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SymptomsAbsence of a portion or the entirety of one or both jaws.[1]
Diagnostic methodX-rays or CT scans of the mandible and temporomandibular joint.[2]

Agnathia (also termed hypognathous)[1] is the absence of a portion or the entirety of one or both jaws.[1][3] It is a very rare condition.[1] External, middle, and inner ear abnormalities, as well as temporal bone, parotid gland, masticatory muscles, and facial neural abnormalities, frequently coexist with Agnathia. Agnathia is seen in agnathia-holoprosencephaly, otocephaly, and Ivemark syndrome.[2]


X-rays or CT scans of the mandible and temporomandibular joint showcase the extent of underdevelopment and differentiate Agnathia from other disorders that cause similar facial abnormalities but do not involve substantial structural loss.[2]


Agnathia treatment consists of rapid reconstruction using autogenous bone grafting to stop the further development of facial deformity. Mentoplasty, bone and cartilage onlay grafts, and soft-tissue grafts are frequently used to restore facial symmetry. Distraction osteogenesis, which involves performing an osteotomy and attaching a distraction device to both portions of the mandible, is becoming more common. Early orthodontic therapy in adolescents aids in the correction of malocclusion.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e Ghom AG; Ghom SA (30 September 2014). Textbook of Oral Medicine. JP Medical Ltd. p. 125. ISBN 978-93-5152-303-1.
  2. ^ a b c d "Congenital Jaw Abnormalities - Pediatrics". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved 2023-09-29.
  3. ^ Rajendran A; Sundaram S (10 February 2014). Shafer's Textbook of Oral Pathology (7th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences APAC. p. 12. ISBN 978-81-312-3800-4.