Alveolar lateral ejective affricate

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Alveolar lateral ejective affricate
IPA Number103 (148) 401
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)t​͡​ɬ​ʼ
Unicode (hex)U+0074 U+0361 U+026C U+02BC

The alveolar lateral ejective affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is t͡ɬʼ (or tɬʼ), and in Americanist phonetic notation it is ⟨ƛ’⟩ (lambda bar).


Features of the alveolar lateral ejective affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
  • The airstream mechanism is ejective (glottalic egressive), which means the air is forced out by pumping the glottis upward.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Avar кьалаб [t͡ɬʼalab] 'hostile'
Haida sttluujagadang [st͡ɬʼuːt͡ʃakataŋ] 'Sapsucker'
Iraqw[1] hatlʼáʼ [hat͡ɬʼáʔ] 'other'
Kabardian Baslaney лӏы [t͡ɬʼə] 'man' Corresponds to [ɬʼ] in other dialects.
Lillooet st'át'imcets [ˈst͡ɬʼæt͡ɬʼjəmxət͡ʃ] 'Lilooet language'
Navajo tłʼóoʼdi [t͡ɬʼóːʔtɪ̀] '(at) the outside'
Sahaptin ƛ’ɨƛ’k [mɨˈt͡ɬʼɨt͡ɬʼk] 'mud'
Sechelt ch'álhch'ílh [tʃʼat͡ɬ.tʃʼet͡ɬ] 'robin'
Tlingit tlʼeex [t͡ɬʼix] 'garbage'
Lushootseed sq̓aƛ̕ [sqʼɑt͡ɬʼ] 'otter'
Tsez кьиш [t͡ɬʼɪʃ] 'splinter'

Proto-Semitic *ṣ́ is believed to have been an alveolar lateral ejective affricate.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Mous, Maarten. 1993. A grammar of Iraqw. Hamburg: Buske.

External links[edit]