the seeds of disunity in society. The society is divided into different factions. If the question arises that everyone considers their own creed and belief to be right. In that case, it will not be possible to agree on a certain belief as correct. Because every party is confident in its opinion. In response to this question (Dr.) Umar Sulaiman Al-Ashkar said: “There is a clear statement in the Quran and Sunnah regarding the pure Islamic belief. It is possible to present proofs on every fundamental and fundamental aspect of this creed. And Salaf Salehin was founded on the true Islamic faith. They have recorded this creed so well that it is completely different from the creed of heretics and misguided people. Among these great personalities is Allama Tahabi, who wrote a book of Aqeedah which is famous in his own name. The explanation of this book is written by Muhammad Ibn Abil ez al-Hanafi. The matter does not stop here, but many scholars have written before and after on Sahih Aqeedah. Among them are Imam Ahmad, Ibnu Taymiyyah, Shawkani and Safarini among others.”

(2) The correct belief creates a strong foundation for the formation of a civil society free from corruption, and oppression. On the basis of which, all activities and mutual transactions of the society are conducted. Therefore, if the creed is based on perversion and falsehood, then social life will become endangered, disturbed and facing destruction. This is the main reason why our society is in the position it is today. So, to save the society from distortion, disaster and destruction, it is necessary to return to the correct belief.

(3) Importance of correct belief in ensuring peaceful coexistence in society: An integral part of a Muslim person's belief is that he considers it essential to live according to the commands of Allah and His Messenger, may God bless him and grant him peace, and believes that disobedience to their commands is illegal. Allah says: "And there is no right for a believing man or woman to have any other jurisdiction over themselves than Allah and His Messenger have commanded." [Al-Ahzab: 36] In order to ensure peaceful coexistence in the society, when Allah Ta'ala calls Muslims brothers to each other, identifies the encroachment on a person's life and property as a serious crime, and orders the fulfillment of the agreement made with non-Muslims, he obeys that order without hesitation. Takes, because accepting it like this is part of his creed. Allah says: "Therefore, by your Lord, they will not be believers until you judge the dispute between them, then feel no doubt in their hearts about the decision you give and accept it with full consent." [An-Nisa: 65]

(4) Importance of Right Aqeedah in Bringing Political Stability: One of the essential fundamentals of Islamic Aqeedah is the firm belief that Allah is the Creator of this world, so He is the owner of its governance and guidance. Allah says: "Know, His is the creation and the guidance." [Al-A'raf: 54] "Say, surely all matters belong to Allah." [Ale Imran: 154] "The command is only from Allah." [Al-An'am: 57] Besides, Allah is the owner of all sovereign powers and the only lawgiver and lawgiver. This is one of the meanings of accepting Him as Lord. Political stability can return to our society only when the political leaders have strong conviction towards this creed. Peace, order and stability cannot come to any Muslim society with basically man-made laws. Perhaps reality is the biggest proof and witness of this.

(5) Importance of correct beliefs to prevent mis-culture: It would not be an exaggeration to call it as mis-culture that is currently being practiced in our Bangladeshi society in the name of culture in imitation of alien foreigners and different religions. Because as these cultures do not represent our native thoughts and traditions, they are largely in conflict with the Muslim faith. We have to remember that this country is a predominantly Muslim country. So if we arrange all our cultural and social rituals in the light of correct Islamic belief, then the country can be gifted with a beautiful, tasteful, decent and healthy culture.

(6) Importance of correct creed in freeing the society from anarchy and confusion and shirk and bid'at in thought: Knowledge of correct Islamic creed can enlighten the thinking world of the intellectual class of the society so that they can guide the nation to the right path. The anarchy and confusion that we observe in the thinking of a class of intellectuals today, perhaps the biggest reason why they continue their war of pen against Islam despite being called Muslims, is that they have known Islam in a distorted way, they have not been fortunate enough to acquire the correct Islamic belief. The same applies to all those educated and uneducated Muslims who think of worship and are immersed in shirk and bid'at. In the light of Quran and Sunnah, they did not recognize shirk and bid'at. They are completely oblivious to the basic principles of recognizing Shirk and Bed'at. Acquiring knowledge of Aqeedah along with increasing awareness towards the correct Aqeedah can guarantee the liberation of all of society from these confusions and Shirk and Bed'ah.

