|Nasal lateral velar click|
|Nasal lateral uvular click|
The lateral nasal click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet for a nasal lateral click with a velar rear articulation is ⟨ŋ͡ǁ⟩ or ⟨ŋ͜ǁ⟩, commonly abbreviated to ⟨ŋǁ⟩, ⟨ᵑǁ⟩ or ⟨ǁ̃⟩; a symbol abandoned by the IPA but still preferred by some linguists is ⟨ŋ͡ʖ⟩ or ⟨ŋ͜ʖ⟩, abbreviated ⟨ŋʖ⟩, ⟨ᵑʖ⟩ or ⟨ʖ̃⟩. For a click with a uvular rear articulation, the equivalents are ⟨ɴ͡ǁ, ɴ͜ǁ, ɴǁ, ᶰǁ⟩ and ⟨ɴ͡ʖ, ɴ͜ʖ, ɴʖ, ᶰʖ⟩. Sometimes the accompanying letter comes after the click letter, e.g. ⟨ǁŋ⟩ or ⟨ǁᵑ⟩; this may be a simple orthographic choice, or it may imply a difference in the relative timing of the releases.
Features of the lateral nasal click:
- The airstream mechanism is lingual ingressive (also known as velaric ingressive), which means a pocket of air trapped between two closures is rarefied by a "sucking" action of the tongue, rather than being moved by the glottis or the lungs/diaphragm. The release of the forward closure produces the "click" sound. Voiced and nasal clicks have a simultaneous pulmonic egressive airstream.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
- It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
|ǃKung||nǁan||[ᵑǁàŋ] = [ᵑʖàŋ]||'marama bean'|
|!Xóõ||ǁnáã||[ᵑǁɑ́ɑ̃] = [ᵑʖɑ́ɑ̃]||'grewia berry'|
|Hadza||konxa||[koᵑǁa] = [koᵑʖa]||'to be a pair'|
|Zulu||inxeba||[iᵑǁɛ́ːɓa] = [iᵑʖɛ́ːɓa]||'wound'|
Glottalized lateral nasal click
lateral nasal click
All Khoisan languages, and a few Bantu languages, have glottalized nasal clicks. These are formed by closing the glottis so that the click is pronounced in silence; however, any preceding vowel will be nasalized.
|Hadza||slaxxa||[ɬaᵑǁˀa] = [ɬaᵑʖˀa]||'a split'|
|Khoekhoe||tsoatsoaǁaposa||[tsȍàtsòȁᵑǁˀàpòsa̋] = [tsȍàtsòȁᵑʖˀàpòsa̋]||'principled'|
|Xhosa||inkxumo||[iᵑǁˀumo] = [iᵑʖˀumo]||'a support'|
- Afrika und Übersee. D. Reimer. 2005. pp. 93–94.
- Bradfield, Julian (May 2014). "Clicks, concurrency and Khoisan*". Phonology. 31 (1): 1–49. doi:10.1017/S0952675714000025. hdl:20.500.11820/63d01bc8-a4db-4cda-a4b4-0ca84d088522. ISSN 0952-6757. S2CID 14896878.
- Miller, Amanda L.; Brugman, Johanna; Sands, Bonny; Namaseb, Levi; Exter, Mats; Collins, Chris (August 2009). "Differences in airstream and posterior place of articulation among Nǀuu clicks". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 39 (2): 129–161. doi:10.1017/S0025100309003867. ISSN 1475-3502. S2CID 46194815.