After (art)

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After is an art convention used in the titles and inscriptions of artworks to credit the original artist in the title of the copy.[1][2] Often the title of the original work is retained, for example an interpretation by Rembrandt of da Vinci's The Last Supper becomes The Last Supper, after Leonardo da Vinci.[3][4] The addendum, sometimes termed an attribution qualifier, may be used by the artist making the copy or a later curator or academic and features in the linked records that make up the Cultural Objects Name Authority.[1][5] The term may be used regardless of how similar the two works appear.[6] Curators have sometimes referred to the resulting imitation works as "after-[original artist's name]s", with works inspired by Albrecht Dürer being after-Dürers.[7] In some instances, artists have signed works made after the manner of their own indicating their approval of the copy.[8]

Notable examples[edit]

Notable examples of the convention in use
Title Artist Date Medium Title (based on) Artist (based on) Date (based on) Medium (based on) Ref
The Last Supper, after Leonardo da Vinci Rembrandt 1634–1635 red chalk The Last Supper Leonardo da Vinci c. 1495 – c. 1498 mural [3][9]
Tall Bamboo and Distant Mountains, after Wang Meng Wang Hui 1694 ink wash painting Tall Bamboo and Distant Mountains Wang Meng c. 1309 – c. 1385 ink wash painting [10][11]
Christ on the Cross after Rubens Edwin Landseer 1840 trois crayons Christ on the Cross Peter Paul Rubens 1619–1620 oil on canvas [12][13]
The Abduction of the Sabine Women (after Poussin) Edgar Degas 1861–1862 oil on canvas L'enlèvement des Sabines Nicolas Poussin 1637–1638 oil on canvas [14][15]
Still Life with a Sketch after Delacroix Paul Gauguin 1887 oil on canvas The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise Eugène Delacroix c. 1838 – c. 1847 oil on paper [16]
First Steps (after Millet) Vincent van Gogh 1890 oil on canvas First Steps Jean-François Millet c. 1859 – c. 1866 chalk and pastel on paper [17][9]
Study after Velázquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X Francis Bacon 1953 oil on canvas Retrato de Inocencio X Diego Velázquez c. 1650 oil on canvas [18]
Luncheon on the Grass, after Manet Pablo Picasso 1962 linoleum cut Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe Édouard Manet 1863 oil on canvas [19][9]
After Walker Evans: 4 Sherrie Levine 1981 photograph Alabama Tenant Farmer Wife (Allie Mae Burroughs) Walker Evans 1936 photograph [20]
Las Meninas (Self-Portrait after Velázquez) Joel-Peter Witkin 1987 photograph Las Meninas Diego Velázquez 1656 oil on canvas [21][9]
A Sudden Gust of Wind (after Hokusai) Jeff Wall 1993 Cibachrome photograph Ejiri in Suruga Province (Travellers caught in a sudden breeze at Ejiri) Hokusai c. 1830 – c. 1832 woodblock print [22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Art Libraries Society of North America; Visual Resources Association (16 September 2021). Attribution Qualifiers for Artists’ Names (PDF) (Technical report). Westford, Massachusetts. Retrieved 31 July 2022.
  2. ^ Mayer, Ralph (1981). A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques. Ethnologica Helvetica. Barnes & Noble Books. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-06-463531-8. OCLC 1040903097.
  3. ^ a b "The Last Supper, after Leonardo da Vinci". The Met. New York City. Archived from the original on 5 April 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  4. ^ "After the Masters: Understanding and Collecting Old Master Copies". Allston, Massachusetts: Invaluable LLC. 24 October 2017. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  5. ^ Harpring, Patricia (June 2022). "Cultural Objects Name Authority: Introduction and Overview" (PDF). Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute. p. 137. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  6. ^ "Art Terms from A to Z". Victoria, British Columbia: AbeBooks. 8 June 2021. Archived from the original on 2 November 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  7. ^ "Dürer & After Exhibition at The Clark Art Institute Presents a Fresh Look at the Printmaker's Brilliance and Influence on Later Artists" (Press release). Williamstown, Massachusetts: Clark Art Institute. 28 June 2021. Archived from the original on 26 July 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  8. ^ ""After" – What Does This Art Term Mean?". Nags Head, North Carolina: Seaside Art Gallery. 27 December 2018. Archived from the original on 15 July 2022. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  9. ^ a b c d "Artlex Art Dictionary". Artlex. Archived from the original on 15 November 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  10. ^ "Tall Bamboo and Distant Mountains, after Wang Meng". Cleveland, Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 7 May 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  11. ^ Bo Gyllensvärd (1964). Bulletin, Volume 36. Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm. p. 159. OCLC 2268156. Archived from the original on 15 July 2022. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  12. ^ "10 Questions and Answers About Old Master Copies". London: Sothebys. 10 August 2018. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  13. ^ "Christ on the Cross after Rubens". London: Royal Collection. Archived from the original on 15 July 2022. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  14. ^ Stead, Chloe (22 August 2017). "The Artists Who Learnt from the Old Masters". London: Sothebys. Archived from the original on 18 June 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  15. ^ "The Abduction of the Sabine Women (after Nicolas Poussin)s". Pasadena, California: Norton Simon Museum. Archived from the original on 19 April 2022. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  16. ^ "Nature morte à l'esquisse de Delacroix" (in French). Strasbourg: Strasbourg Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art. Archived from the original on 8 June 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  17. ^ "First Steps, after Millet". The Met. New York City. Archived from the original on 10 May 2022. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  18. ^ "Study After Velázquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X". Des Moines Art Center. Des Moines, Iowa. Archived from the original on 15 July 2022. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  19. ^ "Pablo Picasso. Luncheon on the Grass, after Manet, I". Museum of Modern Art. New York City. 30 September 2010. Archived from the original on 22 April 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  20. ^ "Alabama Tenant Farmer Wife". The Met. New York City. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  21. ^ "Las Meninas (Self-Portrait after Velázquez)". Madrid: Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  22. ^ Elizabeth Manchester (July 2003). "A Sudden Gust of Wind (after Hokusai)". London: Tate. Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 13 July 2022.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]