Therefore, acquiring the knowledge of authentic Islamic faith is the only way to develop oneself as a true believer and Muslim servant of Allah. Similarly, if we want to build a society as a complete Islamic society, there is no alternative to enriching everyone in the society with the knowledge of Sahih Aqeedah. In this regard, the social and cultural Islamic organizations have to fulfill the important responsibility. Those who are skilled in Islamic Shariah and studies can remove the inadequacy of books written in Bengali language by writing authentic books on Saheeh Aqeedah. In this regard, the help of Imam, Khatib and Madrasah teachers can also be taken. Of course, before that they should be enriched with the knowledge of Sahih Aqeedah. Through efforts to spread Sahih Aqeedah, our society can be developed as a beautiful civil society free from Shirk and Bed'at.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Abdel-Haleem, M. A. S. (2008). "Part I: Historical perspectives - Qur'an and hadith". In Winter, Timothy (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 19–32. doi:10.1017/CCOL9780521780582.002. ISBN 9781139001816.
  2. ^ Buang, Sa’eda; Chew, Phyllis Ghim-Lian (9 May 2014). Muslim Education in the 21st Century: Asian perspectives. Routledge. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-317-81500-6. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
  3. ^ Abbas, Tahir (22 January 2007). Islamic Political Radicalism: A European Perspective. Edinburgh University Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-7486-3086-8. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
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  5. ^ FAROOQ, MOHAMMAD OMAR (6 February 2020). "Let's Be Content With Iman, Not Aqeedah". Islamicity. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  6. ^ and hence the class VIII verb iʿtaqada "to firmly believe", verbal noun iʿtiqād "belief, faith, trust, confidence, conviction; creed, doctrine", participle muʿtaqad "creed, doctrine, dogma, conviction, belief, opinion". (Source: Wehr, Hans, “عقد” in: J. Milton Cowan (ed.), A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition (1979)).
  7. ^ "Theology (Aqidah)". Madina Institute. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  8. ^ a b c d e Glasse, Cyril (2001). New Encyclopedia of Islam (Revised ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 105.
  9. ^ Abu Hanifah An-Nu^man. "Al- Fiqh Al-Akbar" (PDF). Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  10. ^ "Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar II With Commentary by Al-Ninowy". Archived from the original on 2014-03-15. Retrieved 2017-09-08.
  11. ^ Clark, Malcolm (2003). "4. What Muslims believe. Rejecting formal creeds". Islam for Dunnies. Wiley.
  12. ^ Joel Beversluis, ed. (2011). Sourcebook of the World's Religions: An Interfaith Guide to Religion and Spirituality. New World Library. pp. 68–9. ISBN 9781577313328.
  13. ^ "The Quran". The Quran. contributors Iman Mohammad Kashi, Uwe Hideki Matzen, and Online Quran Project.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  14. ^ Farāhī, Majmū‘ah Tafāsīr, 2nd ed. (Faran Foundation, 1998), 347.
  15. ^ Frederick M. Denny, An Introduction to Islam, 3rd ed., p. 405
  16. ^ Khalid Mahmood Shaikh
  17. ^ Islamic Studies Resources, BAHISEEN [Islamic Studies]. "Primary Resources". Archived from the original on 2021-02-26.
  18. ^ Frank, Daniel H.; Leaman, Oliver; H, Frank Daniel (2003-09-11). The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-521-65574-3. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  19. ^ Jeffry R. Halverson (2010). Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 20. ISBN 9780230106581.
  20. ^ Hadi Enayat Islam and Secularism in Post-Colonial Thought: A Cartography of Asadian Genealogies Springer, 30.06.2017 ISBN 9783319526119 p.48
  21. ^ Nader El-Bizri, ‘God: essence and attributes’, in The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic theology, ed. Tim Winter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 121-140
  22. ^ A. C. Grayling (2019). The History of Philosophy. Penguin UK. p. 390. ISBN 9780241980866. The Ash'ari school became, and is still, the most important of the Sunni theological schools (it is sometimes described as the 'Sunni orthodoxy').
  23. ^ Jeffrey T. Kenney; Ebrahim Moosa, eds. (2013). Islam in the Modern World. Routledge. p. 103. ISBN 9781135007959.
  24. ^ Hamid Dabashi (2012). Shi'ism: A Religion of Protest. Harvard University Press. p. 338. ISBN 9780674262911.
  25. ^ Ed. Esposito The Oxford History of Islam Oxford University Press 1999 ISBN 9780195107999 p. 280
  26. ^ Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2014) Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications ISBN 978-1780744209 p. 53
  27. ^ Cyril Glassé, Huston Smith The New Encyclopedia of Islam Rowman Altamira 2003 ISBN 978-0-759-10190-6 page 62-3
  28. ^ Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi (1971). Mohiuddin Ahmad (ed.). Saviours of Islamic Spirit, Volume 1. Translated by Mohiuddin Ahmad. Lucknow, India: Academy of Islamic Research and Publications. p. 98. The differences between the Ash'arites and the Maturidites were simply marginal and limited to 30 to 40 issues of comparatively lesser importance.
  29. ^ H.R.H. Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad (2018). Foreword by H.M. King Abdullah II ibn al-Hussein (ed.). A Thinking Person's Guide to Islam: The Essence of Islam in 12 Verses from the Qur'an. Turath Publishing. p. 171. ISBN 9781906949648. Most Sunnis of the four madhahib follow the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools of doctrine and theology. Indeed, Ash'ari and Maturidi doctrines basically only differ on a few issues, most of which are arguably linguistic quibbles, so that these two schools of theology are essentially one tradition.
  30. ^ Fitzroy Morrissey (2021). A Short History of Islamic Thought. Oxford University Press. p. 68. ISBN 9780197522011. There, in a city noted for its religious diversity, he continued the old tradition of kalam as reasoned polemic: his writings contain refutations of Jews, Christians, and the dualist Manichaeans and Zoroastrians, as well as the Mu'tazila, the Shi'a, and other misguided Islamic sects. Against these various opponents, al-Maturidi argued for doctrines that were essentially close to those of al-Ash'ari.
  31. ^ "هل أهل السنة في الأردن هم الأشاعرة؟". (in Arabic). The General Iftaa' Department of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Archived from the original on 4 Jul 2015. الأشاعرة هم جمهور أهل السنة والجماعة من المالكية والشافعية، وأما الحنفية فهم ماتريدية يتبعون أبا منصور الماتريدي (333هـ)، والخلاف بينهم وبين الأشاعرة محدود
  32. ^ Rico Isaacs, Alessandro Frigerio Theorizing Central Asian Politics: The State, Ideology and Power Springer, 2018 ISBN 9783319973555 p. 108
  33. ^ Mohammad Sharif Khan, Mohammad Anwar Saleem Muslim Philosophy and Philosophers PH Publishing, 1994 ISBN 9788170246237 p. 30
  34. ^ Jeffry R. Halverson, Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam. ISBN 0230106587, p 36.
  35. ^ Jeffry R. Halverson, Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam. ISBN 0230106587, p 36-37.
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