From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Ad-Dharmi is a Schedule Caste Sect in the state of Punjab in India[1][2] Ad-Dharmis are 11.48% of the Schedule Castes in Punjab.[3][4][5]


The Ad-Dharm movement was started in 1920s, for the purpose of getting a distinct religious identity same as Adi Dravida movement of Tamil Nadu. The founder of the Ad-Dharm Movement was Mangu Ram Mugowalia (founding member of Ghadar Party), Master Gurbanta Singh (senior Congress leader) B. L. Gherra and also Pandit Hari Ram (Pandori Bibi) who was the secretary of the organization.[6]

The movement projected Guru Ravidas, the 14th century Bhakti Movement saint as their spiritual guru and a sacred book Ad Parkash for separate ritual traditions. The Ad-Dharmi Dalits came together as a faith was in 1925 when the British ruled India.

In the 1931 census, more than 450,000 registered themselves as members of the new indigenous faith called Ad Dharam (or Original Religion).[7] But this faith and movement vanished after India's independence because of major concentration of its leader into state politics and government's reservation policy only for low-caste from Hindu, Sikh and Buddhist communities.[8]


Although the Ad-Dharmi are followers of Guru Ravidas (now Ravidassia religion),[9][10] as they regard Amritbani Guru Ravidass Ji as their religious text.[11] After killing of Ramananda Dass on Vienna triggered them a lot and they formed separate Amritbani and customs.[12]

Each of their settlement contains a gurdwaras and Ravidas Bhawans, which are both a centre of worship and as well as a focus of the community.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Deras and Dalit Consciousness". Mainstream Weekly. 13 June 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  2. ^ "'Ad-Dharm Movement was the Revolt Against the Hinduism' – Saheb Kanshi Ram's Speech at Sikri, Punjab, 12th February 2001 | Velivada". Retrieved 2021-06-27.
  3. ^ "Punjab Data Highlights: The Scheduled Castes" (PDF).
  4. ^ Singh, IP (July 13, 2020). "Give 'Adi-dharmi' as religion in 2021 census: Ravidassia leaders". The Times of India. Retrieved 2022-09-12.
  5. ^ "Why Everyone in Punjab loves a Dalit CM". NewsClick. 2021-09-22. Retrieved 2022-09-12.
  6. ^ pg 20, Sikh Identity: An Exploration Of Groups Among Sikhs by Opinderjit Kaur Takhar
  7. ^ "India's 'untouchables' declare own religion". Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  8. ^ Gill, Manmohan Singh (December 2, 2015). Punjab Society. ISBN 9788180690389. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  9. ^ "Mention Ravidasia as religion: Dera Sachkhand to followers". Indian Express. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  10. ^ Gupta, Dipankar (December 2, 2015). Like the other Sikh gurudwaras, Ad-Dharmis too keep the Guru Granth Sahib at their Ravidas Gurudwaras- Caste in Question. ISBN 9788132103455. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  11. ^ Singh, IP (4 February 2010). "Ravidassia leaders reject new religion". The Times of India. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  12. ^ "The strong differences within the Adi-dharmi/ Ravidassia community have taken another twist with a Phagwara-based century-and-a-half-old Dera of the community moving Punjab and Haryana High Court alleging that Dera Ballan indulged in plagiarism in preparing "Amrit Bani Satguru Guru Ravidass" Granth as it announced founding of a separate religion - Ravidassia- over three years back. - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2020-05-21.
  13. ^ Teltumbde, Anand (2016-08-19). Dalits: Past, present and future. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-315-52644-7.